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Thigh Anatomy (1)

The anatomy of the Anterior and Medial thigh

QuestionAnswer
What are the arteries that run down the thing? External iliac artery-->femoral artery-->popliteal artery-->anterior tibial artery (dorsalis pedis artery) and posterior tibial artery (medial and lateral plantar arteries, fibular artery)
Where do the veins begin? Begin as venous networks on the digits; superficial veins do not accompany any named arteries
* *Where does the great saphenous vein run? Passes ANTERIOR to MEDIAL malleolus-->up medial side of leg (receives branches of small saphenous vein)-->continues up medial side of thigh-->enters saphenous opening of fascia lata-->emites into femoral vein
Describe the valves of the great saphenous vein and their relationship to varicose veins One way valves maintain upward flow-->communicates by perforating veins with deep veins; incompentent valves cause VARICOSE VEINS
Where is the small saphenous vein? What veins does it communicate with? Ascends posterior to the lateral malleolus; winds up and posterior to the calf; drains into popliteal vein behind knee; communicates with deep veins via perforating veins
Where are the superficial inguinal nodes? ABOVE fascia lata in two groups: horizontal (below inguinal ligament) and vertical (follow upper end of great saphenous vein)
* * Where do the superficial inguinal nodes receive lymph from? anterior and posterior surfaces of the trunk below the umbilicus; perineum including half of the anal canal, vagina, all of the external genitlia (except testes); superifical lymph vessels of lower limb
Where do the deep inguinal nodes lie? On the medial side of the femoral vein DEEP TO THE FASCIA LATA
What do the deep inguinal nodes drain? Where does the lymph of the deep inguinal nodes go? Lymph from superficial nodes and from deep structures of the lower limb; efferent vessels fromt hese nodes ascend through FEMORAL CANAL and drain into EXTERNAL ILIAC NODES
Where is the iliotibial tract? What is it? Thickening of the fascia lata on the lateral aspect; runs from the iliac tubercle to the lateral condyle of the tibia
What is the saphenous opening? What goes through it? Gap in the deep fascia in the anterior thigh just below the inguinal ligament; transmits the great saphenous vein and lymph vessels
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh? Sartorius, iliacus, psoas major, quadriceps femoris, pectineus
What is the main nerve supply of the anterior compartment of the thigh? What is the main blood supply? Femoral nerve and artery
* * Nerve and action of the sartorius muscle Femoral nerve; flexes and laterally rotates thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg; ACTS ACROSS TWO JOINTS (attached to anterior superior iliac spine)
* * Nerve and action of the quadriceps femoris EXTENSOR of the leg; femoral nerve; rectus femoris also flexes the hip joint; all of the quadriceps are important supports for the knee joint
* * What are the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris? rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius
* * What is the patellar retinacula? Expansions of the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis portions of the quadriceps tendon; attach to the sides of the patella and patellar ligamen to the femoral and tibial condyles; strengthen capsule of knee joint
* * What is the nerve and action of the iliopsoas? Psoas: L2-L4, Iliacus: Femoral nerve; CHIEF FLEXOR OF THE HIP
* * What is the nerve and action pectineus Femoral nerve (sometimes help from obturator nerve); flexes and adducts the thigh
* What are the contents of the medial compartment of the thigh? Gracilus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and obturator externus
What is the blood supply of the medial compartment of the thigh? Profunda femoris artery, obturator artery; obturator nerve
* * What is the nerve and action gracilus Obturator; ADDUCTS the thigh at the hip joint, flexes the leg at the knee joint
* * What is the nerve and action of the adductor longus Obturator; adducts and flexes the thigh
* * What is the nerve and action of the adductor longus? Adductor portion: obturator nerve; adducts and flexes the thigh. Hamstring portion: Tibial divison of the sciatic nerve; extends the thigh
* * What is the action of the obturator externus? Obturator nerve; laterally rotates the thigh
* * What are the superior, lateral, and medial borders of the femoral triangle? Floor? Superior: inguinal ligament; Medial: adductor longus; Lateral: sartorius; Floor: illiopsoas (lateral) and pectineus, adductor longus (medial)
* * What are the contents of the femoral canal (LATERAL TO MEDIAL)? Femoral nerve (not in sheath!), femoral sheath (artery, vein), deep inguinal nodes
* * What is the femoral sheath? Downward potrusion of the extraperitoneal fascia enveloping the iliac vessels in the abdomen
* * What are the contents of the femoral sheath (lateral to medial)? Divided into three compartments by septa: femoral artery, femoral vein, femoral canal (NOTE THAT THE FEMORAL NERVE IS NOT INSIDE)
* * * Where is the femoral canal? Small medial compartment in the femoral sheath; Borders: anterior--inguinal ligament, posterior--pectineus muscle and fascia, superior ramus of pubis, medial--lacunar ligament, lateral--femoral vein
* * Where is the femoral ring? Upper opening of the canal into the abdomen; closed by extraperitoneal connective tissue
* * What are the contents of the canal? Fat, all efferent vessels from deep inguinal nodes, one deep inguinal lymph node
* * What is a femoral hernia? Potrusion of abdominal contents through femoral canal; more common in females (wider canal structure)
* * * Where is a femoral hernia found relative to the pubic tubercle? Direct inguinal hernia? BELOW AND LATERAL to pubic tubercle; ABOVE and MEDIAL. Femoral hernia pass out femoral canal below the inguinal ligament onto the thigh
What is a strangulated hernia? Compression of the blood supply of the viscus
* * Where is the adductor canal? narrow fascial tunnel approximately 15 cm long, DEEP to sartorius muscle; begins at apex of the femoral triangle and ends at the adductor hiatus
* * What are the borders of the adductor canal? Lateral, postermedial, anterior Lateral: vastus medialis, Posteromedial: adductor longus and magnus; Anterior: sartorius
The adductor canal at the adductor hiatus (gap in the adductor magnus tendon for passage of the femoral vessels into the ____ ___ behind the knee. Popliteal fossa
Where do the femoral vessels change name to the popliteal vessels? They change name as they pass through the adductor hiatus
* * What spinal nerves supply the femoral nerve? where does it enter thigh? What does it break up into + where? Nerves L2-L4; enters deep to the inguinal ligament and lateral to the femoral sheath; numerous muscular and cutaneous branches within femoral triangle
* What is the terminal branch of the femoral nerve? The saphenous nerve
* What spinal nerves supply the obturator nerve? What are its branches? What muscles do they pass through? L2, L3, L4; branches into anterior and posterior in obturator canal; both branches emerge into thigh behind the pectineus muscle in front of OR through obturator externus
* Where is the femoral artery(how does it enter)? Enters the thigh by passing behind inguinal ligament as direct continuation of the external iliac artery; lies midway between anterior superior iliac spine and the symphisis pubis
* Where is the profunda femoris? From the LATERAL SIDE of the FEMORAL ARTERY within the FEMORAL TRIANGLE; passes behind femoral vessels and enters medial compartment of thigh behind adductor longus and on surface of adductor magnus
* What are the branches of the profunda femoris? Lateral circumflex femoral artery, medial circumflex femoral artery, four perforating arteries; pierce tendons of the adductor muscles to enter posterior compartment of thigh
* * What is the chief blood supply of the posterior compartment of the thigh? Fourth perforating artery of the profunda femoris; it is a direct continuation of the profunda femoris
The ____ artery plays a relatively minor role in the blood supply of the thigh Obturator
Created by: karkis77