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Poultry Managment

Cal Poly SLO

What are some of the functions of litter in a poultry house? (2) 1. Protection/Cushion 2. Temperature Control
Explain the feeding program for broiler breeders from week #4 through week #20 Skip a day for weight gain control (restricted)
T/F: Incandescent lights are more efficient (lumens per watt) than fluorescent lights False
T/F: Laying hens lay the majority of their eggs before noon True
T/F: Red contact lenses are a very good solution for cannibalism in poultry houses False
T/F: 130 volt incandescent light bulbs last longer than the 120 watt bulbs True
T/F: "Conventional" poulty houses have fans for ventilation and artificial light for all of the bird's light requirements False
T/F: Laying hens require 0.5 to one foot candles of light for sexual stimulation True
T/F: Pelleted feeds are routinely feds to broilers, meat-type turkeys and leghorn laying hens. False
T/F: The Foster Farms Company is a good example of a vertically integrated poultry company. True
T/F: By selecting the least aggressive (genetics) birds and using the low wattage lights, it is possible to eliminate the need for beak trimming leghom pullets. True
If your replacement pullets hatch July 1st, there is no need for a lighting program to control sexual development True
If you are vaccinating chickens in the United States that will live to adulthood, you must include the following diseases in the vaccination program. 1. Mereks 2. Newcastle
This is a disease vaccine that must be administered at the hatchery. The vaccine is stored in liquid nitrogen. Merek
The vaccine for what must be administered by the wing web method Stay away from the face. Fowl Pox
What are the 5 critical factors that we must provide for in a commercial incubator? 1. Temperature 2. Relative Humidity 3. Air Exchange 4. Position of egg 5. Turning egg
Nipple watering systems are most often used on commercial poultry ranches because of what. (advantage) Low Disease Transmission
The following is a characteristic of your ranch or egg business that may affect the strain of chicken you use for your company: FIND ANSWER
The following are examples of performance traits that are controlled by genetics in the White Leghorn Chicken: 1. Bodyweight 2. Egg Size
When your newly hatched chickens came out of the incubator, the moisture loss was only 10%. What will happen to the chicks? Mushy
A "standard filler flat" holds ___ eggs. 30
A ______ is a male turkey of any age. Tom
What is the term used to describe the extra perfomance of the offspring (AB) of genetically dissimilar flocks "A" and "B"? Hybrid Vigor
The _______ joint is located at the junction of the shank (metatarsus) and the drumstick (tibia). hock
What are some of the advantages of raising replacement pullets in cages that have led most farmers to choose cage over floor housing systems? 1. Less Piling 2. No Litter 3. No Coccidiostat Cost
Your farm is battling a severe cannibalism problem. What are some of the possible triggers (causes) of the cannibalism problem? 1. Disease 2. External parasites 3. Lighting intensity 4. Lighting duration
You are getting ready to select the best strain of White Leghorn for your ranch/ business. What are of some of the genetically controlled traits 1. Rate of Lay 2. Temperment 3. Feed Conversion 4. Shell Quality
A _________ poultry house which has 2 levels, the upper level is for the birds and the lower level is for manure storage. high rise
What is the added performance achieved when two genetically dissimilar strains or breeds are crossed together (i.e. Cobb female and Vantress male) Hybrid Vigor
Litter has more than one function. What are some of the functions: 1. Temperature control 2. Absorption
A sexually mature male turkey is called a _______. This term is often used to refer to wild turkeys. gobbler
The _______ joint is located between the shank (foot) and the drumstick. Hock
_______ is the physical form of feed fed to laying birds. Large particle size limestone and oyster shell can only be included in form of feed. Mash
What characteristic of your business/ranch can effect your selection of a Leghorn strain? Where eggs are marketed, restaurant or supermarket is dependent on size of egg and haugh unit score
T/F: White leghorn pullets are fed three rations in the 0-18 week period.. 1. Starter 2. Grower and 3. Finisher False
T/F: Leakers (eggs) can be used for further processing. False
T/F: "Conventional- chicken houses utilize a combination of natural light and artificial light and usually have adjustable curtain sides to utilize natural ventilation. True
T/F: Foster Farrns is known as ail *integrated* poultry company because it uses a combination of white comish chickens and dark comish chickens. False
T/F: The turkey industry uses the terms "tom" and "hen", respectively, to refer to males and females of any age. True
T/F: Adding additional salt to the ration may help reduce cannibalism, but it might also adversely effect egg shell quality. true
T/F: "Specs" is a cannibalism control device which is not used in the commercial broiler, egg and turkey industries, but is often used for pheasants raised for sport. True
T/F: Cal Poly's 1992 senior project with "red contact lens" proved that the lens are an effective method of controlling cannibalism, but the method is not an acceptable solution because of eye irritations. True
T/F: Male and female turkeys are sent to the processing plant at the same age approximately 19 weeks of age. False
T/F: In the egg candling lab, you used five observations to assign a grade to each egg. What were some of those observations? 1. Shell Cleanliness 2. Air cell size 3. Shell Quality 4. Yolk Shadow 5. Defect Bloods
T/F: Evaporative cooling to cool birds works well in all geographic regions including high humidity areas like the southeastern portion of the U.S. False
T/F: "Physiological Zero" means that hatching eggs should be held at zero degrees F. prior to placing them in the incubator. False
T/F: By noon, laying hens have laid over 80% of the eggs that will be produced for the day. True
T/F: Fluorescent lights are more efficient (lumens per watt) than incandescent light bulbs. True
T/F: The highest rate of hatchability occurs when egg weight, minus chick weight, minus shell weight, is equal to 11.5% moisture loss True
Turkey eggs will incubate in 35 eggs. False
T/F: Approx. 3/4 of all turkeys are further processed (past whole body) True
T/F: The "finisher" ration is the last feed fed to broilers, turkeys and White Leghorn replacement pullets. False
T/F: A High rise chicken house is usually 10 stories tall with birds housed on all levels of the building. False
T/F: A "grower" is fed after the "starter" and prior to the "finisher" in broiler nutrition programs. True
T/F: Approximately fifty percent of all eggs are further processed (Out of the shell) False
T/F: When one percent oyster shell is added to the ration, the calcium level will increase by .38 percent True
After you vaccinate a chicken or turkey, the antibody level in the blood for that disease will peak in six weeks. False (6 weeks)
The primary effect of Newcastle Disease is a total disruption of the immune system, similar to AIDS in humans. False (Gumboro)
Marek's Disease will cause leg paralysis as well as tumors throughout the body. True
When milk is added to the "stock solution", the mineral content of the water is inactivated by the protein in the milk, therefore, protecting the virus particles. True
_______ are a physical form of feed prepared by first pelleting a mash feed and then crushing the pellets into a granular consistency. Crumbles
The broiler industry sells three whole body products:_______ (smallest carcass of the three), broilers and roasters. Cornish Game Hen
___________ is the surgical removal of the comb dubbing
In a few words describe a "finisher" ration: Last feed fed, high fat/calories for "finish"
During incubation, the desired weight (water) loss is ____% 11.5%
Advantage of a multistage (age) incubator: uses heat from older eggs to warm younger eggs=reduces power bill
When fertile eggs are held at a temperature above ___ degrees F., cell division will occur. 78
Fertilized turkey eggs require ____ days to hatch (setter and hatcher combined) 28
List four (4) distinctly different observations that tell you that a female chicken is not laying eggs this week: 1. Comb Regression 2. Round shaped vent 3. Xanthophyll Pigment in Face/vent 4. Molting
The power is out. No generator. Your 1,000 egg incubator is in the garage. What to do? Open it up!
When the moisture loss during incubation is too low, the chicks will: Be mushy chicks--omphalitis
Birds are 30 weeks old. ______ is the best indicator that one bird has laid more eggs than the other birds. Shank Color (white!)
Tell me four distinctly different observations used during the candling procedure that tell you that an egg is AA grade, A grade, B grade or loss 1. Shell Quality 2. Defects 3. Yolk Shadow 4. Shell cleanliness
T/F:"Dirty" eggs (blood, yolk, etc) can be sold to the public, but they must be labeled as "Stains and dirties" False
T/F: "Evaporative cooling" is not an effective method of cooling poultry in areas of the U.S. where the relative humidity is very high in summer months True
As long as eggs are held (stored) at 60 degrees F. and 55-60% relative humidity, they can be stored for up to seven days without an adverse effect on hatachability. True
T/F: Research has shown that it is absolutely essential to turn eggs at lease once each other to attain maximum (%) hatchability. False (6-8x)
T/F: A "photocell" is a devise that increases and decreases the light output from incandesecent light bulbs False
T/F: Poultry farmers often provide their chicks 24 hours of light the first 3 days to supercharge their sexual development. False
T/F: When the light for layers comes on at 4:00 AM, birds will lay the majority of their eggs before noon. True
T/F: Fluorescent lights are more efficient (lumens per watt) than incandescent lights. True
T/F: The "Blastodisc" becomes the "Blastoderm" once conception (sperm penetrates the female egg) has taken place. True
T/F: A chicken embryo's heart starts to beat on the 10th day of incubation. False
T/F: The longest day (most hours of light) occurs in the month of June. True
The broiler industry produces three whole body birds: Cornish game hen, fryer, and _________. Roaster
The __________ ration is first ration fed, contains the highest protein level and is usually the highest cost ration Starter
_________ and __________ are ingredients that can be used to supply xanthophyll pigment. Corn and corn gluten meal
The broiler and turkey industries use pelleted feeds. Briefly tell me one reason they use pelleted feeds. Increase feed efficiency; holds ingredients together.
_________ is the natural mixture of males and females at the hatchery. Unsexed. Straight run.
Under ideal conditions, there should be a ____ week spread between vaccination procedures. 3
If a disease is ________ in your geographic location, that means that the disease is prevalent there and you should vaccinate. Endemic
A one percent change in the supply of eggs will result in a ___ cents per dozen change in the price a farmer receives for their eggs. 5
Nipple watering systems have many advantages that have encouraged farmers to use them. Provide some examples of these advantages: 1. Overhead (above birds) 2. Less Disease
Replacement pullets usually are fed 2 pounds starters, 4 pounds grower, and then change to developer #1. What would be the justification for changing the feeding schedule? The birds are too light/heavy--body weight
T/F: The eye drop method is the most effective and safest method of administering fowl pox vaccine. False (Wing web)
T/F: If a bird has a high 'titer,'for Newcastle. it has a high level of antibodies for that disease True
It is OK to feed pelleted rations to young chicks and poults (1st week of life) False
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccine available, egg transmitted. "Crazy chick" disease and "epidemic tremor". Cataracts and severe egg production drop in older birds. AE
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccine available, vaccination must occur in hatchery, leg paralysis (sciatic nerve involvement) and tumor formation. Merek's
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccine available, (water, spray, eye drop, etc.) Affects the respiratory system, repro system and the nervous system (neck curving) Newcastle
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccine. Symptoms are "femur tip necrosis" and "malabsorption syndrome" Viral Arthritis
Name the disease associated: Protozoan disease, affects the digestive system. Control with feed additive, vaccination or putting birds in cages. Coccidiosis
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccination available. Respiratory with bloody mucous clot in the trachea. Birds extend their necks in an effort to dislodge the mucous clot. LT
Name the disease associated: Bacterial disease that affects many systems. Most often associated with turkeys because of "bell" watering systems. Cholera
Name the disease associated: Viral disease, vaccination available. Causes scab-like lesions on face, comb wattles and possibly in the trachea. Fowl Pox
Name the disease associated: Affects the respiratory and reproductive systems. Egg transmitted. If breeders test positive, they can no longer be used as breeders. Greatest $$$ loss of all diseases. Attacks the air sacs M.g.
Name the disease associated: Virus, vaccine available. The virus attacks the Bursa resulting in an impaired immune system. AIDS like condition Gumburo
Name the disease associated: Bacterial disease that causes extreme swelling of the head. Bird discomfort. Significant drop in feed intake, egg production and weight gain. Coryza
List five observations (factors to consider) when grading a carcass "A", "B", "C", etc." 1. wholesomeness 2. appearance 3.,4.,5., FIND ANSWERS
_______ is a poor choice of a grain (energy source) if you want to produce a yellow bodied broiler or a dark yellow/orange egg yolk. FIND ANSWER
________ is a good source of xanthophyll pigment corn
_________ is a disease that affects the respiratory and reproductive systems and occasionally the urinary system. Bronchitis
Under ideal conditions, there should be a __ week interval between vaccine administrations. 3
An "A" grade carcass can have the _____ and the __________ removed. tail and the tip of the wing
What are the advantages of nipple watering systems that have led the poultry industry to switch to their use with the exception of growing turkeys. 1. Less mess (less labor) 2. Less disease
T/F: Chicken carcasses with feathers (1 or more) longer than 1/2 can not be graded, "A", etc. They must be sent back for "additional processing." True
T/F: Carcasses that have a cut through the pectoral (breast) muscle are graded "B" or "C" depending on the depth and length of the cut. False
T/F: Symptoms: leg paralysis (one leg forward, one leg back) and tumors throughout the body. Diagnosis: Marek's Disease. True
T/F: Infectious Bursal disease interferes with the immune response (AIDS like) in infected birds. True
T/F: Viral Arthritis sounds like a skeletal disease; however, the virus actually attacks the digestive system. True
The USDA requires that a chicken carcass must be cooled from 105 degrees F. to 40 degrees F. In no more than ___hours. 4
What are some of the functions of litter in a floor chicken or turkey house? 1. Carcass Protection 2. Water Absorption 3. Temperature Regulation
Flies prefer to lay their eggs in organic matter (ie feces or feed) is approximately ____ moisture content. 35%
A poultry building that uses all artificial light and uses fans to provide for ventilation is called a _________ house. Light and Temperature controlled
What are some of the reasons for classifying an egg as a "loss"? 1. Rot 2. Leaker 3. Large Blood spot
Poultry are either grown within a building (confinement or they are grown on the ________. Range
Provide an example of a specific type of poultry or stage of a bird's life where feed restriction would be necessary? Broiler Breeder
The ______ is a physical form of feed where a mash is compacted and extruded into small cylindrical pieces which vary in length, diameter and hardness. Pellets
If the supply of eggs available to the market drops by one percent, the price a farmer receives for their eggs usually increases by ___ cents per dozen. 5
The stock solution will contain water, vaccine, and _____. Milk
Your birds have a viral disease that is causing respiratory symptoms, more specifically a bloody mucous clot in the trachea and neck extension. Diagnosis: L.T.
Chicks have "crazy chick disease" or "Star gazing". Diagnosis: AE
This respiratory disease has been economically devastating through the years to both the chicken and turkey industry because it affects their air sacs and causes high condemnation rates. Diagnosis: MG
T/F: When processing broilers, the scalding process is done in the "clean" side of the processing plant. False
T/F: Coryza is a bacterial disease that causes extreme swelling of the head and face. True
T/F: Coccidiosis is a bacterial disease spread by inhaling dust False
T/F: Intermittent lighting of laying hens may prevent the egg size from becoming too large. True
T/F: Linoleic acid is one of the essential amino acids. False
T/F: Feeding higher levels of methionine to laying hens will increase the egg size True
T/F: Viral arthritis affect the digestive system, reducing the bird's ability to absorb nutrients from the small intestine into the blood stream. True
T/F: Mother nature uses decreasing day length and decreasing night time temperatures to initiate a natural molt. True
Define vertical integration. What happened when a poultry company expands vertically? Provide examples. A company does more than one phase activity/level of the buisness. For example Foster Farms. -Broiler Breeders -Hatcheries -Feed Mills -Processing Plants
When Birds are vaccinated, the antibody level for the virus (vaccine) will reach a peak in approximately ___ weeks. 3
______ is an example of an egg transmitted disease. Mom can pass the disease (via the egg) to the chick/poult. M.g.
Name the disease: Protozoal disease that does not occur of birds are kept in cages. Coccidiosis
Name the disease: Virus disease that causes scab-like lesions. Only wing-web vaccination is effective.
Name the disease: Viral disease that affects the brain. "Epidemic tremor" "star gazing" "Crazy Chick" A.E.
List 4 genetically controlled factors: 1. Shell Quality 2. Shell Color 3. Egg Size 4. Forgiveness
T/F: Forgiveness is when management makes an error (ie feed or water problems) will this bird recover quickly or remain out of production. True
What strain has the best egg shell quality? W36
Internal egg quality is judged by what three things? 1. Haugh units 2.Bloods 3. Meat spots
T/F: Increase the hours of light at 18 weeks of age to stimulate the birds to lay eggs True
When water vaccinating: the stock solution should be consumed with ___hours. 2
T/F: Some eggs will hatch in the range of 95-104 degrees F. True
T/F: Chickens require a length of 28 days for incubation. False (21), Turkeys require 28 days
T/F: Wet Bulb temperature measures humidity True
Humidity affects what two things? 1. Weight loss 2. Chick's ability to get out of the shell
The optimum level of oxygen is ___ percent. 21%
What are three things that affect moisture loss? 1. egg shell quality 2. temperature 3. length of storage
What disease causes more economic loss than any other disease? M.g.
T/F: Coccidiosis is a mandatory vaccination. False
Coccidiosis can be controlled by feeding a coccidiostat, ______________ or _____________. placing birds in cages or in vaccinating in the feed @ 4 days of age.
What are three factors inherent in your company/facility? 1. Housing Type 2. Where the eggs are marketed 3. Flock Scheduling
A case of large eggs contains 360 eggs or 30 dozen
A _________ is an egg that has a crack in the shell but no tear in the shell membranes, therefore, none of the eggs contents are leaking. Check
Each female is genetically programmed to lay eggs on a specific number of consecutive days. This number is referred to as her _______. Clutch
The root word brood refers to ______________________________. Supplemental Heat
When a female becomes _________ prolactin is released from her pituitary gland resulting in changes to her anatomy, physiology and psychology. broody
______________ is an amino acid that is produced in large quantities at a low cost; therefore, it is used as a nearly pure feed ingredient in poultry rations. Lysine
When turkeys are artificially inseminated, the female is inseminated how often? the male? female: 6-8 days male: 2 days
_____________ is a disease that is egg-transmitted. The hen can pass the disease to the chick or the poult. AE
__________ and ______________ are diseases vaccinated for in all chickens reaching adulthood in the US. Newcastle and AE
Coccidiosis can be controlled by feeding a coccidiostat, _________________________ or __________________. Placing birds in cages or vaccinating in the feed at 4 days of age.
____________ and ____________ are feed ingredients that need to be limited because we each too much may have any adverse effect on the bird or the product we eat. Fish meal and blood meal
The vaccine for __________ must be administered via the wing web method. Eye drop, spray and water vaccination methods will result in disease symptoms. Fowl Pox
What is typically true of "marco minerals"? Fed as a percentage of the ration and feed a specific ingredient. (oyster shell for calcium)
T/F: When a female chicken "bleaches", she will lose the yellow color in her feet first. False (vent?)
T/F: The commercial poultry industry stores Marek's disease vaccine in liquid nitrogen and administers the vaccine at the hatchery. True
T/F: Broiler breeders will have their feed intake restricted from the fourth week of their life until they reach the end of their useful life. True
T/F: A "capon" is a castrated male chicken. True
T/F: To attain good performance, poultry rations must contain the following vitamins: A, B, C, D, E, and K. False
T/F: Methionine and Cystine are the only amino acids that contain sulfur. True
T/F: Rations for laying hens contain more calories per pound than rations fed to meat-type turkeys. False
T/F: The "Crude Protein" content of a feed ingredient is a better indicator of nutritional value for poultry than the "amino acid profile". False
T/F: Testosterone causes the feathers on a male chicken's back to be pointed. The same feathers on the females are rounded. True
T/F: The egg shell is produced in the uterus. True
T/F: Poultry have a rapid pulse rate, up to 300 beats per minute while at rest. True
T/F: Foster farms feeds their meat-type broilers four rations: "Prestarter," "Starter," "Grower" and Developer." False
If you feed your birds _____________, it means that they can have all the feed that they want. Ad Lib
_____________ is an example of an amino acid that contains sulphur. Methionine
_____________ is an example of an amino acid that is produced in large enough quantities at a low enough price that is used in poultry rations as a nearly pure feed ingredient. Lysine
_____________ is the number one vegetable protein supplement most often used in poultry rations. Soybean Mill
When a female chicken "bleaches", she will lose the xanthophyll (yellow) pigment in her ________ first and the tops of her toes last. Vent
A _____________ house is a building that contains the necessary appliances to provide supplemental heat for chicks, poults and ducklings. Brooder
A half case (cube) will contain ____________ eggs. 180 eggs/15 dozen
An egg that has a hair-line crack in the shell but is not leaking is a called a ____________ check
A cockerel is a male chicken that is _____________ one year of age. less than
__________ are a physical form of feed prepared by first pelleting a mash and then crushing the pellets into a granular consistency. Crumbles
Cal Poly is a ____________ for foster farms. We take care of their birds. For a fee, we provide our facility, student labor and electricity. Contract Grower
What is a characteristic of a "starter" ration? 1st feed fed, highest cost or highest protein
To avoid giving birds fowl pox, they must have the vaccine administered by the ______________ method of administration. Wing Web
All chickens in the U.S. living to adulthood will be vaccinated for the following disease: 1.________________ 2. ________________ 1. Newcastle 2. AE
The _______________ content of any substance is calculated by first determining the nitrogen level and then multiplying by 6.25. Crude Protein
Why do rations for white leghorn laying hens contain fewer calories than rations for broilers or turkeys? We dont want them to have a finish
What distinguishes a mineral as "macro" or "micro"? macro is fed as a percentage of the ration, not a proportion.
Under what circumstances would you price out a feed ingredient? 1. None of that ingredient in the mill 2. To determine the value of possible new ingredient
Estrogen will have the following anatomical or physiological effects on a female chicken: 1. Widens pelvic spread 2. Female feathering (rounded)
T/F: According to the USDA, all eggs containing any size blood spot must be classified as a "loss" (inedible) false
T/F: A properly formulated broiler "starter" contains more crude protein than a turkey starter. False
T/F: Xanthophyll pigment provides no nutrient value to the birds. True
T/F: Fat (vegetable oil) contains approximately 1550 calories per pound. False
T/F: "Finisher" rations contain more calories per pound and a lower percent crude protein than "starter" rations. True
T/F: The "gross energy" value of a feed is a poor indicator of the feeding value of that substance, especially when fed to poultry. True
T/F: Meat and Bone meal is not only a good source of protein but it contains calcium as well as phosphorous. True
T/F: Poultry raised on the floor have a slightly lower dietary requirement for Vitamin B and Vitamin K. True
T/F: If the ceca were surgically removed, the growth rate of poultry, especially those kept in cages, would be significantly reduced. False
T/F: The proventriculus serves the same function as the stomach in pigs and humans. True
_____________ is a young immature chicken weighing not more than two pounds ready to cook weight. A meal for one or two people. Cornish Game Hen
____________ is a term commonly applied to the loss of of yellow pigment from the skin and other external body parts of female chickens following the onset of lay. Bleaching
__________________ is a term used to describe the stocking of production units with birds of essentially the same age, to prevent the transmission of disease from older to younger birds. All in All out
A _____________ is a device used in poultry house to provide supplemental heat. Brooder
Intermittent lighting of egg production birds can have the following beneficial effect: 1. decreased egg size 2. decreased power bill 2. calming effect on birds
Too much light intensity (too many foot candles) will: 1. increase power bill 2. increase cannibalism
A ____________ is a device that will turn off the lights at sunup and turn the lights on at sundown. Photocell
What are two functions of feathers? 1. flight 2. carcass protection
The _________is one of the structures capable of doing stomach like functions in the digestive system of poultry. Proventriculus
You could surgically remove the _____________ of domesticated poultry and have very little effect on the digestion/absorption of food. Ceca
When "candling" eggs, there are four major observations to make to determine grade (AA, A, B, or loss/inedible): 1. Shell Quality 2. Yolk Shadow 3. Defects 4. Air cell depth
T/F: The daylength for replacement pullets should be increased from zero to 18 weeks of age to stimulate early egg production. False
T/F: The longest day of the year occurs in june. True
T/F: When raising replacement pullets on the floor (no cage), the hours of artificial light should be split evenly between the morning and evening. False
T/F: Poultry lay the majority of their eggs after the noon hour. False
T/F: Fluorescent lights are the most popular lighting fixtures for poultry houses. True
T/F: If you purchase a 130 volt rated incandescent bulb in a 120 volt power source, the useful life of the bulb will be increased significantly. True
T/F: The "medullary" bone is a square shaped bone located between the femur and the tibia. False
T/F: The urinary system of a poultry contains two tri-lobed kidneys and two ureters which terminate in the "cloaca" True
T/F: The egg shell is manufactured in the magnum. False
T/F: Eggs with low "Haugh Unit" scores usually contain less water than eggs with high scores. True
T/F: A "checked" must be discarded and not used for human food. False
How do you calculate percent mortality? start #-end #/ start #
How do you calculate avg. body weight? Lbs of wt./ ending #
How do you calculate feed conversion? Lbs feed/lbs live weight
The __________ ration is fed after the starter and prior to the developer or finisher ration. Grower
A ______________ is a sexually mature male turkey. Gobbler
_________________ is the term given to the better performance achieved when crossing two different strains of broiler breeders Hybrid Vigor
The ________ is the joint located between the foot and the drumstick Hock
When spray vaccinating, use only ___________ water in the sprayer. Distilled.
What are 2 disease that cause damage to the both the respiratory and the female reproductive system? Bronchitis and newcastle
List 4 factors that have caused the consumption of broilers to more than triple in the last 40 years: 1. Fast food 2. improved health perception 3. further processing conivence 4. Low Cost
The production of poultry is greatest in the _____ region of the US. SE
Consumption of eggs has increased from 228 per person to 268 this year because of what two things? 1. improved health perception 2. fast food
Conception takes place in the __________(section of the oviduct). funnel
__________ is the primary means of cooling a chickens body. Panting
Poultry's urinary system lacks ( as compared with human anatomy): 1.______________ 2. _________________ 1. urethra 2. bladder
Chickens in the _______ class have feathers on their shanks. These feathers extend all the way to the ground. Asiatic
How does the the respiratory system in poultry differ from other animals? 1. They lack a diaphragm to aid in respiration 2. they have 9 air sacs
What happens when the ovarian follicle does not tear along the stigma (suture)? find answer
Consumption of eggs dropped (345 to 228) drastically after WW11. Why? 1. Life style changes 2. Health concerns (cholesterol)
Poultry are classified as monogastric animals even though they have 3 anatomical structures, proventriculus, __________ and _______, that do stomach like functions. crop and gizzard
How is the repro system in a male chicken different from males of other animals? What does that tell you about poultry semen? The testis are inside the body. the semen is heat tolerant.
A day old turkey is called a ________. Poult
A female egg layer that has reached the end of her useful life is called a ______________. Spent fowl
T/F: Frying chickens are injected with hormones in the first week of their life to promote weight gain. False
T/F: The egg shell is produced in the magnum. False
T/F: In both male and female chickens, testosterone causes the comb and wattle to grow True
T/F: Poultry eat less than human beings when the daily feed consumption is expressed as a percentage of body weight False
T/F: The end products of the repro, digestive and urinary systems all flow into an anatomical structure called the cloaca. True
T/F: When chickens and turkeys are processed, the kidneys are not removed from the body cavity. True
T/F: Poultry normally only have one functional ovary and oviduct. True
T/F: Broilers reach the desired body weight at approximately 12 weeks of age. False
T/F: The air sacs in poultry actually extend into the skeletal system True
T/F: Unlike other farm animals, poultry have two ceca. True
T/F: In Poultry, the foot is made up of only one bone. True
T/F: The hen-housed production rate is always a higher percentage than the hen-day production rate. False
T/F: In chickens, the diameter of the large intestine is 3 times as great as the diameter of the small intestine. False
What are the 3 whole body products for the broiler industry? Broiler, Cornish Game Hen, Roaster
What are 4 further processed products? Hot Dogs, Corn Dogs, Nuggets, Chicken Strips
Advantages of being a contracted grower? Decreased Risk
Advantages of contracting a grower? Increased flexibility and could use money elsewhere
Forms of compensation for contracted growers. Per bird, Per pound, Per week
Time required for growing broilers. Cornish-3.5 wks, Institutional Fryer-5.5 wks, Retail Fryer-6.5 wks, Roaster-8.5 weeks
Meat Birds get 4 rations. What are they? Prestarter, Starter, Grower, Finisher
What are the 2 different types of feeders? Pan Feeder, Chain Feeder
2 different types of watering systems? Nipples, Cups
What are some factors that affect Haugh unit scores? Genetics, Shell Quality
Created by: lnelson07