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Nat. Review chpt. 13

Respiratory system

Nasal cavities Two spaces seperated by the nasal septum, found between the eyes above the oral cavity
Nasal septum A bony partition of the nasal cavities
Nostrils Two openings in the nasal cavities
Nasal choana Nasal conchae
Nasal conchae Curved projections along the lateral sides of the nasal cavities, filter out dust particles and warm and humidify the incoming air
Sinuses Small cavities in the bones of the skull, lined with mucous membranes, communicate with the nasal cavities
Pharynx Passageway lined with mucous membranes, connects the nasal cavities to the larynx
Nasopharynx Uppermost portion of the pharynx, lies directly behind the nasal cavities, contains the pharyngeal tonsils
Oropharynx Middle portion of the pharynx, lies directly behind the oral cavity, contains the palatine and lingual tonsils
Laryngopharynx Bottom portion of the pharynx, lies directly above the larynx
Larynx Cartilaginous structure, contains the vocal cords and a small protrusion of cartilage commonly called the adam's apple
Adam's apple Also called the voice box
Glottis Opening between the two vocal cords
Epiglottis Cartilaginous structure above the glottis, folds down over the glottis during swallowiing to prevent food and water from entering the trachea
Trachea Rigid tube made up of a series of horseshoe-shaped cartilaginous rings, connects the pharynx to the bronchi of the lungs
Windpipe Trachea
Lungs Organs in which gas exchange takes place
Mediastinum Anatomical space between the lungs where the trachea, heart, major blood vessels, and esophagus are found
Bronchi Cartilaginous tubes that extend from the trachea into the lungs
Bronchioles Small bronchi
The exchange of gases in the lungs takes place by Diffusion
Terminal bronchioles Last segments of the bronchioles, connect to the alveoli
Alveoli Tiny sacs that number about 350 million per lung, where gas exchange takes place
Surfactant Lipid secreted into the alveoli, reduces surface tension of water within the lung, thus decreasing energy required to fill the alveoli with air
Pleural membranes Serous membranes associated with the lungs, produce a lubricant to reduce friction between the lungs and the walls of the pleural cavity
Parietal pleura Serous membrane surrounding the internal walls of the thoracic cavity
Visceral pleura Serous membrane lining the outer surface of the lungs
Cardiac notch Angular notch in the left lung to accomidate the heart
Inhalation Active phase of breathing in which energy is used to draw air into the lungs
Exhalation Passive phase of breathing in which air is pushed out of the lungs
Tidal volume Volume of air moved in or out of the lungs in one breath during quiet, relaxed breathing
Residual volume Volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation
Vital capacity Volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation
Total lung capacity Total volume of air that can be contained in the lungs
Eupnea Normal breathing
Apnea Breathing stops for a period of time
Dyspnea Trouble breathing
Created by: skpoem