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MBLEX 2010

194 MBLEX 2010 Study Questions

What is Anatomy? A study of the structure of the body.
What is Physiology? A study of the functions of the body.
Name and locate the vital force which controls all of the body functions? The brain is the vital force which controls all of the body functions.
Name the upper and lower extremeties. Upper:Shoulders, arms, forearms,and hands.Lower:Thighs, legs, and feet.
Cartilage is from what kind of tissue? Connective Tissue.
Name the 3 fundamental movements of swedish. Effleurage, Tapotement, and Petrissage.
What movement is always used in general body massage? Effleurage.
Briefly discuss the therapeutic effects of effleurage. Helps in cases of fatigue and insomnia,reduces in swelling and congestion, helps in cases of sprains, and power to stimulate circulation.
What time of massage is especially useful with insomnia? Effleurage.
Should massage ever cause the client discomfort? No.
Name the 4 classifications of bones, and give one example of each. 1. Long:Femur2. Short:Carpals/Tarsals3. Irregular: Vertebrae4. Flat: Scapula
Name at least 3 important functions of the skeleton. 1. Protection of organs2. Acts as framework for the body's means of locomotion.3. Source for attachment of muscles
How many named bones are found in an adult skeleton? 206.
What is periosteum and what are the functions of periosteum? Periosteoum is the fibrous membrane that covers practically all bones in the body, acting as both a means of blood supply for bones, and an attachment for many of the muscles of the body.
What vital force activates all muscle function in TCM(Traditional Chinese Medicine)? Prana
Briefly describe petrissage manipulation. Use a kneading motion by grasping client's skin w/hands,& intermittent compression against the underlying bony surface. Purpose is for stimulating underlying tissue & muscles. Pressure should be applied upwardly, & in line w/the bone. Don't twist muscles.
How does Petrissage differ from Effleurage? Effleurage does not aim to move or manipulate tissues or muscles like petrissage does;Effleurage is to soothe and relax muscles and improve circulation.
Which of the above, Petrissage or Effleurage is most stimulating to the tissues? Petrissage.
Why is petrissage valuable in the after treatment of fractures? It draws additional nutrition to the area primarily,& gives the maximum effect in emptying and refilling of the blood vessels, and lymph spaces and channels.
Name and briefly describe the 3 types of muscle found in the body. Voluntary mus.(Striated/cross stripe) skeletal mus. attach to bones.Involuntary Mus.(non-striated & smooth)in walls & blood vessels of alimentary,genital,urinary sys.,& control mvmnts of stomach & intestine.Cardiac assoc. in pumping action of heart.
What type of muscle controls the size of the pupil of the eye? Involuntary.
Which muscle is tone? When muscle fibers are constantly are in a state of slight contraction.
Do the muscles of an athlete contain more muscle fibers than the person who does not exercise? No. The muscle just increases in size.
What structural unit forms all the material in the body? Cells.
What is tissue? A group of similar cells working together to form a particular function.
What are the four primary tissues? 1. Epithelial2. Connective3. Muscular4. Nervous
Name the organs of special sense. EyesEarsNoseTongueSkin
Name the principal systems of the body. CardioNervousRespiratoryInternal SecretionEndocrineSkeletalMuscularReproductiveDigestive/IntegumentaryLymphatic and Urinary
What kind of tissue separates the thorax from the abdomen? Muscle-Diaphragm
What are the most important tools for the massage therapist? Their hands.
Why is the nervous system referred to as the master system of the body? Because it is the regulating power in the human body and controls the functions of all organs of the body.
For purposes of study, anatomists divide the brain into five main parts. Name the parts, and indicate which one is the largest. Cerebrum(Largest)CerebellumMidbrainPons Varolii-(commonly referred to as Pons)Medulla Oblongata
Name 2 of the main divisions of the nervous system. Sympathetic and ParasympatheticCentral Nervous System(CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
What is another name for the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems? Nervous System
How many spinal nerves are found in the human body? 31-pair from vertebrae.
What is meant by the statement that the two systems which make up the autonomic nervous system are atagonistic? Sympathetic-stimulates various organs while depressing others in order to deal with the 'situation', and the Parasympathetic is the mirror image, returning the body to it's 'normal resting functionality.'
What are two types of tissues that make up the brain, and where are each found? Grey Matter is found on the outer side.White Matter is found on the inside.
Name the kneading manipulations performed in massage therapy. Petrissage and Friction.
Describe the proper friction massage of the upper extremeties. Rolling motions w/palms of hands. In friction you should never feel the client's skin sliding b/t ur hands. Should feel the clients body part as part of ur hands, while the mus. & tis. underneath the skin can be felt moving as rolling between your palms.
Describe the therapeutic effect of rolling manipulation massage on the thigh. Stimulates deep muscles, nerves, and blood circulation.
Of what value is knowledge of the anatomy and physiology in the profession of massage therapy? It gives you an overall understanding of the theory behind what you are practicing.
Name at least two functions of the circulatory system. Carries oxygen to the cells of the body, and removes waste products from the cells of the body.
What regulates the beat of the heart? The Nervous System.
What is the difference between blood and plasma? Plasma is the thin yellow liquid portion of the blood, whereas blood contains the red blood cells, etc. as well as the plasma.
What are erythrocytes and their function? Erythrocytes are red blood cells, and their function is to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Compare arteries and veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart-not all arteries carry oxygenated blood(pulmonary arteries). Veins are much thinner than arteries and they carry blood to the heart, pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs.
What is another word used for applying tapotement? Percussion.
Why should the massage therapist avoid hacking transversly across the muscle? Transverse hacking should not cause damage if applied correctly.
How do we govern the amount of pressure used in applying massage? As much pressure as the client can stand without causing pain, and more pressure to heavily muscled areas.
Is percussion massage used on the body generally? Percussion can be used on almost any area of the body.
What is one important physiological effect regarding tapotement? Stimulates nerves, restores weak muscles, and is therapeutic.
What is lymph? Lymph is a body alkaline transparent colorless liquid found in the lymphatic vessels. It may appear milky in color in vessels draining in the intestines because of the presence of absorbed fats.
What moves lymph through the body? The amount of fluid in lymph vessels, the heart beating and changes in pressure in thoracic and abdominal cavities all have roles to play in the movement of lymph.
Does lymph travel throught the body as fast as blood? No.
How is lymph formed? By plasma and white blood cells escaping through the walls of the capillaries. Lymph is the excess interstial fluid and protein that does not return to the blood system in the tissues.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? Carries fats from the interstial areato the blood system and out pus and foreign matter.
What is meant by the term superficial lymphaticus? Those near the skin.
What is the function of lymphatic valves? To keep the lymph flowing in one direction.
What are the functions of lymph nodes? Lymph nodes produce lymphocytes and monocytes. They act as filters keeping particulate matter i.e. bacteria from gaining entrance into the bloodstream.
How is massage helping in keeping the lymphatic system functioning properly? It stimulates the flow of lymph.
Where is articular fluid found? In the synovial cavity.
What is the purpose of articular fluid? To eliminate much of the friction that would otherwise result when bones are brought in contact with each other during movement.
What is bursa and what is the function of bursa? Bursa is a tiny sac sometimes referred to as a "tiny oil can"is found in all diarthrosis joints, between some of the muscles, & underneath some of the muscle structures. The function of a bursa is to release some of their fluid, which acts as a lubricant.
What is meant by sanitation? Cleanliness.
Why should massage therapists fingernails not extend past the pads of the fingers? So as to not scratch their clients.
Is sanitation in the massage area good business as well as being healthful for the therapist and clients? YES!
Why is a knowledge of anatomy necessary before one can truly become a scientific massage therapist? The massage therapist needs to know the theory behind what they are applying.
Name the structures which form the upper extremeties. Shoulders, arms, forearms, and hands.
How many bones are found in the UPPER arm and give their names? One. Humerus.
How many bones are found in the forearm and give their names? Two. Ulna and Radius.
How many bones form the wrist and give their names? Eight bones form the wrist. Carpals.
The brachial artery terminates by forming what other artery? Radial and Ulnar.
The radius articulates with what other bones? The Ulna, humerus, for the articulation or hinge joint of the elbow as well as articulation at the wrist.
What is the purpose and main function of all the muscles in the arm? Articulation or movement.
Why is the triceps muscle so named? It has 3 heads, or 3 points of contact with bones.
If you make a "fist" with your hands, what muscles are active, flexors or extensors? Flexors.
In massage of the upper limb what is the first type of manipulation? Effleurage.
In general massage the manipulations are repeated how many times? 3.
Name the longest bone in the body. Femur.
How many bones are found in the upper leg, and give their names? One. Femur.
How many bones are found in the lower leg, and give their names? Two. Tibia and Fibia.
How many tarsal bones are found in the normal human body? 14. 7 on each side.
Name the largest bone in the lower leg. Tibia.
How many muscles make up the hamstring muscles and give their names? 3. Semimembranosus, Semitendonosis, and Biceps Femoris.
What is the largest artery in the lower extremeties? Femoral Artery.
What are the connecting links between arteries and veins? Capillaries.
In massage of the lower extremeties, the manipulations are applied in what sequence? Effleurage, Tapotement,Friction and nerve strokes.
Why should hacking never be directly used over the tibia? There is nothing between tibia and skin.
Tapotement consists of what 5 types of manipulation? Hacking, Cupping, Tapping, beating w/loose fists, and slapping.
Name the main organs located in the thoracic cavity. Trachea,lungs,esophagus,thymus, and the heart.
What structures join the lungs to the trachea? Bronchi
Why is the blood darker in the veins than in the arteries? Because it contains more waste, and carbon dioxide.
Name the valves located between the atria and ventricles of the heart. Tricuspid Valve:The valve on the right side of the heart has 3 flaps.Biscuspid Valve:the valve on the left side of the heart has 2 flaps.
The head receives it's main blood supply from what two main arteries? The left and Right Common Carotid Arteries.
Name the main muscles concerned with respiration(muscles of inspiration and expiration) The Diaphragm, Intercostals. When the need for more forcible action exists, the powerful muscles of forced inspiration come into play.
Why is massage of the chest muscles beneficial? You will be helping the muscles that assist in respiration, & in this way you will also be indirectly be helping the lungs to perform their full function. Massage of the chest will also activate muscles that assist the movements of the arm, & shoulders.
Where does the last friction of manipulation of the chest end? At the base of the sternum.
In hacking, what part of the operator's hands should come in contact with the patron? Fingers only.
Are nerve strokes stimulating? They can be. It has been found that it has a soothing effect on the mind, following other more vigorous massage manipulations. It is used in many nervous conditions, & should never be omitted.
How are nerve strokes performed? By placing both of your hands flat on the client's shoulder, & drawing them down to the wrist with very little pressure, such as you might use while stroking a fine fur.
What muscle seperates the abdomen from the thorax? Diaphragm.
Is the stomach larger than the liver? No.
What is the function of the stomach valves? Keeps food from reversing direction, and keeps food in the stomach for the proper length of time.
Where is bile stored in the body? Gall Bladder.
Name two functions of the pancreas? Produces pacreatic juice and insulin.
Food passes from the mouth to the stomach through what structure? Esophagus.
Name the 3 parts of the small intestine. Duodenojejunal,jejunum,and ilium, or sometimes called the Duodenum, jejunum, ileum.
Name the parts of the large intestine. Ascending Colon,Transverse Colon,Descending Colon, and the Sigmoid Colon.
Name some of the conditions that are benefitted by the skillful application of abdominal massage. Improves abdominal muscle tone, and stimulates muscle fibers of the intestines, thus relieving chronic constipation.
Why shouldn't the client's knees be flexed for abdominal massage? To relax the abdominal muscles.
Name the outer layer of the skin. Epidermis.
What is the name of the layer of cells forming the epidermis of the skin? Epithelium.
What is the purpose of the subcutaneous fat below the skin? For protection and warmth-Forms an insulating layer, which prevents loss of heat.
Describe the methods by which the skin helps control body temperature. Brings blood to the surface in order for that it may cool off,& thus lose heat;by secreting moisture(sweat)which it can bring to the surface, where it is evaporated, cooling the area, & providing insulation in the form of hair.
What are the 2 layers of the skin called? Epidermis, and Derma(a.k.a.demis, & derm)
Why is massage beneficial to the hair? It loosens the tissues of the scalp and brings fresh blood to the area thus benefitting in the treatment of any conditions of poor hair growth.
What areas of the body have the thickest skin? Palms of hands, and soles of the feet.
What parts of the operator's hands exert pressure when applying effleurage to the back of the legs? Palms.
What is a "Charley Horse?" It is an uncontrolled action of the muscle and produces a sharp pain that can be very intense and they can develop in several areas of the body, i.e. calf, hamstrings, and back.
What is the purpose and function of sebaceous glands? Keeps the outer layer of skin soft and pliable,as well as, acting more or less as a water-proofing.
How much pressure should be applied in friction of the thigh muscles? Enough pressure to move the underlying structures.
Name 5 divisions of the spine. Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccygeal
What is the purpose of the obturator foramen? Allows for passing of the nerves and blood vessels into the legs.
What does the Splenius Capitis muscle do? Assists in the rotation and extention of the head at the neck.
Where does the Latissimus Dorsi muscle originate? Several places. Ilium, posterior crest, sacrum (posterior),vertebral column(lateral surface),Lumbar Vertebrae(L1-5),Thoracic Vertebrae(T7-12), Ribs(Posterior) Lower 3 or 4 ribs.
How does massage of the back help improve the air capacity of the lungs? By massaging the muscles that correct stooped shoulders.
Describe in detail the petrissage of the neck. W/the pads of 1st 3 fingers of both hands,place them on spine @ the base of neck,w/the client's neck raised w/ur hands,slide down each side of the upper portion of spine, so they are in line w/the shoulders. Petrissage slowly moving up/down the hairline.
What type of manipulation is used in massage of the trapezius muscle? Petrissage.
Should hacking over the lungs be light or heavy? Cupping is the preferred method of tapotement over the lungs.
How does massage applied in the spinal area improve the bodily functions? The manipulations you apply to the spinal area activate the nerves, and bring fresh blood to stimulate & nourish the nerves,which branching out from this area, are the means used by the brain to carry messages throughout the body.
What is another term for Tapotement? Percussion.
How does massage benefit cases of slow metabolism such as in gout or diabetes? Stimulates blood and lymph flow which benefits metabolism.
Is it always necessary to give a general body massage. Give reasons. No. Treatment can be confined to an area to which there is a local condition that would be helped by massage.
Name at least 3 contraindications for massage. Inflammation, fever, skin problems(i.e. boils), varicose veins. However if you apply a very light massage next to the problem, always in a direction toward the heart, it can be very beneficial.
Give 2 reasons for having supplies withing easy reach before starting the application of a general body massage. Less time expenditure, and it is best not disturb the client by interruptions.
True or False. Friction to the front of the leg is applied from the ankle to the hip and back to ankle without stopping. False.
How are the bones of the head benefitted by massage? Stimulates the nerves and activates the blood supply that nourishes the bones.
What is the Mastoid Process and what is contained in its cavities? The part of the temporal bone that goes down behind the lower part of the ear. In its cavities are mastoid cells or sinuses.
Which arteries furnish the blood supply to the thyroid glands? External Carotid Arteries.
How are the capillaries of the head formed? The same way they are formed in the entire body...from smaller to smaller arteries.
Contraction of the muscles causes the skin of the forehead to fold into lines or wrinkles. Frontalis muscle.
What muscle sometimes appears cord-like on each side of the neck? Sternocleidomastoid.(SCM)
True or False. Does stimulating the sebaceous glands of the scalp cause "Dandruff?" False.
How does massage of the scalp assist in relieving both dry and oily scalps? Restores normal conditions to the scalp.
What treatment helps in the stimulation, activation,and rehabilitation of muscles, nerves and blood vessels of the head? Massage Therapy.
Why is a scalp massage and facial more than a beauty treatment? It is good for common type of headaches, and helps in other nervous conditions.
True or False. When pressure is applied to any nerve it can inhibit muscles and cause discomfort to your client. True.
Why is pressure applied in petrissage of the face instead of letting fingers slide freely over the skin? Petrissage is a kneading stroke...not gliding.(Perhaps a 'trick question')
True or False. Facial massage is not ordinarily part of a body massage, but is a separate treatment giving special benefits. True.
What is meant by therapeutic field in hydrotherapy? Treatment of condition by use of water.
What is meant by the prophylactic field in hydrotherapy? Prevention of disease by use of water.
How can the use of hydrotherapy give opposite reactions in the treatment of the same conditions? By using water of different temperatures.
When the application of hydrotherapy cause a reaction such as heating or chilling on the skin surface, what reaction will be caused in the organs by having nerves in the same area? The same reaction.
The use of cold water applications is recommended in:1) (a) Chronic Conditions2) (b) Acute Conditions3) (c) Both Chronic and Acute Conditions C. Both Chronic and Acute Conditions.
Name 2 ways in which hot applications increase elimination. Increases respiratory rate in some cases,increases perspiration/increased elimination through the skin and through general circulatory elimination.
True or False. Cold applications are used to reduce swelling. True.
When applying the salt glow treatment, can friction be used? Yes, and friction is not the only stroke used, and if you use it, it should be very light.
True or False. 5 to 30 minutes is the usual length of treatment in a vapor or steam cabinet type of bath. True.
The Saline bath is prepared with which one:a. bicarbonate of sodab. pine needle oilc. common salt C. Common Salt.
Why are infrared rays so named? From the latin word "infra" meaning below.
What is a 3rd degree sunburn? One in which tissues below the skin are damaged.
True or False. Deep therapy lamps emit ultraviolet rays. True. All emit, but some are screened.
What is the range of power in carbon and tungsten filament bulbs used in infrared radiation? 200-1500 watts
What effect does infrared radiation have on the muscles? Heat the superficial muscles.
How do ultraviolet rays produce tanning of the skin? Chemical combinations-rays stimulate cells to produce pigment.
What type of lamp would you use to apply heat into subcutaneous tissue with the addition of a small amount of ultraviolet radiation? Deep Therapy.
What is another term used to describe a tonic dose of ultraviolet radiation? First degree erythema.
What important benefits come from producing vitamin D in the skin tissues through ultraviolet radiation?Name the 4 systems of Excretion. Prevention of rickets, and assists in absorbtion of calcium and phosphorus.Respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal(digestion),kidneys(urinary)
True or False. The most important function of the gastrointestinal system is that of elimination. False.
True or False. The large accumulation of liquids found along with excess fat in the tissues may be reduced by heat treatments. False. You can't reduce fat by heat or massage.
What material besides liquids is removed from the body through the pores during treatment in a steam or heat type of cabinet? Sebaceous-oil
Name 2 advantages of a needle spray followed by a heat treatment. It takes off the oily fatty substances, and keeps the client warm.
In what forms are excess fat found in the body? Tiny fat globules and liquid.
In what effect does swedish massage have on the muscles? It stimulates the muscles and activates blood flow.
In performing the circular manipulation in petrissage of the right gluteal area, what is done to help activate the 3 crossing layers of thick muscle? The skin rather than the fingers are moved,and the left hand is placed on top top of the right for additional pressure.
How is a twisting manipulation applied to muscles? By placing both hands next to each other, then pushing the tissues forward with the palm of one hand as the fingers of the other hand pull the tissues back.
With what weight should the cupping manipulation be given in the region of the scapula? Light- just the weight of the relaxed hand.
True or False. Proper coordination in performing combined cupping and friction requires that the separate movements be first practiced quickly. False.
In manipulating the spinal column,why is it necessary that the two fingers placed on the spinous processes be in a straight line? This is out of the Scope of Practice for Massage Therapists.
Why should massage therapists not place people on specific diets? What can be recommended instead? Because they are not doctors.Recommend that they go see a physician or food specialists.
Why are proteins needed in the diet? Name other classifications of foods. Proteins are needed in the diet because they help in rebuilding and repairing muscles,glands,nerves,etc.The other classifications of foods are:Carbohydrates, fats, minerals,and vitamins.
What is one of the special functions of all vitamins? To assist the body to make use of the foods in which they are found.
Describe therapeutic massage. A technique of manipulations that relieves a specific pathological condition in the body.
Describe Physiological Massage. A technique of manipulations that assist in keeping the body in a healthy condition.
What time of massage is usually given in private practice? Swedish Massage.
What determines the type of treatment to be given in a therapeutic massage? The physicians recommendations.
What is the difference between massage as usually applied in a hospital and massage in institutions that function as rest homes? The former is almost all therapeutic, often under direct medical supervision,while the latter is often physiological as well.
Define remedial exercises. Scientific application of bodily movements designed to maintain or restore normal muscle and joint function.
What are passive movements and how do they differ from active movements? Passive movements are those performed solely by the therapist without assistance or resistance being offered by the client. Active movements are those performed by the client w/the assistance of the therapist or w/o the therapist.
In applying remedial exercises, why is it necessary that the massage therapist know the types of movement each joint is capable of performing? In order to avoid straining a joint.
Name the 9 classifications of joint movements and explanations of the movements. Abduction:away from body. Adduction:toward body. Flexion:closing of a hinge joint. Extension:straighten a joint. Retraction:backward. Protraction:forward.Circumduction:Circular mvmnt. Supination:anterior side upward. Pronation: anterior side downward.
Of the 9 possible joint movements, the shoulder can perform 7. Name the two movements the shoulder can NOT perform. Supination and Pronation.
What are 4 therapeutic effects of remedial exercise? Assist in maintaining nerve power.Increases suppleness of joints.Improve lymph circulation and hasten the return of venous blood by muscular compression and joint movement.Assist in preventing the shortening of muscles and formation of adhesions.
Why should passive movements be applied before active movements? In some instances they should not particulary if you are assessing a contracture and in some cases they prepare muscle structures for the more strenuous active exercises.
Created by: melodysm
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