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Anatomy/Physiology 1

Chapter one Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy Science of body structures and the relationships among them.
Physiology Science of body functions and how the body parts work.
Surface Anatomy Study of Surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation.
Gross Anatomy Study of Structures that can be examined without using a microscope.
Systemic Anatomy Study of Structures of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or the respiratory systems.
Regional Anatomy Study of Specific regious of the body such as the head or chest.
Endocrinology Study of Hormones(chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body function.
Immunology Study of how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents.
Six levels of the structural organizaiton in the human body. 1. Chemical Level2. Cellular Level3. Tissue Level4. Organ Level5. System Level6. Organismal Level
Chemical Level Contains Atoms and Molecules
Atoms Smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions
Molecules Two or more atoms joined together
Atoms essential for maintaining life Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium, Sulfer
Two molecules found in the body DNA and Glucose
Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA - Genetic material passed from one generation to the next
Glucose Blood Sugar
Cellular Level Molecules combine to form cells
Cells, The basic structural and functional units of an organism
Types of Cells in the body 1. Muscle Cells2. Nerve Cells3. Epithelial Cells
Tissue Level / Tissue Groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
Four basic types of tissue 1. Epithelial Tissue2. Connective Tissue3. Muscular Tissue4. Nervous Tissue
Organ Level Different types of tissues are joined together to form an organ
Organs Structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
System Level / System Consists of related organs with a common function. AKA Organ-system level
Organismal Level / Organism Any Living Individuel, which includes all the parts of the human body functioning together to constitue the entire organism.
Palpation Feels the body surfaces with the hands
Auscultation Listens to the body sounds to evaluate the functioning of certain organs
Percussion Taps on the body surface witht he fingertips and listens to the resulting echo.
6 Basic Life Processes of the human body 1. Metabolism2. Responsiveness3. Movement4. Growth5. Differentiation6. Reproduction
Metabolism sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body. Includes Catabolism and Anabolism.
Catabolism Breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components.
Anabolism Building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components.
Responsiveness Body's ability to detect and respond to changes. Nerve cells respond by generating electrical signals (nerve impulses). Muscles cells respond by contracting which generates movement.
Movement Motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells.
Growth Increase in body size that results from an increase in teh size of existing cells, an increase in teh number of cells, or both.
Differentiation Developmetn of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
Stem cells Precursor cells that divide and give rise to cells that undergo differentiation
Reproduction Formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair or replacement or to the production of a new individual.
Homeostasis Condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
Important part of Homeostasis To maintain the volume and composition of body fluids, dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounding them.
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) Fluid within cells
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Fluid outside body cells
Interstitial Fluid ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues.
Blood Plasma ECF within blood vessels
Lymph ECF within lymphatic vessels
Cerebrospinal Fluid ECF in and around the brain and spinal cord
Synovial Fluid ECF in joints
Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Body ECF of the eyes
Blood Capillaries Smallest blood vessels in the body.
Control of Homeostasis - Nervous Nervous system regulates homeostasis by sending electrical signals known as nerve impulses to organs that can counteract changes from the balanced state.
Control of Homeostasis - Endrocrine Includes many glands that secrete messenger molecules called hormones into the blood.
Changes of Homeostasis Nerve impulses cause rapid changes; Hormones more slowly.
Feedback System Cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on.
Controlled condition Each monitored variable such as body temp, blood pressure
Stimulus Any disruption that changes a controlled condition
Feedback system has 3 basic components 1. Receptor2. Control Center3. Effector
Receptor Body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center.
Control Center Sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when needed.
Output Occurs as nerve impulses or hormones
Effector Body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System Reverses a change in a controlled condition
Example of negative feedback Blood pressure
Positive Feedback System Strengthen or reinforce a change in one of teh body's controlled conditions
Examples of Positive Feedback 1. Child Birth2. Lactation3. Blood Clotting
Disorder Any abnormality of structure or function.
Disease More specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptems.
Symptoms Subjective changes in body fuctions that are not apparent to an observer
Signs Objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure
Epidemiology Science that deals with why, when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted
Pharmacology Science that deals with effects and uses of drugs in teh treatment of disease.
Diagnosis Science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another
Anatomical Position Subject stands erect facing teh observer with the eyes facing directly, forwards. Feet are flat and directed forward. Limbs at side and palms forward
Prone Body lying facedown
Supine Body lying face up
Directional Terms Words that describe the position of one body part relative to another.
Superior (CEPHALIC OR CRANIAL) Toward the head, or upper body part of a structure
Inferior (Caudal) Away from the head or the lower part of a structure
Anterior (Ventral) Nearer to or at the front of the body.
Posterior (Dorsal) Nearer to or at the back of the body.
Medial Nearer to the midline
Lateral Farther from the midline
Intermediate Between two structures
Ipsilateral On the same side of the body as another structure
Contralateral On the opposite side of the body from another structure
Proximal Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure
Distal Further fromt he attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
Superficial Toward or on the surface of the body
Deep Away from the surface of the body
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