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BU AN101 Final

K. Arkin Final Spring 2011

QuestionAnswer
Margaret Mead American Cultural Anthropologist: writer and speaker in 1950s and 60s. Reported attitudes toward sex in S. Pacific and SE Asian cultures. Author of Sex + Temperament in Three Primitive Societies and Coming of Age in Samoa
Emily Martin American anthropologist and feminist: author of The Egg and the Sperm. Focus on science from a feminist perspective-argues scientific literature is gender-biased. Certain things are presented in a sexist way-disadvantage to women
E.E. Evans-Pritchard English anthropologist: instrumental in the development of social anthropology
Franz Boas German-american--pioneer of modern Anthropology
Bronislaw Malinowski Polish anthropologist: structural functionalist sociology. Pioneered ethnographic fieldwork-major contributor to studies of Melanesia. Emphasized participant observation-famous for his studies on reciprocity and Argonauts of the Western Pacific
Marcel Mauss French sociologist--nephew of Emile Durkheim. Magic, sacrifice, and gift exchange in primitive cultures. Great influence for Levi-Strauss, founder of structural anthropology. Author of The Gift
Lewis H. Morgan pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist. Best known for work on kinship and social structure. Ethnography of the Iroquois
Emile Durkheim french sociologist-established sociology-architect of social science-Wrote Division of Labor in Society-social order is maintained based on mechanical v. organic solidarity and the transition of primitive societies to advanced industrial societies
Nuer confederation of tribes located in S. Sudan and W. Ethiopia-form one of the largest ethnic groups in E. Africa. Pastoral people who rely on cattle products--740,000 people
Hutu/Tutsi/Twa ethnic groups in C. Africa: Hutu=largest, Tutsi=2nd largest, Twa=smallest. Hutu contributed to Rwandan genocide
Arapesh people of Papua New Guinea. diverse language with lots of sounds
Trobriand Islands eastern coast of new Guinea. Mostly subsistence horticulturists-live in traditional settlements. Matrilineal clans who control land and resources
Second Wave Feminism women's movement-began in the 60s. addressed de facto inequalities, legal inequalities, sexuality, family, the workplace and reproductive rights
Third Wave Feminism beginning in the 80s to present. Embraces contradictions, conflicts and irrationality. Accommodates diversity and change
Sex biological traits that categorize people as males/females
Gender socially constructed traits that categorize people as male/female
Performance Theory connection between theater and performance. Interaction between readers and texts
Ascription the attribution of something to a cause
Berdache a person (from Native American descent) who assumes the gender identity and is granted the social status of the opposite sex
Habitus socially learned dispositions, skills and ways of acting that are acquired through the activities and experiences of everyday life. Introduced by Marcel Mauss
Over-consumption resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. Leads to inevitable environmental degradation
Under-consumption due to inadequate consumer demand relative to the amount produced
Ethnicity group of people whose members identify with each other through common heritage (language, culture, religion)
Race classification of humans into large and distinct populations/groups by factors such as heritable phenotypical characteristics--correlated w/ appearance, culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status
Class economic/cultural arrangements of groups in society
Boasian anti-racism Boas combatted racism--worked to protect German and Austrian scientists who fled Nazi regime
Cultural Racism Form of racism where specific cultures are targeted
Ethno-genesis process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape
Boundary Maintenance the ways in which societies maintain distinctions between themselves and others
Moka system of exchange in Papua New Guinea-relies heavily on pigs for status-vehicle by which Big Men obtain their status
Big Man refers to a highly influential person in the tribe--no formal authority, but maintains recognition through skilled persuasion and wisdom
Leviathan sea monster in the Bible-one of 7 princes of Hell-now synonymous with any large sea monster/creature
Segmentary Lineage society characterized by the organization of the society into segments; often referred to as tribal society
Stateless Society not governed by a state--little concentration of authority--positions that do exists are limited in power
Organic Solidarity arises from the interdependence from specialization of work and complementaries between people (industrialized societies)
Mechanical Solidarity operates in "traditional" and "small-scale" societies (tribal)--based on kinship
Panopticon type of prison designed by Jeremy Bentham in 1785. Allows the observer to see all prisoners w/o the incarcerated being able to tell whether they are being watched- "invisible omniscience"
Division of Labor specialization of labor in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles. Closely associated w/output of trade, rise of capitalism and industrialization
Culture of Poverty social theory explaining poverty cycle-suggests poor remain in poverty b/c of their adaptions to the burdens of poverty
Created by: megblauvelt
Popular Anthropology sets

 

 



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