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Crop Science Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
Soybean reproductive growth and development is divided into stages R1 through a. R8
Thrips primarily attack cotton c. In early vegetative stages
The market class of wheat grown in Alabama and the Eastern U.S. corn belt and primarily used as pastry and biscuit flour is a. soft red winter
Vegetable oil from soybean a. Is widely used in a variety of products, such as margarine, mayonnaise, and salad dressing
Grasslands of the world are generally divided into three types of ecosystems: c. Tropical savannah, prairie, and steppe
High protein meal obtained from soybean d. Must be processed by “toasting” before feeding to livestock
All cotton tissues except roots contain a black, toxic compound called a. Gossypol
Soybean was introduced into the US in the late 1700's but originally came from c. Asia
The major sweetener found in non-diet U.S. soft drinks today is a. High fructose corn syrup
The one single factor that most influences the nitrogen recommendation for wheat in Alabama is b. Whether the wheat is to be used for grain or forage production
One of the major fiber properties of cotton is a measure of resistance to breakage, measured in grams/tex, and is referred to as d. Fiber strength
A bushel of soybean weighs 60 pounds and can be processed into 48 pounds of high protein meal and 11 pounds of oil
14. Digestion systems of ruminants can be generally divided into two types: a. Pre-stomach fermenters (cranial) and post-stomach fermenters (caudal)
Wheat as a food source mostly provides d. Carbohydrates and protein
Wheat is superior to other small grains as a product for making bread because c. It contains a protein called gluten, that has elastic properties when mixed with water
Inbreeding (self-pollination) of corn for a few generations leads to a. A lowering of yield and plant vigor and increased uniformity
The critical soil temperature (Fahrenheit) for good germination and growth of corn seedlings is b. 55F
Peanut came to the U.S. from Africa, but peanut is thought to have originated in a. Brazil/Paraguay area in S. America
1 The reason you should not save your own seed and replant with corn seed from an F hybrid is 2 b. Loss of vigor, yield and uniformity due to genetic segregation in the F generation
Recommended planting dates for corn in Alabama are generally in the c. Spring (March - May)
Unlike most of the other crops we have studied, peanut produced in the U.S. is primarily utilized as a. Human food, in candy, peanut butter and whole nuts
Cotton fibers are made of almost 100% pure c. Cellulose
The primary market class of peanut grown in the Alabama-Georgia-Florida area is c. Runner
The primary commercial type of corn grown in the U.S. is b. Dent corn
Explain “shattering” and tell why it can cause harvest losses in soybean. (3) shattering is when soybeans are harvested when the shell is too dry, it shatters and looses seeds everywhere
Give two major reasons that wheat is the basis for all Western civilization. (4) good nutrition easy to store/transport
What is the ultimate goal of an animal operation where the animals (cattle etc.) rely on forage (not grain) as a major source of food? Discuss in terms of exactly what the producer is trying to do, and the factors he can manipulate to achieve that goal. - to convert solar energy into food for humans - for animals to graze on a variety of forages to fatten them for slaughter - Nitrogen can be added to increase forage growth
Planting depth for peanut is generally deeper than for other common agronomic row crops grown in Alabama. Give two reasons why this is so. (4) seed size: seed can be too large soil type: could be sandy/loamy soils
In terms of forage quality and protein content, which is better: grasses or legumes, and why? (3) legumes because they have more protein
Briefly explain why it is desirable to harvest soybean and grain crops at relatively high moisture, but should be stored and transported at lower moisture. (3) harvest at a high moisture (14 to 15%) to prevent shattering. -Store at a lower moisture (11 to 12%) to prevent the crop from heating up and causing bacteria to produce
A cotton grower harvests an average of 1178 pounds of seed cotton per acre from a field, with a gin turnout of 472 pounds of lint per acre. What is the approximate lint percentage of the harvested cotton? (5) 472/1178 = 40%
Why would it be advisable for a soybean producer to grow cultivars from more than one Maturity Group of soybean? (5) to spread out the risk of disease. also one maturity group may not respond well to the area it's planted, another group may strive
Cultivation as a weed management tool is used less in peanut than in other crops. Give two reasons why this is so. (4) - can damage the pegs - can't get to the rows due to the size of the crop
Harvest maturity is difficult to predict in peanut. Give two reasons why this is so, and briefly tell (by the name or a description of the process) how harvest maturity is most often determined in peanut. (4) peanuts crop is underground and indeterminate. you can use the hullscrape method to determine maturity
Give two reasons why the judicious use of insecticides is important in cotton, i.e. what are two bad hings that can happen when over-using insecticides to manage cotton insects? (4) leads to insecticide resistance, and kills honeybees and other beneficial insects
tassel male flower on corn
polyploid having more than 2 homologous chromosomes
pegging part where the peanut is produced
double-crop planting 2 crops in the same year
ruminant a mammal that digests plant material with either a 3 chamber or 4 chamber digestive system
gluten protein mixed with starch in the wheat endosperm. gives wheat its bread making properties
Peanut cultivars with GMO technology are not marketed primarily because c. acreage (economic value) of the crop does not justify it
soybean reproductive stage R1 is identified by a. appearance of first flower
Tarnished plant bugs can attack cotton in the pinhead square stage and lead to c. lateness and poor early boll set
The market class wheat grown in the Northern Great Plains and used in making pasta products is c. durum
Most crop plants store energy in the form of starch, while forages store energy in the form of a. cellulose
The cotton species that occupies almost 90% of the world acreage is a. G. hirsutum
Of the following small grains, all are self-pollinated excpet a. rye
square developing bud of cotton
Micronaire the fiber diameter
fiber strength fiber's resistance to breaking
Fiber length measured in 32nd of an inch. Pima is very long
A major consequence of planting wheat too early is b. lodging due to excess vegetative growth, and insect problems
Boll weevils are no longer a production problem for cotton in Alabama because d. they have been eradicated in Alabama
Bollworms in cotton are best managed by an integrated pest management approach
2 basic types of herbivores are the Caudal fermentors, such as horses and rabbits and Cranial fermentors (ruminants), such as cattle, sheep, and deer
Soybean cultivars are well-adapted within and can be moved across wide areas in an east-west direction, but are not well-adapted and cannot be moved in a north-south direction because soybean is highly photoperiodic
Common bread wheat originated as a result of the natural hybridization of three different species
The grade of cotton is primarily a function of color and trash content
one of the major fiber-properties of cotton is fiber diameter, an indicator of fiber maturity, and is referred to as the micronaire
Livestock producers (cattle, sheep goats, etc) use animals to harvest solar energy in the form of cellulose
Recommended planting dates for corn are most influenced by temperature and climate
one production advantage grain sorghum has over corn is more tolerance to drought and acid soils
of the following, which is NOT a characteristic of soybean C4 plant
Cotton fruits are called bolls, while the developing bud, prior to flowering is called a square
production of corn for grain and silage are similar, except that for silage production plant population should be slightly higher and the crop harvested is earlier
corn is more sensitive to zinc deficiency than most crops and most likely to show symptoms in soils with a high pH and sand soil texture
the only 2 commercially available agronomic row-crops we have discussed in class that have no commercially available GMO cultivars are peanut and wheat
the major classes of forages include cool and warm season
a major consequence of planting wheat too late is lack of winterhardiness (cold tolerance)
in comparing available vegetable oils (corn, peanut, sunflower, canola, and vegetable) vegetable oil (soybean oil) accounts for more sales and consumption than all the others combined
Most forage species in the Southeast are introduced from other countries
Most soybean grown in the souther US are generally within Maturity Groups IV through VIII (4-8)
Common bread wheat has 42 chromosomes, 14 each from 3 related species
Cotton quality parameters related to color and trash content are combined into quality called the Grade
One of the major fiber properties of cotton fiber fineness, an indicator of fiber maturity, and is referred to as the micronaire
the critical soul temperature (Fahrenheit) for good germination and growth of corn seedling is 55F and should be maintained at that level before planting for a minimum of 3 days
A major reason for the establishment of hybrid seed corn companies was economic incentive caused by the need for farmers to purchases new seed every year
recommended planting dates for soybean are most influenced by photoperiod response
Pima (or long staple) cotton is superior in fiber quality to upland cotton
Of the following, which is not a characteristic of peanut family poaceae
Production of corn for grain and silage are similar, except for grain production plant population should be slightly lower and the crop is harvested later
peanut is more sensitive to calcium deficiency than most crops and more likely to show symptoms in soils of low pH
The best way to determine the P and K needs of a peanut crop is do a soil test
In order to manage and market forage, a producer must be concerned with what three things? 1. the animal 2. the forage 3. the microbes
why is it desirable to chemically defoliate cotton prior to machine harvest? At what point (during the development of the crop) should the defoliant be applied? -the reduce trash content - about 75 to 80% bolls open
Give 2 important disease of peanut and give the basic approach to the control of each - white mold: rotation - leaf spot: bravo application
what are 2 major purposes (production goals) for wheat production in Alabama Feed, seed, forage, consumption
Cotton plants have 2 types of branches. Give the name of each and briefly explain the role of each in production of the cotton crop? -vegetative: photosynthesis - reproductive: produce flower
Using a diagram illustrate the concept of commercial hybrid seed production in corn. Indicate which rows are males and which are females, and the number of each. Indicate which rows should be harvested Female: 1 Male: $ 11111 $$$ 11111 $$$ 11111 harvest female
What single factor has the most influence on hay quality maturity level and time of harvest
Secale cereale rye
peg what the pod of a peanut is attached to underground
F1 Hybrid first hybrid cross
Seed costs for cotton, corn, and soybeans have increased dramatically during the past 10 years primarily because of c. Technology fees for roundup ready and BT
Created by: asculpepper