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ANTH Exam 2

Domestication   The modification of plants and animals that are distinct from wild species and dependent on humans
diseases of civilization  chronic diseases such as heart disease and obesity that characterize modern societies. it is a result of lack of exercise and high fat diets
culture   learned patterns of thought and behavior characteristic of a particular group
Mesolithic  this period marks the shift from food gathering to food production.
Neolithic  stage in cultural evolution marked by the appearance of stone tools and the domestication of plants and animals
agriculture  the cultivation of animals, plants, and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
paleopathology  the study of disease patterns in extinct populations, primarily through the examination of skeletal remains
domestication   Evolutionary process whereby humans modify the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals
Material Culture the objects that people leave behind. it may be intentional (written accounts) or unintentional (trash/discard)
State complex society with urban centers, agriculture, labor specialization, standing armies, permanent borders, taxation, centralized authority, public works, and laws to maintain status quo
Dickson Mounds a Native American settlement site and burial mound complex near Lewistown, Illinois. It is a large burial complex containing at least two cemeteries, ten burial mounds, and a platform mound.
Porotic hypertosis a disease that causes red blood cell production in bone marrow expands and becomes porous. this disease was twice as common in children in the Woodlands than the Mississippian
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
Artifact portable materials that humans manufacture or modify
archaeology is a branch of anthropology that studies material culture to understand past populations
Paleolithic old stone age; the archaeological period that includes the beginning of culture to the end of the pliestocene glaciation
ethnocentrism the assumption that one's own group's lifestyle, values, and patterns of adaptation are superior to all others
obsidian a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
sedentism term applied to the transition from nomadic to permanent, year-round settlement.
Broad spectrum collecting
Mississipian tradition prehistoric native American culture in the American Midwest, characterized by mound building, maize horticulture, and a particular set of mortuary customs
food production
Late Woodland mobile population of the Central Tombigbee River. Hunter gatherers, with an inegalitarian social status. Acorn was primary carb and maize was rare. Social ranking not present in burials, less elaborate mortuary program
Enamel hypolasias shows evidence of growth arrest in early childhood. Weaning stress could be seen mostly in the Mississipians than the Woodlands
evolutionary medicine an anthropological approach to disease, symptoms, and medical care based upon our evolutionary heritage
Why is reliance on a single crop like maize problematic? 
According to Charles Orser, why is ethnicity difficult to discern in the archaeological record? 
adaptive customs 
cultural relativism  the principle that all cultural systems are inherently equal in value, and therefore, that each cultural item must be understood on its own terms
fieldwork the hallmark of research in cultural anthropology, it usually involves long-term residence with the people being studied
maladaptive customs
norms standards of behavior characteristic of a society or social group to which members are expected to conform
participant-observation the primary research method of cultural anthropology , involving long term observations conducted in natural settings
society a socially bounded, spatially contiguous group of people who interact in basic economic and political institutions and share and particular culture, societies retain relative stability across generations
subculture the culture of a subgroup of a society that has its own distinctive ideas, beliefs, values and worldview
Why is participant observation important to anthropology? 
phonology The study of the sounds used in language.
protolanguage A parent language for many ancient and modern languages.
symbolic communication
morphology the study of form and structure as opposed to function
phoneme A unit of sound that distinguishes meaning in a particular language.
morpheme The smallest units of a language that convey meaning.
syntax the word order or pattern of word order in a phrase or sentence
what are some unique features of human language
what makes human communication symbolic?
band foragers
chiefdom a society more complex than a tribal society, characterized by social ranking, a redistributive economy, and a centralized political economy
Karl Marx
Intensive agriculture
Food Collection
Peasants rural, agricultural populations of state-level societies who maintain parts of their traditional culture while they are tied into the wider economic system of the whole society through economic links of rent, taxes, and markets
Reciprocity a system of mutual interaction involving the regular exchange of goods or services (example: inviting someone over because they had you over for dinner)
Chief the political leader of a society that is more complex than a tribal society and is characterized by social ranking, a redistributive economy, and a centralized political economy
Tribal Organization
Codified Laws
tribe (horticulturalist) a relatively small, horticultural society organized on principles of kinship, characterized by little social stratification and no centralized political authority, and whose members share a culture and language.
balanced reciprocity
horticulture a plant cultivation system based upon relatively low energy input, like gardening by using only one hoe or digging stick, often involves use of the slash-and-burn technique
hunter-gatherers peoples who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals; food foragers
market or commercial exchange
food production
foragers hunting and gathering; the original human economic system relying on the collection of natural plant and animal food sources
generalized reciprocity
slash and burn shifting form of cultivation with recurrent, alternate clearing and burning of vegetation and planting in the burnt fields; swidden
state organization
mediation the role of a disinterested 3rd party in order to settle a dispute
!Kung or Ju/hoansi
Plasticity the  ability of many organisms, including  humans,  to alter themselves behaviorally or biologically in response to  changes in the environment.
acclimatization involves physical  adjustments in individuals to environmental  conditions. like tanning in response to UV radiation
Race a discrete typological unit;  folk category based on  arbitrarily selected  phenotypic traits
Cline gradual shift  in gene frequencies between neighboring populations.
feature are non portable material culture (post mold, hearth, storage pit, burials)
survey systematic examination of a larger area to determine the potential for containing archaeological sites or historic properties.
Bioarchaeology study of health and behavior from the skeleton
Created by: asculpepper
Popular Anthropology sets




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