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MED~Digestive System

Digestive System Vocab

1. Ingestion to take into the body by the mouth for digestion or absorption
2. Digestion the bodily process of breaking down food chemically and mechanically
3. Absorption passage of a substance into or across a blood vessel or membrane
4. Defecation/Elimination the elimination of the contents of the bowels (feces)
5. Mechanical Digestion/Mastication the act of chewing
6. Esophagus the muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach; the gullet
7. Incisor a tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch
8. Bicuspid a tooth having two points
9. Molar a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars
10. Canines one of the pointed conical teeth located between the incisors and the first bicuspids
11. Gingiva the gums
12. Dentin the calcified tissue forming the major part of a tooth; deep to the enamel
13. Pulp the soft innermost part of a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
14. Crown the part of a tooth that is covered by enamel and projects beyond the gum line
15. Neck the part of a tooth between the crown and the root
16. Root the embedded portion of a tooth
17. Saliva the secretion of salivary glands ducted into the mouth
18. Bolus a rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swallowing
19. Pharynx the muscular tube extending from the posterior of the nasal cavities to the esophagus
20. Peristalsis the waves of contraction seen in tube-like organs; propels substances along the tract
21. Chyme the semifluid stomach contents consisting of partially digested food and gastric secretions
22. Pyloric sphincter a ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum
23. Pepsin an enzyme capable of digesting proteins in an acid pH
24. Gastrin a hormone that stimulates gastric secretion, especially hydrochloric acid release
25. Hepatocytes a parenchymal cell of the liver
26. Bile a greenish-yellow or brownish fluid produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine
27. Lipase any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of fats into glycerol and fatty acids
28. Amylase any of a group of enzymes that are present in saliva, pancreatic juice, and parts of plants and catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives
29. Duodenum the first part of the small intestine
30. Jejunum the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
31. Colon the part of the large intestine between the caecum and the rectum
32. Ileum the terminal part of the small intestine; between the jejunum and the cecum of the large intestine
33. Villi finger like projections of the small intestinal mucosa that tremendously increase its surface area for absorption
34. Gastric of, relating to, or associated with the stomach
35. Insulin the hypoglycemic hormone produced in the pancreas affecting carbohydrate and fat metabolism, blood glucose levels and other systemic processes
36. Trypsin a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units
Created by: MeghanD



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