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Acheulian Tradition The tool making tradition of Homo erectus in Africa, Europe, and southwestern Asia in which hand-axes were developed from the earlier Oldowan chopper.
Agriculture The cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production, Involves using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
Anthropology The study of human kind in all times and places
Archaeology The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data
Ardipithecus ramidus One of the earliest bipeds that lived in eastern African about 4.4 mya.
Australopithecus afarensus Biped that lived around 3 mya, may be a human ancestor
Bipedalism the mode of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on its two hind legs characteristic of humans and their ancestors
Brachiation using the arms to move from branch to branch, while the body is hanging suspended beneath the arms
Catarhini an anthropoid infraorder that includes Old World monkeys, apes, and humans
Culture a society’s shared an socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior
Dialect varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
Dominance hierarchies an observed ranking system in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination
Enculturation the process by which society’s culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society
Endogamy marriage within particular group or category of individuals
Ethnic group people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based upon cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
Ethnicity the expression of the set of cultural ideas held by and ethnic group
Ethnocentrism the belief that the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones
Evolution changes in allele frequencies in populations; also known as microevolution
Exogamy marriage outside the group
Foramen magnum a large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain
Gender the cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes
Gene flow the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another
Genotype the alleles possessed for a particular gene
Haplorhini in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
Hominid refers to all African hominoids. Two subfamilies: the Paninae (chimps, bonobos, and gorillas) and the Homininae (humans and their ancestors)
Homo habilus “handy man” the first fossil member of the genus homo appearing 2.5 mya, with larger brains and smaller faces than australopithecines
Homo neanderthalus a distinct group within the genus homo anhabiting Europe and southwestern Asia approximately 30,000-125,000 years ago
Household the basic residential unit where the economic production, consumption, inheritance, childrearing, and shelter are organized and carried out
Infrastructure the economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices, and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living
Kinship a netwok of the relatives within which individuals possesss certain mutual rights and obligations
Language a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
Lineage a unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms
Linguistic determination the idea that language to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us.
Linguistic relativity the idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language
Market exchange the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand
Mousterian tradition the tool industry of the Neanderthals and their contemporaries of Europe, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa form 40,000 to 125,000 years ago
Multiregional hypothesis the hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world
Natural selection the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation
Neolocal residence a pattern in which a married couple establishes the household in a location apart from either the husband’s or the wife’s relatives
Nuclear family a group consisting of one or two parents and dependent offspring
Oldowan tool tradition the first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 mya
Patrilocal residence a residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the husband’s father’s place of residence
Phenotype the observable characteristic of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles
Phonetics the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
Physical anthropology the systematic stud of humans as biological organisms, also known as biological anthropology
Platyrrhini an anthropoid infraorder that includes New World monkeys
Polygamy one individual having multiple spouses at the same time
Reciprocity the exchange of goods and services, of approximately equal value, between two parties
Redistribution a form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted and reallocated
Reproductive success the relative production of fertile offspring by a genotype
Social structure the rule-governed relationships –with all their rights and obligations- that hold members of society together
Society an organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well being
Speciation the process of forming a new species
Strepsirhini in the alternate primate taxonomy, the suborder that includes the lemurs and lorises without the tarsiers
Superstructure a society’s shared sense of identity and worldview
Swidden farming an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is burned, and the crops are then planted among the ashes
Symbol a mark, sound, gesture, motion or other sign that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way
Syntax the patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences
Created by: jroegner91