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VT 2300 Exam 1

Equine Hx, PE, Vitals, Restraint, Care, Medication Administration

QuestionAnswer
Define restraint imply control of an animal for procedures
Where are Horse's blind spots at? Directly behind hindquarters Directly in front b/t nose and eyes
Handle primarily from the ___ side Left
Always have control of the Horse's ____. Head
When one performs procedure the restrainer stands on the _____. same side
Most basic form of horse restraint. Halters
Lead horses by the _____. lead rope
_____ is for increasing restraint chain shank
Chain shanks is attached to right nose piece ring Right upper ring between the mandibles Under the chin
Proper position of a lip shank flat against the upper gum
Important bout blind folds must be quick & easy release
proper method for blocking vision cupped hands Don't lay hands over eyes
restraint intended to discourage kicking leg elevation
Oldest & most common form of restraint Twitches
Twitches may release ____ into the ____ endorphins in the brain
Define natural twitch hands directly on horse
Define Mechanical Twitch manmade device placed on horse
Do not use twitchs on foals
Some horses dont like ___ twitches ear twitches
Types of mechanical twitches rope loop chain loop aluminum humane twitch
difference between cow and horse stocks cow stock squeeze animals
Horse temp 98.5-100
horse RR 10-15
foal RR 80-90 slows to 20-40 in 1st week or two
Horse HR 28-40bpm
foal HR can be 100 in first few weeks slows to 60-80
location of facial artery along medial aspect of mandible
Hold off for facial artery vascular bundle
location of transverse facial artery behind eye
location of digital arteries proximal to collateral cartilages over proximal seasmoid bones
location of lateral digital artery over lateral proximal seasamoid bone proximal to lateral collateral cartilage
horizontal landmarks of heart level of shoulder and elbow joints
vertical landmarks of heart caudal border of triceps
Listen for heart from the ___ side left
Place scope _____ to listen to heart against chest wall deep into triceps
landmarks for abdominal auscultation in flank area point of hip (tuber coxae) last rib
define borborygmi intestinal motility sounds
For GI motility listen to __ quadrants 4
GI motility 0 no motility heard
GI motility +1 hypomotility 1 every few mins
GI motility +2 normal motility 1-2 every few mins
GI motility +3 Hypermotility constant noise
normal MM color light-dark pink
Blue MM = cyanosis
Brick Red MM = bacterial septicemia septic shock
purple gumlines along teeth endotoxic shock
Yellow MM = icterus hemolysis liver dysfunction
Pale MM = anemia poor perfusion
reddish spots/hemorrhage MM clotting disorder
size of Petechial hemorrhage less than 1mm diameter
size of Ecchymotic hemorrhage 1mm-1cm
size of Purpuric hemorrhage greater than 1cm
MM found gums conjunctiva mucosa of nares vulva
Normal CRT less than 2.5sec
Dehydration/shock CRT greater than 5-8sec
Skin tugor time less than 1 sec
Dehydration tugor time up to 8 seconds
1 hand = __ inches 4
Pony less than ___ hands at the ____ 14.2inches at the withers
weight estimates made with weight tape
define withers height at the shoulders
Weight tape placed at the girth of thorax
Most common route of medicine PO and parental
To administer PO insert syringe near the commissure of the lips
Do not insert syringe PO over incisors across interdental space
Nasogastric 1000lb horse max hold about 4-5gallons
Nasogastric average administer ____ at one time 1 gallon
Nasogastric repeat dose in urgent situations repeat in 30-1 hr
Removing nasogastric tube can cause nosebleeds Epistaxis
Secure nasogastric tubes in halter
Max mount IM injection 15mL
Possible complication with IM injection abscesses
best drainage area for IM injection semitendinosus and pectorals
poorest drainage area for IM injections brachiocephalicus (neck) gluteals
most common site for IM Lateral cervical
Landmarks for lateral cervical IM ventral to crest of neck dorsal to jugular groove cranial to border of scapula
IM site contraindicated in foals Lateral cervical sore neck = no nursing
Lateral cervical injection technique Pinch skin 1st insert needle caudally -or- Beat once, twice, then stick
Pectoral IM max amount 5ml
Pectoral IM needle length 1-1 1/2 inches
Pectoral IM injection technique stabilize pectoral muscle insert needle at 90 degree angle
Land marks for gluteal injection lateral to spine caudal to tuber coxae (point of hip) Dorsal to greater trochanter of femur
Venous blood characteristics dark red trickles
arterial blood characteristics bright red spirts
IV needle length 1 1/2 inch
IV needle gauge 18-20g
IV site Jugular
Aviod the ____ wit jugular IV carotid artery
Define Anaphylaxis life threating vaccine reaction
Signs of Anaphylaxis sore muscles swelling at injection site high temp
Penicillin reaction hives skin wheals
Length of spinal needle 3 inch
Gauge of spinal needle 18g
Location of CSF collection lumbrosacral space
Max amount for 1000lb horse enema 1-3gallons
Most common identification natural markings
6 points on animals include 4=legs head & tail
Points usually described as black or white
___ is most distinguishable color white
Common leg markings little to biggest coronet pastern sock stocking
Common face marking star (head spot) snip (nose spot) Stripe Blaze Bald
location of whorls one on forehead b/t eyes
2 forms of scars with hair without hair
define chestnuts small raised raised of cornified tissue
Types of Pernament ID Lip tattoos freeze/hot brands Microchip
Lip tattoos located upper labial mucosa of race horses
All horses born on Jan 1st
Brand location side of neck or hip
Define stall picking remove soiled bedding
define stall stripping removing all bedding soiled or not
Which wood is toxic to horses black walnut
Toxic bedding cause acute founder
how often should u pick hoofs every day to every other day
two types of patients that require special needs contagious recumbent leg/eye trama
Concerns of contagious patients coughs carry up to 30 yards
Define Compartment syndrome collapse of vessles inside muscle compartment
Cause of Compartment syndrome body weight pressing on the compartments blood and lymphatic vessels
Define external coaptation use of bandages splints an casts
define external fixation method to repair a fracture
Use of external coaptation prevent trama, contamintation, & self mutilation support and protection
Basis of a good bandage padding
bad bandaging can cause pressure sores pressure necrosis compromise to blood supply
Define Bandage bow tendonitis of flexor tendons
Define cording pressure sores/necrosis or skin and SQ tissue
Strangulation can cause gangrene and sloughing of tissue
Do not constrict over the coronary band
choice of bandage depends on location purpose patient temperament
purpose of exercise bandage additional support/protection during exersice
purpose of shipping bandage support while transpo
Shipping bandages should cover complete lower leg carpus/taurus to hoof include coronary band
purpose of bell boot protect heels and coronary band
purpose of hoof bandages protect hoof hoof wounds
steps in bandaging clean wound dressing layer roll gauze securing tape vet wrap finishing layer
most comon bandages distal limb bandages
purpose of distal limb bandages inflammatory condtions
position of distal limb bandages top of metacarpus/metatarsus below coronary band
__inch of padding expose at ___ and ___ for ____ bandages 1 inch exposed at top an bottom distal limb
purpose of full limb bandage carpus/tarsus upper limbs
Never just apply bandage to upper limb
why never just apply bandage to upper limb causes edema bandage slips off
Double decker bandage AKA full limb bandage
2 parts of full limb bandage distal limb 1st upper limb second
Pressure sores are likely to be found where on full limb bandages? carpal bone point of hock
How to relieve pressure sores with full limb bandages extra padding relief incisions
purpose of splint immovilize joint bone or tissue
most common limb splint robert jones
Splint placement joint about and joint bellow
foot cast encases entire hoof proximal b/t coronary band an fetlock
lower limb cast encases entire hoof proximal to metacarpus/metatarsus
full limb cast entire hoof below the elbow
tube cast fetlock to below the elbow
treatment for angular limb deformities in foals tube casts
Created by: LittleLette