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Pharmacology Drugs13

GI drugs

QuestionAnswer
why would you induce vomiting in an animal? if its eaten something poisonous (except caustic material) OR its an emergency situation in which the animal must be anesthitized
what are some emetic drugs? apomorphine HCl; xylazine; syrup of ipecac
what is the mechanism of action of apomorphine HCl? what receptor zones does it trigger? stimulates dopaminergic receptors which triggers visceral afferent receptors and chemorecepto trigger zones
since apomorphine HCl causes respiratory depression, what agent would you use to reverse a dose of apomorphine HCl? naloxone
what type of drug is xylazine? a sedative
what is the mechanism of action of syrup of ipecac? gi irritant, enters circulation to affect the chemoreceptor trigger zone
what are some idications of anti-emetics? Control vomiting while treating primary disease; Prevent motion sickness, e.g., transporting pets; Prevent vomiting during chemotherapy
what are the 4 classes of anti-emetics? antihistamines; anticholinergics; phenothizaine tranquilizers; dopamine antagonists
what are the common antihistamines and where do they act? dimenhyrinate; diphenylhydramine HCl; H1 antagonists
when would you use an antihistamine (under what condition)? vestibular stimulated vomiting= motion sickness, dizziness
what is a common anticholinergic? scopolamine
how does scopolamine work? fixes vestibular stimulated vomiting by having both central and peripheral anti-emetic actions
what are some adverse effects of anti-cholinergics? slows/stops gi peristalsis b/c of anti-muscarinic effect; contraindicated in glaucoma; drowsiness; xerostomia
what are the indications of using phenothiazine tranquiliers? broad spectrum anti-emetics
at low doses, how do phenothiazine tranquilizers work? anti-dopaminergic
at high doses, how do phenothizaine tranquilizers work? depresses vestibular center
what are adverse effects of phenothizaine tranquilizers? contraindicated in hypotension/hypovolemia; lowers seizure threshold
what are some phenothiazine tranquilizers with specific antidopaminergic action? trimethobenzamide HCl, butyrophenones, diphenylbutylpiperidines
what is the common drug of dopamine antagonists? metaclopromide
why would you use dopamine antagonists? Control vomiting due to circulating toxins and GI irritation, but not vestibular stimulation; Peripheral activity also makes metaclopromide useful for gastroparesis and gastroesophageal reflux
what is the mechanism of action of dopamine antagonists? centrally block dopamine transmission; Peripherally promotes release of and increased sensitivity to acetylcholine in visceral smooth muscle. Increases propulsive activity of upper GI tract
why would you want to give a laxative? Digesta impaction (and prevention); purging of toxins
what is the mechanism of action of laxatives? retention of fluid in lumen; Secretagogue effect on epithelium via stimulation of intracellular 2nd messengers (cAMP, Ca2+); Increase intestinal propulsive motility via a) mucosal irritation, or b) distension; lubrication of feces
what are the categories of laxativs? bluk, osmotic, stimulant, surfactant, lubricant
what are some commonly used bulk laxatives? dietary fiber, psyllium, methylcellulose
what is the mechanism of action of bluk laxatives? Hydrophilic, also rapidly fermented fiber (pectin) has osmotic effect in colon; Distension causes reflex peristaltic contractions
Created by: clcxrf