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Pharmacology Drugs12

Meadows stuff-

QuestionAnswer
what should be done to female animals that are not intended to be bred? Ovariohysterectomy
are there any drugs approved for in dogs or cats for pregnancy terminatioN? no
if you have a female dog that was not mated during heat, what should be the next step if you don't want to breed her? Ovariohysterectomy
what is a common problem seen in female dogs after spaying during diestrus? pseudocyesis--> lactation; not harmful and self limiting to dog
what are several ways to diagnose a pregnancy in a dog? palpation, ultrsound, radiographs, secretion of relaxin
what is a drug you can give to a dog to induce abortion and should it be given with food or not? cloprostenol; as far from feeding as possible
after giving cloprostenol, what is another drug that can be used to treat "mismatings"? Bromocriptine
What are some causes for urinary incontenance in dogs? An anatomic abnormality of the ureteral termination, urinary bladder, or urethral development; failure of the urinary bladder to accommodate urine appropriately; A failure of sufficient urethral closure function
What is the most common cause of urinary incontenance? a failur of sufficient urethral closure function
what group of animals is most commonly effected by urinary incontenance and why? young to middle-aged spayed female dogs; usually 3yrs after Ovariohysterectomy
unlike in humans, how does urinary incontenance show up in a dog? hypotonic urethra
when deciding what type of drug to give to treat urinary incontenance due to hypotonic urethra, would you elect to use an alpha agonist or a beta agonist? Why? alpha; enhance urethral closure through the release of endogenous norepinephrine and direct stimulation of a-adrenergic receptors in the bladder neck and urethra
what are two general drugs that you would use to treat urinary incontenance due to hyotonic urethra? ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
what is the dose of phenylpropenolamine for dogs? 1.5-3mg/kg
what is the dose of phenylpropenolamine for small dogs? medium dogs? large dogs? 25mg; 50mg; 75mg
which drugs should phenylpropenolamine not be used with? MOA inhibitors; NSAIDS, Tricyclic antidepressants
in what type of patients should you not use phenylpropenolamine with? patients with high blood pressure or heart problems
what is anohter treatment of choice for animals with urinary incontenance other than alpha agonists? estrogenic compounds
what are the top two estrogenic compounds used for urinary incontenance? Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and stilbestrol
what would you use in male dogs to treat urinar incontenance? testosterone
what should be at the top of a differential diagnosis list for a cat with urinary incontenance? urinary bladder storage dysfunction
Anatomically, the upper airways consist of? nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, extrathoracic trachea
Anatomically, the Lower airways consist of? intrathoracic trachea, bronchi
Anatomically, the pulmonary parenchyma consists of? non-respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, interstitium
what are the common respiratory therapeutics available? Oxygen, Antimicrobials, Anti-inflammatories/immunosuppressants, Bronchodilators, Cough suppressants, humidification/coupage, iv fluids, anticoagulants, thrombolytics, anxiolytics/sedatives, diuretics, chemotherapy, thoracocentesis, mechanical ventilation
what are some cardiogenic causes for "cough" in an animal? congestives heart failure, Left Heart Faillure, Left Enlarged atrium
what are some respiratory causes for "cough" in an animal? tracheitis, collapsing trachea, foreign body or mass, laryngeal paralysis; feline asthma, canine eosinophilic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, parasitic infection; pneumoina (infectious, aspiration, foreign body), neoplasia, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema
what is the most useful test to differentiate cardiogenic causes of disease from respiratory causes of cough? "sail sign"= right middle lung lobe collapse
what is the most common bronchopulmonary disease of cats? feline asthma
what type of hypersensitivity is allergic feline asthma? type 1--> bronchoconstriction and inflammation
what are two treatment options for feline asthma? beta agonists/methylxanthines to combat the bronchoconstriction and glucocorticoids for the inflammation
what are the two most common beta agonists used for feline asthma? methylxanthines? terbutaline, albuterol; theophylline, aminophylline
what is the mechanism of action of albuterol? It stimulates beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Binding of albuterol to beta(2)-receptors in the lungs results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles
what is the mechanism of action of theophylline? : a non-specific inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzymes, producing an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP
what is the mechanism of action of prednisone/prednisolone? the corticoreceptor-ligand complex translocates itself into the cell nucleus, where it binds to many glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of the target genes. The DNA bound receptor interacts with basic transcription factors
is bacteria in the lower airways always considered significant of a lower airway infection? what is? no; the lower respiratory tract is a non-sterile area so bacteria can be transient or an infection. mycoplasma is always indicative of an infection
what are the tope 4 differentials for respiratory distress? Upper airway obstruction; Lower airway obstruction- asthma; Flail chest; Abdominal distension
what are some medical management techniques for collapsing trachea? Cough suppressants—e.g., dextromethorphan (OTC, non-narcotic) or narcotics (eg, hydrocodone=Hycodan®); Corticosteroids—anti-inflammatory dose; Sedatives/anxiolytics—e.g., acepromazine, butorphanol
what are the major classes of atni-fungal drugs? Polyene antibiotics (Amphotericin B, Hamycin); Azoles (Ketoconzaole, traconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, posoconazol); Antimetabolites (Flucytosine); Chitin synthesis inhibitors (lufenuron, Nikkomycin); Allyamine derivatives (Terbinafine)
how does amphotericin B work and does it have a higher affinity for ergosterol or cholesterol? Binds sterols in eukaryotic organisms causing increased permeability; Ergosterol
with lipid complexed/encapsulated Amphotericin B, what is the cummulative dose? 30mg/kg
how do the azoles work? Inhibit sterol synthesis via fungal cell cytochrome P-450
while ketoconazole is absorbed well from the GI tract, what adverese effects would keep you from using it? GI problems, hepatic problems and endocrine problems--> iatrogenic addison's disease
would you use ketoconazole before or after treatment with amphotericin B? after; takes 5-10 days to reach full effectiveness
Created by: clcxrf
 

 



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