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AGRN 1000 Exam 1

Source where plant sugars are produced. from the source they are transported to the sink
Sink an area in the plant where sugars are needed. May be a an area where the plant is growing such as a root, stem, flower, or fruit
Photoperiod length of light in a day, which changes throughout the growing period
Pistil the female essential flower part.
Vernalization the acquisition of a plant's ability to flower or germinate in the spring by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter.
Phloem food conducting tissue. Can move in any direction
Xylem water conduction tissue. Moves only up from the roots
Leaf canopy the configuration of crop leaves in the field • Prevents sunlight from hitting soil • Prevents sunlight from reaching weeds • We want lead canopy to grow as rapidly as possible
Asexual Plant Propagation
Sexual Plant Propagation
What material is routinely added to soils to adjust pH level (generally added to acid soils to increase pH, and thus lower [H] in the soil)? + to lower the pH use sulfur. to raise the pH use lime
Why are plants green? plants have chloroplasts that absorb light energy to make food. they absorb red light and blue light but not green light so the color green is reflected.
What is crop lodging? Give three factors than can contribute to lodging in crops. lodging: the tendency for a plant to become top-heavy and fall over. Caused by excess fertilizer, water, high plant population, insects, disease, or genetic factors
Discuss briefly the role of photoperiod sensitivity in crop adaptation in a north-south vs. east-west direction, especially as it applies in a historical context. The photoperiod changes as you move from North to South. Days are longer in the summer shorter in winter further north. Therefore it is difficult to transfer crops North-South. But it is easy to transfer them east-west, like from China to Europe.
Using either words or a graph, describe the relationship between plant growth (defined as dry matter accumulation) and percent solar interception (or percent ground cover or canopy cover) in crop plants. there is a linear relationship between these. As the leaf area index and % solar interception go up, so does the dry matter. A study in the 1960's found that my decreasing row spacing you could achieve more solar interception and more dry matter
Legume a plant that has a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots, and make their own nitrogen. example: peanut. belong to the family fabaceae
Cross-pollinated crop date palm, cherry trees, pistachio
C4 plant species corn, millet
Modified stem • Stolons: lateral, above ground stems (turfgrass, strawberries) • Rhizomes: lateral, below ground stems (Johnsongrass)
Cation • H+ • Ca++ • K+
Two elements centrally located in the chlorophyll molecule and essential to its function are nitrogen and magnesium
The most limiting factor in crop production world-wide is water
The concentration of H ions in the soil + Goes up as the pH goes up
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of the ability of the soil to attract and hold cations, and as such Is directly related to soil pH
Hygroscopic soil water is Water that is unavailable to plants
Soil water-holding capacity (the ability of a soil to absorb and hold water) is mainly dependent upon Soil texture and structure
In a given soil, the most variable of the four major components are Water and air
Of the following, the only plant parts that are involved in asexual reproduction are the Stems
Essential flower parts include the Stamens and pistil
A vegetatively-growing crop plant is subjected to a 13.5 hour photoperiod, which is increased by 1/2 hour each week. When the photoperiod reaches 15 hours, the plant starts to flower. This plant species would be A long-day plant
Water loss through the leaves is part of a plant process known as Transpiration
Subtracting the rate of glucose breakdown (respiration) from the rate of glucose accumulation (photosynthesis) gives the Net assimilation rate
Photosynthesis takes place in specialized structures called chloroplasts, while respiration takes place in specialized structures called mitochondria
Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants are not likely to light-saturate under normal conditions
In its simplest form, photosynthesis can be divided into Light and dark reactions
The desired LAI (leaf area index) range for most crops is 2.4 to 4.0
The majority of carbon found on earth is in the form of Biomass (animal and plant tissues)
The main function of stolons is Asexual propagation
Light frequencies that are best absorbed by chlorophyll and other plant pigments are Blues and reds
All stems are identified as such based on the presence of Nodes
The most important crop families, in terms of food production, are Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae
Crop plants thought to have originated in southwest Asia (present-day Iraq) include wheat and other small grains
The earth’s human population Is currently over 6 billion
The best explanation for man’s sudden shift from hunting and gathering to an agriculture- based society is The shift from ice-ages to a warmer climate and development of religions
Crop any plant used by man for any useful purpose
Subsistence growing food (animals and plants) just to feed you and your family, not for commerce. Animals were probably domesticated first.
Shifting Agriculture moving as resources were depleted (no land ownership)
Commercial Agriculture : producing enough to use of profit/trade/ you need to develop systems of storage, currency, transportation, and written communication.
Extensive Agriculture like rangeland for cattle or dryland wheat production. inputs are low, not a lot of potential profit
intensive agriculture vegetable production, a lot of investment with a lot of monetary return. example: peanut production
Early Crops of Southwest Asia (Iraq) barley, wheat, rye, oat, pea and other small grains
Early Crops of Southeast Asia rice, sugarcane, coconut, tea, citrus, and soybean
Early Crops of the Americas maize, potato, tobacco, tomato, peanut
Early Crops of Africa sorghum, okra, yam, watermelon
Thomas Malthus english clergyman that developed an equation between food and population. believed our population will grow to a point where it will strip the food resources and famine will occur
What percent of Earth is land 29% 37 billion acres
Angiosperm flowering plants, appeared in the early cretaceous
Monocot embryo with one cotyledon, fibrous roots, parallel leaf veination. example: grasses, lily, orchid, banana, yam
Dicot two cotyledons, taproot system, net veination. example: cotton, legumes, sweet potato, pepper
3 Major Crop Families poacea, fabaceae, and solanaceae
Poaceae grasses example: corn
Fabaceae legumes example: beans, peas, peanuts
Solanaceae night shade family example: potato, pepper, tomato, tobacco
Taproot centralized structures where other roots radiate from. go much deeper
fibrous roots more shallow and dispersed system
roots one of the 3 main plant organs. function to absorb water and nutrients
nutrient refers to calcium ions, phosphates, or nitrogen, NOT FOOD. plants manufacture food through photosynthesis
legumes bacteria feed off of plant sugars and in return give the plant nitrogen
Culm grass with a hollow stem like rice
Stalk grasses with a solid stalk
Nodes an area of compressed tissue that can give rise to other plant tissues such as leaves, flowers, other stems etc. MAINLY FOR ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Stolons lateral, above ground stems (turfgrass, strawberries)
rhizomes later, below ground stems
Crown major organ of asexual reproduction. it is the junction between the roots and the upper part of the plant
Tubers major organ of asexual reproduction. white potato are tubers
Bulb organ of asexual reproduction, basically a compressed stem with fleshy leaf tissue. example: onion
Corm similar to a bulb but has less leaf tissue
Apical Dominance the top of the plant wants to dominate the rest of the plant. for almost any plant you will get a Christmas Tree shape. the apex of the plant produces auxin that is dispersed throughout the plant
Auxin prevents lateral node production, but as the plant grows taller, the less effective the hormone is so you see lateral growth, thus the Christmas Tree shape. even if you bend the plant over this will still occur
Lodging the tendency for a plant to become top heavy and fall over. this can be caused by excess fertilizer, water, high plant population, insects, disease, or genetic factors
Functions of Stems support of leaves, fruits, and flowers. transport of water and nutrients storage of food asexual propagation photosynthesis
Leaf Canopy the configuration of crop leaves in the field.
Functions of Leaf Canopy prevents sunlight from hitting soil, prevents sunlight from reaching weeds.
Leaf area index (LAI) leaf area/ground surface area. desired LAI is 2.5-4. you want the maximum LAI to intercept the most sunlight
Functions of leaves photosynthesis, food storage, translocation of sugar, gaseous exchange,
Xylem water conducting tissues. only more up from the roots
Phloem foot conducting tissue. can move in any direction
vascular tissue xylem + phloem
Photosynthetic Reaction 6CO2 + 12H2O --Sunlight and Chlorophyll --> C6H12O6 + 6 H2O
What are the inputs of the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis water, ADP, and NADP
What are the results of the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis Oxygen, ATP and NADPH2
Dark Reactions CO2 + NADPH2 + ATP --> H20 + Carbon Chain Carbon Chain + ATP --> Glucose (C6H12O6)
Factors Affecting the Photosynthetic Rate 1. CO2 2.H20 3. Light (frequency and intensity) 4. Temperature 5. Carbohydrate translocation 6. Leaf Age
How to Increase Photosynthesis 1. Increase LAI (decrease row spacing) 2. Plant Genetics 3. Planting Date 4. Plant Nutrition 5. Pest Control
Respiration process of obtaining energy from organic materials. provides energy for cell division, elongation, and other metabolic processes
Aerobic Respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + H2O + 40ATP
Anaerobic Respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2H2O + 2ATP produces ethyl alcohol and occurs in the cytoplasm
Photorespiration occurs in chloroplasts and requires light. but is considered to be a detrimental process, does no contribute to the growth of the plant. caused by rubisco
Rubisco or RuBP, stands for ribulose biphosphates carboxylase oxygenase. it is an enzyme
Transpiration movement/loss of water through the leaves (evaporative loss). functions to cool the leaf. Effected by wind, humidity, and temperature
Translocation how sucrose gets from the production site (source) to the place where it is needed (sink)
Essential Flower Parts Pistil (female) Stamens (male)
Corolla all the petals together
Calyx all the sepals together
Male Flower parts Stamen, filament, anther
Female Flower parts Pistil, stigma, style, ovary
Complete flower one that has all the parts
Incomplete flower lacks 1 or more parts, this includes all the grasses
Perfect flower has both male and female parts
Imperfect flower either a male flower or a female flower.
Monecious have both male and female flowers on the same plant
Dioecious have either male or female flowers. example: gingko, date palm
Two Phases of Plant Growth vegetative, and reproductive
Photoperiod length of light in a day, which changes throughout the growing period. plants use photoperiod to sense changes in season
short day plants flower in response to shortening photoperiod. flower after summer solstice (july)
long day plants flower in response to lengthening photoperiod. flower after the winter solstice. cool season plants that are fall planted and spring harvested
Day neutral plants they don't care what the photoperiod is. during domestication we bred out the photoperiod response. MORE VALUABLE
Soil Components water, air, mineral material, organic matter. water and air content are the most variable
organic matter anything derived from a formerly living thing
mineral matter part of the soil derived from inorganic sources (rock, minerals)
3 Classes of Soil Particle Size fine sand/sand, silt, clay
Chemical reactivity is a function of particle size
soil pore size determined by texture and structure. as the particles get smaller the pore size goes up. it determines water holding capacity, influences infiltration rate, and root penetration
Litter the top layer of organic matter. can absorb the force and moisture from rain
duff first stage of decay of organic matter
humus organic matter that is resistant to further decay
gravitational water free water, that is temporarily available to plants
capillary water available, held in soil by capillary action
hydroscopic water unavailable, held in soil by chemical bonds
Saturation Capacity all pores are filled with water, much of which is gravitational
Field Capacity all gravitational water is gone
Wilting point even though there is hydroscopic water, the plant can't get it
soil air has a greater Co2 concentration than atmospheric air
Preferred Crop pH 6.0 to 7.3 ( a little bit acidic)
to raise the pH add lime, dolomite
to lower the pH add sulfur
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) a cation is a positively charged ion. Soil particles like clay and humus are covered in negative charges. they can attract more cations. Textures that are coarse have lower CEC, clays and higher organic matter have a higher CEC.
water use efficiency the amount of water needed to create a certain amount of dry matter. C4 plants are more efficient with water use than C3 plants
Arid region has less than 10 inches of rain per year. no crops can be grown without irrigation
Semi-arid region 10-20 inches of rain per year. crop production needs irrigation or a fallow system
Sub-humid region 20-40 inches of rain per year. there are a variety of crop management systems for this region
Humid 40-60 inches of rain per year. the crop management system is determined more by the distribution
Created by: asculpepper



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