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Pharmacology Drugs11

Equine Cushing's-Pharm Repro

QuestionAnswer
The onset of equine obesity is seen by what age? 7-9 yrs old
With an obese equid, by what age is insulin resistance seen? 11-12 yrs old
In an equid that is obese and suffering from insulin resistance, by what age do they typically develop Cushing's disease (PPID)? 18-20 yrs old
While corticotrophinomas are typically produced in canines and humans that develop Cushing's disease, what type of tumors develop in equids and where? melanotrophinomas; intermediate lobe of pituitary gland
what are the prop-opiomelanocortin-peptides? ACTH, alpha MSH, Beta endorpin, CLIP
the pars intermedia of the eqine pituitary has what type of innervation that leads to the production/stimulation of the pro-opiomelanocortin-peptides? serotonergic
what type of innervation is there to the pars intermedia that "checks" the serotonergic innervation? dopaminergic
when are the melanotrophes of the pars intermedia normally highly stimulated by serotonergic innervation? Fall (gearing up for winter)
how does equine cushing's effect the melanotrophes of the pars intermedia? blocks the domaminergic innervation and allows the serotonergic innervation to act without being "checked"
what type of disease is equine cushings? neurodegeneration of the Hypothalamus (not usually the case in dogs and humans)
how does the pars intermedia lose dopaminergic influence? we see melanotrophe hypersecretion leading to clonal expansion of the cells leading to compression of the pars nervosa and hypothalamus causing an excess secretion of POMC's
what are some clincial signs of equine cushing's disease? Inappropriate hirsutism, Laminitis, pu/pd, Abnormal body condition (Loss of muscle, Abnormal fat deposits), Excessive sweating, Behavioral change, Lowered fertility, Perturbed vision, Impaired wound healing, Osteoporosis,Galactorrhea, Immunosuppression
what are two specific endocrine tests to test for equine cushing's disease? Dexamethasone suppression test; Resting plasma eACTH assay
how much dexamethasone do you administer to horse when performing a dexamethasone suppression test and by what route? 0.04mg/kg, IV
what is the main treatment option for equine cushing's disease? pergolide; 0.5-3.0mg PO, SID
during what period of sexual reproduction would you use drugs to disrupt pregnancy? Implantation/Attachment of egg--> fetal development
what parts of the brain produce sex hormones? pineal gland, hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pitutary gland
what other structures produce sex hormones? the gonads, uterus, embryo, fetus, placenta
what are the different classes of sex hormones? indole amines, catecholamines, peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, steroids, arachadonic acid derivatives
what are the reproductive hormones that are produced in the brain? melatonin, dopamine, GnRH, Gonadatropins, Prolactin, oxytocin
what are the reproductive hormones that are produced from the gonads? androgens, estrogen, progestens
what type of hormone is prostaglanding and what is its function? 20C fatty acid, arachadonic acid derivative; regresses the corpus luteum at the end of a non-fertile estrous cycle or at end of gestation
what type of hormone is testosterone and what is its function? androgen; regulate the production of sperm
what is the function of estrogen? regulates sexual receptivity in females
what is the role of progesterone? regulate sexual nonreceptivity in females and help maintain pregnancy
what type of hormone is melatonin, where is it produced and what does it do? indole amine; pineal gland; regulates GnRH release
what type of hormone is dopamine and what does it do? catacholamine; suppresses prolactin
what type of hormone is GnRH, where is it produced and what does it do? peptide hormone; hypothalamus; regulates synthesis and release of gonadatropins by anterior pituitary gland
what are the two gonadatopins? what type of hormones are they, where are they produced and what do they do? LH and FSH; glycoprotein hormones; anterior pituitary; regulate function of testes and ovaries
what type of hormone is prolactin, where is it produced and what does it do? protein hormone, anterior pituitary gland, regulates milk production
what type of hormone is oxytocin, where is it produced and what does it do? peptide; posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions and "milk letdown"
during what phase of the estrous cycle is the animal in estrus (heat)? what horomone dominates? late follicular; estrogen
during what phase of the estrous cycle is metestrous and what hormones are associated with this phase? late follicular to early luteal (going out of heat), Decreasing estrogen and Increasing Progesterone
What phase of the estrous cycle is diestrus and what horomones dominates with this phase? What characateristics will the female display? Late luteal; Progesterone; Out of heat and possibly pregnant and non-receptive to mating
What phase of the estrous cycle is proestrus and what hormones are associated with it? what characteristics are displayed? Early Follicular; Increasing Estrogen, decreasing progesterone; animal is coming into heat and not pregnant so may display receptivity to breeding
what steroid hormone is produced by the follicle? estrogen
what steroid hormone is produced by the corpus luteum? progesterone
when the progesterone from the CL decreases, what happens to GnRH? it increases
an increase in GnRH stimulates what? LH and FSH
an increase in LH and FSH stimulates what to happen? proestrual follicular development
as the follicle develops, what hormonal responses are seen? an increase in inhibin causes a decrease in FSH; an increase in estradiol to threshold causes a preovulatory LH surge
what is the average length of the estrous cycle? 21 days
What causes leuteolysis? the absence of a conceptus or embyro
what causes regression of the CL? PGF2a
What are some of the features of estrous unique to cow? Ovulation occurs after the end of standing estrus; juxaposition of ovarian artery and uterine vein results in very little PGF2α reaching the systemic circulation and being rapidly metabolized in the lungs
What are some of the features of estrous unique to dog? Ovulation of 1° oocyte; LH peak with decreasing E2 and increasing P4 at the beginning of estrus; no metestrus; prolactin is luteotrophic
What are some of hte features of estrous unique to cat? induced ovulators
what are some of the features of estrous unique to horses? As compared to cattle, much more PGF2α reaches the systemic circulation in horse; very limited pulmonary metabolism of PGF2α
in order for parturition to occur, what needs to happen? mature fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
which animals are year round polyestrus? bovine, felines, porcine
which anials are seasonally polyestrus during long days? equine
which animals are seasonally polyestrus during short days? ovine and caprine
which animasl are monestrus? canine
human chorionic gonadatropin is most similar to what hormone in animals? works like LH
Equine chorionic gonadatropins is most similar to what hormone in other animals? FSH
how is HCG used in animals? induce ovulation, treat cystic ovaries, early treatment of cryptorchidism
in swine, HCG and ECG are used how? induce estrous cycles
in feline, HCG and ECG are used how? to treat pseudopregnancy
what are all of the uses of oxytocin? Primarily affects mammary gland and uterus, Causes milk let down, Induction of parturition, Treatment of retained fetal membranes, Treatment of endometritis (in mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis)
what are all of the uses of PGF2a? Estrus/ovulation synchronization, Induction of abortion/parturition, Treatment of retained fetal membranes, Treatment of endometritis (in mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis)
what species would you NOT use dinoprost (synthetic PGF2a) in? camelids
what do you have to remember, as a human, handling PGF2a and its analogs? absorbed through skin
what are the uses of estrogen in animals? Uterine infection (metritis) in cattle; enhance uterine involution (somewhat dated), Induction of abortion/parturition/mismating, Treatment of retained fetal membranes, Urinary incontinence and perianaladenoma in dogs
what are the uses of progestins? Estrus suppression, Pregnancy maintenance, Estrus/ovulation synchronization protocols, Predisposition to endometritis/pyometra, Masculinization of female fetus, especially in dogs
what are the two commercially available prostaglandins and which is a PGF2a and which is synthetic? dinoprost (PGF2a); Cloprostenol (synthetic)
what are the trade names of synthetic gonadotorpin releasing hormones? gonadorelin, desorelin
what are some analogs of progestagens? megestrol acetate, ovaban, altrenogest (regu-mate), melengestrol acetate (MGA)
what is the traditional use of PGF2a? estrus induction and synchronization
would giving injections of PGF2a b/t days 0 and 6 of the estrous cycle induce estrus? No b/c animal already in estrus
would giving injections of PGF2a b/t days 7 and 17 of the estrous cycel induce estrus? Yes, within 3 days of injections b/c estrous cycle dominated by progesterone and would shorten the time in diestrus
with the 5step estrous synchronization protocol used in dairy cattle, step 1 invovles injecting the animal with PGF2a. What does this do? the injection causes lysis of the CL and will allow the cow to have a new ovulation and form a new CL
with the 5step estrous synchronization protocol used in dairy cattle, step 2 involves injecting the animal with PGF2a 14d after the first dose. What does this do? causes lysis of the new CL so that a new follicular phase can start
with the 5step estrous synchronization protocol used in dairy cattle, step 3 involves an injection of GnRH given 12d after the second PGF2a injection. What does this do? either causes ovulation of dominant follicle or causes continued growth of the growing follicle depending on whether the cow responded to the first or second PGF2a injections
with the 5step estrous synchronization protocol used in dairy cattle, step 4 involves an injection of PGF2a 7d after the GnRH injection. what does it do? either to lyse the new CL that is growing after the ovulation or lyse the "old" or "new" CL causing the cow to enter the follicular phase
with the 5step estrous synchronization protocol used in dairy cattle, step 5 involves an injection of GnRH 2 d after the PGF2a injection. what does this do? to cause ovulation of the dominant follicle
After this 5 step protocol when do you inseminate the cow? how long after the last GnRH injection? 16hrs post GnRH injection
Mibolerone is an androgen/5a reductase inhibitor used in canines for?? birth control
what do 5a-reductase inhibitors do? prevent the conversion of testosterone to DHT and used for benign prostatic hypertrophy
antigestins do what? what is the trade name? prevent progesterone from binding receptors; mifeprestone
3B-HSD do what? what is the trade name? prevent progesterone synthesis; epostane
Created by: clcxrf