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Vet Pharmacology MT1

Cal Poly SLO, Burd, Midterm 1. Includes pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

(D) = DefineAnswer
(D) Dose The amount of a drug administered at one time to achieve the desired effect
(D) Loading dose The initial dose of drug given to get the drug concentration in the therapeutic range in a very short period of time.
(D) Maintenance Dose The dose of drug that maintains or keeps the drug in the therapeutic range.
(D) Total Daily Dose The total amount of drug delivered in 24 hours.
(D) Dosage The amount of drug per animal species' body weight or measure.
(D) Dosage interval How frequently the dose is given (bid, sid, etc)
6 causes of drug toxicity Outright overdose Relative Overdose (too much for THIS animal) Accidental Exposure Side Effects Interaction with other drugs Incorrect Treatment
(D) Drug Distribution The physiological movement of drugs from the systemic circulation to tissues.
(D) Bioavailability the degree to which a drug is absorbed and reaches the circulation
(D) Induce To increase the rate of metabolism of an enzyme system
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is known as Passive Diffusion
In what form do the majority of acidic drugs exist in an acidic environment? NONionized
Drug affinity is the strength of binding between a drug and its receptor
True or false: Giving fluids to an animal will increase the excretion of the drug. True
True or False: Thin animals with low plasma protein levels require more drug than animals of normal weight. False
The four steps of pharmacokinetics: 1) Absorption 2) Distribution 3) Metabolism (or biotransformation) 4) Excretion
(D)Effective Dose amount of drug that produces desired effect in at least 50% of animals. ED50
(D) Lethal Dose Amount of drug that produces death in 50% of animals (LD50)
(D) Therapeutic Index Margin of Safety LD50 ----- ED50
(D) Therapeutic Range Drug concentration in the body of the animal that produces desired effect at target tissue with no signs of toxicity.
Five main things that affect therapeutic range Rate of Entry Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion/Elimination
What should we use to determine drug dose when animal is obese? Lean Body Mass
What are the 3 major factors to keep a drug in the therapeutic range? Route of Administration Dose Dose Interval (frequency)
(D) Parentral All administration routes other than the GI tract EX) IV, IM, SC
(D) Non-Parentral Administration given via GI tract EX) oral (po, per os)
Do lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs pass through cell membranes better? Lipophilic.
If a drug is more hydrophilic, how does this affect the drug's elimination? Increased hydrophilic = increased elimination
(D) Passive Diffusion The movement of drug molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Drugs that move through passive diffusion must be... Small in size, lipophilic, and nonionic.
(D) Lipophilic Fat loving. Chemicals that dissolve in fat or oils.
The intestinal mucosa has lipid-rich cell membranes, which allows... lipophilic drugs to be well absorbed from the gut via passive diffusion.
Intramuscular drugs are deposited in the fluid surrounding the cells and must diffuse through fluid to reach the capillaries. So, IM drugs should be ______ for rapid absorption. hydrophilic
The ionization or charge of a drug depends on... the pH of the liquid in which it is immersed and the pH of the drug.
Hydrophilic drugs are usually a) ionized or b) nonionized hydrophilic - ionized
Lipophilic drugs are usually a) ionized or b) nonionized lipophilic -NONionized
(D) Facilitated diffusion passive diffusion that uses a special carrier molecule (specialized carrier proteins)
(D) Drug Absorption the movement of the drug from the site of administration into the fluids of the body that will carry it to its site(s) of action.
What determines the bioavailability of a drug? The percent of drug that gets from where it is administered to the bloodstream.
Intravenous drugs are ____% bioavailable. 100%
Drugs that are partially absorbed have a bioavailabilty of... less that one.
The lower the bioavailability of the drug, the more or less drug there is in the tissue? Less, because there is less in the bloodstream.
Factors that affect bioavailability: -Blood supply to target area. -Surface area of absorption (increased surface area means more space for absorption to take place) -Mechanism of drug absorption (EX -diffusion vs active transport) -Drug dosate
(D) first pass effect (or hepatic first pass) Where the drug passes directly to the liver, where the drug is mostly metabolized to an inactive form of the drug for excretion.
On the pH scale, the lower numbers indicate ____ and the higher numbers indicate ____. Lower - acid Higher - Base (alkaline)
(D) Biotransformation the chemical alteration of drug molecules by the body cells of patients to a metabolite that is an activated, inactivated, and/or toxic form.
Weak acids become more ionized as the pH of the environment ____ increases.
Weak bases become more ionized as the pH of the enviornment ____ decreases
(D) Ion Trapping Drugs can pass from one compartment to another that may have a different pH. When the drug changes compartments, it may change ionization, and become trapped in it's new environment.
Oral drugs must be ____ to penetrate the GI mucosa. They must also be ____ to dissolve in the membrane. Lipophilic small
(D) Distribution the physiological movement of drug form the systemic circulation to the tissues.
Factors that affect drug distribution Membrane permeability Tissue perfusion Protein Binding Volume of Distribution
(D) Fenestrations Small holes between cells that allow drug molecules to move in and out of capillaries.
Why is it important to note that the blood-brain barrier and capillaries of the CNS have no fenestrations? This means only very lipophilic drugs can enter.
Acid drugs in an alkaline environment tend to be ____. Charged
Alkaline drugs in an acid environment tend to be ____. Charged
Acid drugs become more ____ at a pH more acidic than it's pKa. Lipophilic
Alkaline drubs become more lipophilic at a pH more ____ than its pKa. alkaline
(D) pKa The pH at which a drug has a 1:1 ration of ionized drug to nonionized drug.
Acid drugs become more _____ when placed in an acid environment. nonionized
Any acid drug placed in an acidic pH environment will produce more drug molecules in the _____ (____) form. nonionized (lipophilic)
Placing an acidic drug in any alkaline pH environment will produce more molecules in the ____ (____) form. ionized (hydrophilic)
Placing an alkaline drug in an acid environment will produce more drug molecules in the ______ (____) form. ionized (hydrophilic)
An alkaline drug placed in an alkaline environment will produce more drug molecules in the ____ (____) form. nonionized (lipophilic)
(D) Tissue perfusion The relative amount of blood supply to an area or body system.
Increased tissue perfusion = increased or decreased drug absorption. INCREASED (rapid absorption)
Why is the equilibrium established between the concentration of bound and unbound drugs important> It allows bound drugs to be released from its binding sites when plasma concentrations of unbound drug diminish.
What is the principle protein in systemic circulation? Where is it produced? Albumin Liver
If an animals has liver disease, what happens to protein binding? Why? Less proteins available for binding, because albumin is produced in the liver. Less protein = more free drug, which means more drug to target tissue. Potential toxicity can occur.
(D) Volume of Distribution How well a drug is distributed throughout the body based on the concentration of drug in the blood.
Increased protein binding = more or less free drug available. Less
The larger the volume of distribution, the ____ the drug concentration in the blood after distribution. Lower
Usually, a metabolite is more _____ (therefore more _____) and less likely to pass through membranes. hydrophilic ionized
Four main ways that drugs undergo biotransformation: Oxidation reactions Reduction reactions Hydrolysis Conjugation (addition of the glucuronic acid molecule, which makes the drug more water soluble)
Primary site of biotransformation.... Liver
The goal of biotransformation is to make drugs more ... water soluble so that they can be excreted in the urine.
4 ways in which drugs interact with each other. Altered absorption Competition for plasma proteins Altered excretion Altered metabolism
Poor nutrition yields inadequate ______ plasma proteins
Increased body temperature increase or decreases rate of drug metabolism? increases
The most important routes of drug elimination are the ____ and _____. Liver and kidney
The rate of glomerular filtration depends on _________ blood pressure.
The higher the volume of blood going through the glomerulus, the higher the blood pressure of the capillaries of the glomerulus, and so.... the greater the number of particles that could potentially be filtered.
The three ways that drugs are eliminated by the kidney: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption
(D) Tubular secretion active transport across the convoluted tubule membrane that moves certain molecules from blood into the urine filtrate.
Tubular reabsorption of drugs occurs in ... the loop of Henle
Tubular reabsorption depends on lipid solubility and molecule size
During tubular reabsorption, a drug that is _____ _____ will have increased reabsorption. lipid soluble
Drugs that are weak acids tend to be better excreted in more ____ urine. Basic
Drugs excreted by the liver usually move by passive diffusion from ____ into the liver cell. blood
_____ drugs that enter the duodenum will reenter the bloodstream and go back to the liver. Lipophilic
_____ drugs entering the duodenum will most likely become part of the feces and be eliminated. Hydrophilic
(D) Half-life the time required for the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by half its original level.
The steady state of a drug is.... the point at which drug accumulation and elimination are balanced.
How will dehydration affect elimination? Dehydrated animals have less vascular fluid volume and so have decreased pressure in the vessels being filtered by le glomeruli.
Low blood protein levels will lead to... less protein-bound drug (more free drug), which may be filtered through the glomerulus before it has had time to work.
Do high affinity drugs or low affinity drugs bind more tightly to a receptor High affinity
(D) Affinity the strength of binding between a drug and its receptor
(D) Agonist a drug that binds to a cell receptor and causes action
(D) Antagonist A drug that inhibits or blocks the response of a cell when the drug is bound to receptors.
(D) Competitive antagonist Competes with the agonist for the same receptors
A noncompetitive antagonist binds to a site different than the agonist's binding site and ... mechanically alters the agonist's receptor which results in a "roadblock" to the action of the agonist.
(D) Clearance rate of elimination for a drug with respect to the concentration of drug in the fluid compartments.
Drug dosage rate = plasma clearance x _________ Bioavailability at steady state
Drugs excreted by the liver (hepatic elimination) usually move by passive diffusion from ___ to ___. Then, they are secreted into ____. This is then secreted into the ____. the blood into the liver cell. Bile Duodenum
Renal Clearance rate = Urinary concentration x Urine flow rate --------------------------------- Plasma concentration
Half life * ___ = steady state 4.7
(D) Efficacy the ability of a drug to induce a response
(D) Potency the amount of drug that is required to elicit a specific response
A full agonist will elicit the maximum response and hence _____ _____. Maximum efficacy.
Created by: ahypnaro