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VT 2100 The Rat

Lab Rat Needs

Order? Rodentia
Define Murine Refers to mice & rats
2 common species of Rats Rattus Rattus Rattus norvegicus
Common name of Rattus Rattus Black Rat
Common name Rattus Norvegicus Brown or Norway Rat
Majority of Lab rats are a Variety of this species.... Rattus Norvegicus
Life span 26-40 months
Weight 267-500g (M) 225-325 (F)
Tail constitutes __% of body length 85%
Tail Functions Balance and Heat Loss
The lacrimal gland is called Harderian Gland
The Harderian gland secretes porphyrin
Term for porhyrin secretions in ill or stressed rats Chromodacryorrhea
define hypsodontic teeth that continuously grow
Which lung is smaller and singular lobed Left
What are the four sections of the right lung lobe? Cranial, middle, accessory, caudal
Define Hibernation Tissue Brown fat
Hibernation Tissue provides __x the energy storage 10x
Where is hibernation tissue found? around the neck in between the scapulas
How many pairs of anterior vena cavas? 2
Rats have what type of stomachs? Monogastric
The stomach is divided into ______ and ______ glandular and nonglandular forestomach
define the limiting ridge structure that separates the two sections of the stomach and covers the esophagus opening
What is responsible for the inability to vomit? The limiting ridge
Define Hindgut fermenter in small intestine contains cecum similar to rumen
Females have ___-___ pairs of mammary glands 4-6
Where are the mammary glands located? the thoracic and inguinal regions
they have a _____ uterus Bicornate
list research involved wit rats Diabetes cataracts obesity immunology
Females are continuously in what stage of reproduction? Polyesteous
How many estrous periods do they have? 4-5 day
Postpartum estrous occurs when? 20-24 hrs after parturition
When does weaning occur? 3-4weeks
Puberty occurs when for females 37-67 days
Puberty occurs when for males? 40-75 days
Length of gestation 21-23 Days
Litter size 6-13 pups
Pups develop hair in 7-10days
Pups ears open in 3-5 days
Pups eyes open in 7-14days
Pups eat solid food by the end of second week
Vaginal plug made of dried semen and vaginal secretions
how long does the vaginal plug last for? 24 hours
What can the presence of a vaginal plug tell us? confirms breeding
Define monogamous 1 Female and 1 Male
define Polygamous 1 male and 2+ Females
define Intensive reproduction continuous housing of male and female
define Non-intensive reproduction separate housing of male and females
Define Stock randomly bred
define outbred randomly bred
common outbred stocks are Sprague-Dawley (SD) Long-Evans (LE) Winstar (WI)
When describing a stock what is used to separate the description and source a colon
define strain inbred
define inbred at least 20 generations of bro sis or parent offspring
Goal of inbreeding to develop a strain that are genetically homozygous
Common inbred strains are Albany (ALB) Buffalo (BUF)
Strain is designated in..... Upper case
A substrain follows a slant line
Define Coisogenic strain the develops from genetic mutation
define congenic mutations transferred to another strain threw backcross mating
define hybrid mating between two different inbred strains
define transgenic removing DNA and inserting it into a ovum after fertilization
a group of rats is called a Mischief
housing temp 65-75 degrees
housing Humidity 40-60%
cause of ring tail is low humidity
Normal water consumption 22-33ml/day
normal food consumption 15-20g/day
pregnant or lactating require ___x more food 4x
grabbing a rat by the tail causes a _____ injury degloving
Restraint devices boxes or cones
permanent ID systems tattooing, ear punch/tag, microchpping
IV injections sites Saphenous Jugular Femoral or latteral tail vein
most commonly used IV injection site Lateral tail vein
_____ and _____ helps vessel visualization Heat and vasodialtion oils
Which IV injections require anesthesia saphenous, jugular, and femoral
SQ injection needle gauge 21g or smaller
SQ injection site scruff
IM injection site quadriceps, gluteals, and triceps
IM injection needle gauge 22g or smaller
IP injection site spine in abdominal wall
define oral Gauge feeding needle into esophagus for meds
how do you determine depth of anesthesia toe pinch reflex
major concern with general anesthesia hypothermia
total blood volume in rats 50ml/kg
no more than ___% of blood can be taken 10
Small amounts of blood can be taken from tail/toenail clip
large amounts of blood can be taken from tail veins
general anesthesia requires blood collection from retoorbital plexus jugular femoral
what type of tube is used for large amount of blood EDTA
what type of tube is used for small amounts of blood heparinized capillary tubes
caustive agent for murine respiratory mycoplasmosis mycoplasma pulmonis
what helps control myco? oxytetracycline in water
Common chronic bacterial infection murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
disease reported in all lab animals Tyzzer's disease
Caustive agent for tyzzer's disease bacillus piliformis
Tyzzer's disease confirmed by ELISA testing
Tyzzer's is transmitted by gecal oral route
Clinical signs of Tyzzer's disease anorexia and diarrhea
grey foci found on liver, spleen, heart
Treatment of Tyzzer's disease Tetracycline
Healthy rats harbor/carry what bacteria in the URT? Pasterurellosis
Pasteurellosis clinical signs UR infection abscesses
Treatment of Pasterurellosis oxytetracuclin
What is found in the nasopharynx of healthy rats streptovacillosis
Rat bite fever or hay fever also known as streptobacillosis
Caustive agent of streptobacllosis streptobacillus moniliformis
what disease can be transmited to humans from rat bites streptobacillosis (ratbite/hay fever)
Signs of Sialodacryoadenitis swollen salivary harderian glands cornea dessication
Most signification viral disease in rats sialodacryoadenitis
What is subclinical in rats but can kill mouses sendia virus
Aka Ringworm Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Common Nematodes Aspicularis Tetraptera Syphacia
Moniliformis Thorny headed worm
The dwarf tape worm Hymenolepis nana
Which parasite is zoonotic Hymenolepis nana
Exceptable methods of euthanasia Barbiturate overdose Co2 chamber Decapitation Exsanguination
What can be used in euthanasia if sedation cannot Dip in liquid nitrogen
Husbandry related diseases Fighting trauma Barbering Ringtail malocclusion
Created by: LittleLette