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VetMed FAMS1

VetMed FAMS Exam #1

QuestionAnswer
Pododermatitis circumscripta Rusterholz ulcer Sole ulcer
Pododermatitis aspetica diffusa Laminitis
Dermatitis digitalis Hairy Heel Wart
Interdigital phlegmon Foot Rot
Dermatitis interdigitalis Stable foot rot Interdigital Dermatitis
Hyperplasia interdigitalis Interdigital fibroma Corns
Ungulae deformans Overgrown Hooves
Fissura ungulae Thimbles Horizontal Wall Crack
Fissura ungulae Sand crack Vertical Wall Crack
Underrun heel Slurry heel Heel Horn Erosion
Normal rectal temp for Adult cow 100.5-102.5F
Normal rectal temp for Calf 101-103F
Normal HR for Adult cow 48-84bpm
Normal HR for Calf 70-100bpm
Normal RR for Adult cow 15-45bpm
Dental Arcade: 18mos 1st permanent incisors
Dental Arcade: 2.5 yrs 2nd permanent incisors
Dental Arcade: 3 yrs 3rd permanent incisors
Dental Arcade: 4 yrs 4th permanent incisors
aseptic necrosis and granulation of horn at sole-bulb junction, usually on lateral claws of hind feet Sole Ulcer
supplement used to help prevent/correct dietary subclinical acidosis that often leads to laminitis biotin (20mg SID)
often a sequelae to Chronic Laminitis White Line Disease
condition secondary to interdigital dermatitis that can form a heel horn flap that develops into a "false sole" Heel Horn Erosion
digital lesion caused by spirochetes (Treponema denticola) Hairy Heel Wart
most common cause of lameness in Dairy Hairy Heel Wart
extremely painful digital lesion usually found on the plantar surface of hind feet either ulcerative or proliferative Hairy Heel Wart
interdigital cellulitis and deep tissue invasion by nonmotile, anaerobic gram-negative bacteria Foot Rot
bacterial agents of Foot Rot Fusobacterium necrophorum Bacteroides melaninogenicus
rapid onset of severe lameness swelling, erythema between and above digit Beef yearling Foot Rot
most common cause of lameness in Beef Foot Rot
Treatment for Foot Rot oxytetracycline procaine penicillin G ceftiofur amoxicillin trihydrate florfenicol
superficial inflammation and fissures in digital skin between heel bulbs that is very painful and odorous Interdigital Dermtitis
chronic irritation between digits of older cows that may cause lameness Corns
"rocker" or "slipper" claws Overgrown Hooves
hoof wall rolls under solar surface, usually on lateral claws of hind feet and medial claws of fore feet Corkscrew Claws
Treatment for Septic Arthritis of Distal Interphalangeal Joint digit amputation through P2 digit salvage through facilitated ankylosis
swollen from foot caudodorsally to fetlock DDF breakdown history of cellulitis, septic arthritis Septic Tenosynovitis
Normal pH of Rumen 6.0-6.8
prominent gram-positive bacteria in acute acidosis Lactobacillus spp.
increased incidence of lameness in dairy herd milk has had lower fat concentration check blood pH = Normal Subacute Acidosis (SARA) --> rumenocentesis to Dx (pH<5.5)
What is Poloxalene used for? To treat primary ruminal tympany ("frothy bloat")
Treatment of Primary Ruminal Tympany or "frothy bloat" Poloxalene Mineral oil Abx PO Do NOT aspirate
Most common cause of acute transient off-feed cows Simple Indigestion
anorexia for hay and grain large L-shaped rumen papple-shaped abdomen decreased fecal output small, fluid-filled abomasum Failure of Omasal Transport (TRP)
anorexia for hay and grain large L-shaped rumen papple-shaped abdomen decreased fecal output and scant, watery feces absence of reticular contractions ingesta-filled, pasty abomasum Functional Pyloric Stenosis (TRP)
Type 1 Ulcer non-perforating minimal intraluminal hemorrhage
Type 2 Ulcer non-perforating severe blood loss (erodes over major vessel)
Type 3 Ulcer perforating local peritonitis
Type 4 Ulcer perforating diffuse peritonitis
Treatment for Ulcers in Beef Calves increase suckling frequency to q3h antacids - Al(OH)3, Mg(OH)2 histamine type-2 antagonists - ramitidine, ometidine proton-pump inhibitors - omeprazole
Most common cause of SI obstruction in cattle, esp. bulls Intussusception
Form of Intestinal Volvulus that does NOT recur and has a good prognosis Intestinal Volvulus @ jejuno-ileal junction
Form of Intestinal Volvulus that CAN recur and has a poor prognosis Intestinal Volvulus @ root of mesentery
SI luminal obstruction sequela to C. perfringens A causing blood clots in jejunum seen in high producing dairy cows such as Brown Swiss Hemorrhagic Jejunitis "Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome"
Treatment for Hemorrhagic Jejunitis Procaine Penicillin G ASAP Decrease availability of soluble CHO
Causes of Cecocolic Dilation xylazine hypocalcemia digesta pH decrease sympathetic activation (abdominal pain)
cow presents for being off feed, low fecal output, ADR right paralumbar fossa "ping" caudal to 10th rib palpate distended large viscous cecum Cecocolic Dilation
cow presents for being off feed, no observed defecation, ADR tachycardic, "ping" caudal to 10th rib palpated distended large bowel and cecum acid/base, e- normal Cecocolic Volvulus
Treatment for Cecocolic Volvulus Sx - typhlotomy pre-op NSAIDs
Signalment for Atresia Coli Holsteins
Infectious Agent of Johne's Disease Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis
Susceptibility of M. avium paratuberculosis acidic conditions (pH<6) high salinity
Anatomical Predisposition of M. avium paratuberculosis in cattle ileum and cecum
Pathognomonic Clinical Sign for Johne's Disease chronic profuse watery diarrhea
Infectious Agent of "Wooden Tongue" Actinobacillus lignieresii (G- coccobacillus)
Infectious Agent of "Lumpy Jaw" Actinomycosis bovis (G+ rod)
Treatment for "Wooden Tongue" systemic oxytetracycline sodium iodine IV (compound yourself)
Treatment for "Lumpy Jaw" procaine penicillin G sodium iodine IV
Location of Anesthetic Block for Dehorning cornual branch of lacrimal nerve (halfway b/w horn and eye)
Toxic dose of Lidocaine calf: 6 mg/kg adult: 13 mg/kg
Most humane dehorning procedure electrocautery + local block + Barnes dehorner
Correct location to enter abdomen for Surgery at 3 o'clock or 9 o'clock (head is @12, tail @6)
Nonsurgical methods of Castration elastrator band Burdizzo (emasculatome) chemical
Surgical methods of Castration emasculator Newberry knife
Nerves blocked with a Paravertebral block T13, L1, L2
Locations of lidocaine injections for distal paravertebral block tips of transverse processes of L1, L2, L4
Locations of lidocaine injections for proximal paravertebral block cranial to transverse processes of L1, L2, L3
Classic presentation of cow with LDA fresh cow acute milk drop ketosis ADR ping on L side b/w 10th and 13th ribs
Surgical treatment of LDA with lowest incidence of post-op mortality Right Flank Pyloric Omentopexy
PE of cow with RDA ping on R side b/w 10th and 13th ribs
PE of cow with Abomasal Volvulus ping on R side extending from 13th rib cranial to 10th rib medially displaced liver
Lab findings for cow with DA metabolic alkalosis hypocalcemia hyponatremia hypochloremia hypokalemia tachycardia elevated ALP if liver injury dT congeston dehydration
Changes in Milk Composition with Mastitis variable fat changes decreased: lactose, casein, Ca, P, K increased: Na, Cl, pH (>6.8), whey proteins
Normal pH of Milk 6.5-6.8
Pathogens that cause Contagious Mastitis Streptococcus agalactiae Staphylococcus aureus Mycoplasma bovis Corynebacterium bovis
Pathogens that cause Environmental Mastitis Coliforms - E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter Streptococci other than S. agalactiae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serratia marcescens Nocardia spp.
causes "blue bag" mastitis Staphylococcus aureus
most prevalent pathogen in prelactional heifers coagulase-negative staphylococcus - "heifer mastitis"
Pathogen that causes contagious "summer mastitis" Corynebacterium bovis
Pathogen that causes environmental "summer mastitis" Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Best method of closing full-thickness teat wounds 3-layer closer (mucosa, submucosa, skin)
smooth, mineralized concretions floating freely in the teat cistern Lactoliths
pedunculated masses protruding into teat cistern and attached to wall by small stalk Polyp
scar tissue in the wall of the teat cistern Mural plaque (teat spider)
Factors that determine Severity of Diarrhea infective dose virulence of pathogen age of calf immune status
5YO Jersey/Holstein cow that calved 3 days ago history of milk fever given a diet high in calcium sub-norm temp, tachypneic, tachycardic slightly bloated with head turned back to L flank dry muzzle, anorexic, non-responsive Hypocalcemia or "milk fever"
Treatment of hypocalcemia give IV calcium, monitor, give more calcium PO/IV PRN collect blood and be ready to run if calcium doesn't work
Actions of PTH increases: serum Ca, urine P, skeletal remodeling, production of active Vit D decreases: serum P, urine Ca
Actions of Calcitonin increases: urine P, bone formation decreases: serum Ca, bone resorption, GI absorption
Created by: 26509889