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A&PI -Ch 4

Tissue the Living Fabric - Connective Tissue

primary tissue; functions include support, storage, and protection; found everywhere in body; most abundant and widely distributed tissue, but amount in particular organs varies connective tissue
connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone tissue, and blood four main classes of connective tissue
binding/support, protection, insulation, as blood transportation of substance within body major function of connective tissue
all connective tissues arise from __, hence have a common origin mesenchyme
mesenchyme is an __ tissue embryonic
different types of connective tissue have varying degrees of __ vascularity
connective tissue that is avascular cartilage
connective tissue that is poorly vascularized dense connective tissue
nonliving material in connective tissue consisting of ground substance and fibers that separates living cells - forms lrg parts of CT extracellular matrix
connective tissues are composed largely of __ extracellular matrix nonliving
ground substance, fibers, and cells are three main __ of connective tissues elements
make up the extracellular matrix ground substance and fibers
unstructured material that fills space btwn cells and contains fibers in connective tissues; composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans ground substance
fibronectin and laminin; serve mainly as connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach themselves to matrix elements cell adhesion proteins
consist of protein core to which glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are attached proteoglycans
strand-like; chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, largely - charged polysaccharides that stick out from core protein like fibers of bottle brush glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
proteoglycans form huge aggregates in which __ intertwine and tap water, forming substance that varies from fluid to viscous gel GAGs
higher the GAG content, the more __ the ground substance viscous
ground substance holds lrg amounts of fluid, and functions as molecular sieve through which nutrients and other dissolved substance can diffuse btwn blood __ and the cells capillaries
are embedded in ground substance making it less pliable and hinder diffusion somewhat; provide support fibers
collagen, elastic, and reticular are the __ __ found in connective tissues three fibers
constructed primarily of the fibrous protein collagen; collagen molecules secreted into extracellular space, assembling spontaneously into cross-linked fibrils, in turn bundled into thick collagen fibers
because of cross-linking of fibrils, collagen fibers are extremely tough and provide ability to resist longitudinal stress to matrix, or high tensile strength
collagen fibers are also called __ __, because when they are fresh they have glistening white appearance white fibers
long, thin fibers that form branching networks in extracellular matrix; contain elastin elastic fibers
rubber-like protein that allows fibers to stretch and recoil like rubber bands elastin
short, fine, collagenous fibers w/slightly different chemistry and form; continuous w/collagen fibers and branch extensively forming delicate networks surrounding small blood vessel and support soft tissues of organs reticular fibers
network reticul
reticular fibers are abundant where connective tissue abuts other __ __ tissue types
undifferentiated cells, of connective tissue, are indicated by the suffix -blast
young, actively mitotic cell that forms the fibers of connective tissue; flat, branching cells that appear spindle shaped in profile; connective tissue proper fibroblast
actively mitotic cell of cartilage chondroblast
bone-forming cells osteoblast
undifferentiated blast cell that produces blood cells hematopoietic stem cell
once they synthesize the matrix, the blast cells assume their less active, mature mode, indicate by the suffix -cyte
connective tissue proper cells fibroblasts and fibrocytes
chondroblasts found in growing cartilage and chondrocytes cartilage cells
bone cells osteoblasts and osteocytes
WBC (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes), and other cell types concerned w/tissue response to injury, such as mast cells and macrophages, travel into connective tissue matrix from bloodstream are considered mobile cells
immune cells that function to detect foreign substances in tissue spaces and initiate local inflammatory responses against them; typically found clustered deep to an epithelium or along blood vessels mast cells
stuffed full of granules mast
in mast cells a visible __ __ containing several chemicals that mediate inflammation secretory granules
heparin, histamine, and proteases are the visible secretory granules in __ cells mast
anticoagulation chemical that prevents blood clotting when free in bloodstream heparin
in human mast cells, heparin appears to __ to and __ action of other mast cell chemicals bind; regulate
substance that makes capillaries leaky histamine
protein-degrading enzymes; any of numerous enzymes that hydrolyze proteins and are classified according to most prominent functional group (as serine or cysteine) at active site proteases
large macro
eat phago
large, irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize broad variety of foreign material, ranging from foreign material to entire bacteria to dust particles macrophages
macrophages dispose of dead tissue cells, and are central actors in the __ __ immune system
in connective tissues, macrophages may be attached to connective tissue fibers, __, or may __ freely throughout the matrix fixed; migrate
macrophages in the liver are called Kupffer cells
macrophages of spleen primarily dispose of aging __ RBCs
mesenchyme has fluid ground substance containing fine sparse fibers and star-shaped __ cells mesenchymal
fluid ground substance of mesenchyme arises during early weeks of embryonic development and eventually __ into all other connective tissue cells differentiates
act/process of specialization, as occurs in progressive diversification of cells and tissues of embryo differentiation
some mesenchymal remain and provide source of new cells in __ connective tissues mature
except for bone, cartilage and blood all mature connective tissues belong to this class connective tissue proper
support/bind other tissues, hold body fluids, defend against infection, store nutrients as fat are functions of areolar connective tissue
structural feature of areolar connective tissue is the __ __ of its fibers loose arrangement
a small open space, in Latin areola
the matrix of areolar connective tissue, occupied by ground substance, appears to be __ __, other than loose fibers, when viewed through a microscope empty space
because of loose nature, areolar connective tissue provides reservoir of __ and __ for surrounding body tissues water; salt
areolar connective tissue always holds approximately as much fluid as there is in the entire __ bloodstream
all body cells obtain their nutrients from and release their wastes into the __ __ of areolar connective tissue tissue fluid
because areolar connective tissue's ground substance has a high concentration of hyaluronic acid it is quite __, which may hinder movement of cells through it viscous
some WBCs secrete enzyme __ to liquefy the ground substance of areolar connective tissue to ease their passage hyaluronidase
areolar connective tissue serves as a kind of __ __ between other tissues packing material
highly vascular layer of connective tissue under the basement membrane lining a layer of epithelium lamina propria
areolar connective tissue is present in all __ membranes mucous
similar to areolar connective tissue in structure and function, buts its nutrient-storing ability is much greater adipose tissue
an adipose, or fat, cell; predominate and account for 90% of this tissue's mass adipocyte
adipose tissue __ is scanty and cells are packed tightly together matrix
almost pure triglyceride, occupies most of a fat cell's volume and displaces nucleus to one side so that only a thin rim of surrounding cytoplasm is seen oil droplet
are among the largest cells in the body mature adipocytes
adipose tissue is highly vascularized, indicating its __ __ activity high metabolic
store nutrients mainly for other cells white adipose tissue
contain abundant mitochondria, which use lipid fuels to heat bloodstream to warm body; richly vascular and occurs only in babies who lack ability to produce body heat by shivering brown adipose tissue
brown adipose tissue deposits are located between __ __ or on anterior __ wall shoulder blades; abdominal
fibroblasts are called reticular cells
reticular __ are located throughout the body fibers
reticular __ are limited to certain sites tissues
basic internal structural framework of an organ stroma
forms stroma that can support many free blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow reticular connective tissue
three varieties of dense connective tissue have __ as their prominent element fibers
often referred to as fibrous connective tissue dense connective tissue
contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in same direction, parallel to direction of pull dense regular connective tissue
arrangement of dense regular connective tissue results in white, flexible structures w/great __ to tension where tension is exerted in single direction resistance
in dense regular connective tissue, crowded between collagen fibers are rows of __, that continually manufacture fibers and scant ground substance fibroblasts
because collagen fibers are slightly wavy, this allows tissue to __ a little stretch
in dense regular connective tissue, once collagen fibers are straightened out by pulling force, there is __ __ give to this tissue no further
dense regular connective tissue has __ cells, other than fibroblasts, and is poorly __ few; vascularized
dense regular connective tissue has enormous __ strength tensile
formed from dense regular connective tissue; cords that attach muscles to bone tendons
formed from dense regular connective tissue; flat, sheetlike tendons that attach muscle to other muscles/bones aponeuroses
formed from dense regular connective tissue; fibrous membrane that wraps around muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together fascia
formed from dense regular connective tissue; binds bones together at joints; contain more elastic fibers and slightly more stretchable than tendons ligaments
has same structural elements as regular variety except bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and their arrangement gives them their name dense irregular connective tissue
in dense irregular connective tissue, collagen fibers run in more than one __ plane
dense irregular connective tissue forms sheets in body areas where tension is exerted from __ __ directions many different
dense irregular connective tissue is found in skin as __ __ leathery dermis
dense irregular connective tissue forms fibrous __ __ joint capsules
dense irregular connective tissue forms __ __ that surround some organs (kidneys, bones, cartilages, muscles, and nerves) fibrous coverings
medium ligament of back of neck; composed of yellow elastic tissue; assists in supporting of head ligamenta nuchae
any within series of ligaments that connects laminae of adjacent vertebrae, from axis-sacrum; consists of yellow elastic tissue ligamenta flava
dense regular connective tissue that is very elastic, as in ligamenta nuchae/flava elastic connective tissue
white, semi-opaque connective tissue; stands up to tension and compression; tough but flexible, provides resilient rigidity to structures it supports cartilage
qualities of cartilage are __ between dense connective tissue and bone intermediate
cartilage lacks __ fibers and is __ nerve; avascular
cartilage receives its nutrients by __ from blood vessels located in connective tissue membrane surrounding it diffusion
membrane of fibrous connective tissue that envelopes cartilage, except at joints perichondrium
contains large amounts of GAGs chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid; firmly bound collagen fibers (sometimes elastic also), and it quite firm cartilage ground substance
resists compression because of large amounts of water held in it; functions to cushion and support body structures general features of cartilage matrix
predominant cell types in growing cartilage; produce new matrix until skeleton stops growing at end of adolescence chondroblasts
firmness of cartilage matrix prevents cells from becoming widely __ separated
typically found in small groups within lacunae; mature cartilage cells chondrocytes
one of minute cavities in cartilage (or bone); is occupied by chondrocytes lacunae
aging cartilage cells lose ability to __, so injured cells heal __ divide; slowly
during later life cartilages tend to __ or __ calcify; ossify
to change (as cartilage) into bone ossify
to become calcareous (consisting of or contain calcium carbonate/calcium) calcify
each dominated by particular fiber type; hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage are subclasses of cartilage
most abundant cartilage type in the body; large numbers of collagen fibers that are not apparent hyaline cartilage
another name for hyaline cartilage is gristle
appears amorphous and glassy blue-white when viewed by unaided eye hyaline cartilage matrix
chondrocytes account for only 1-10% of cartilage __ volume
hyaline cartilage provides firm support with some __ pliability
hyaline cartilage covers ends of long bones as articular cartilage
articular cartilage provides springy pads that absorb __ at joints compression
cartilage that supports tip of nose, connects ribs to sternum, and supports most of respiratory system passages hyaline
most of __ __ formed of hyaline cartilage before bone is formed embryonic skeleton
persists during childhood as epiphyseal plates skeletal hyaline cartilage
actively growing regions near ends of long bones that provides for continued growth in length epiphyseal plates
elastic cartilage is histologically, nearly __ to hyaline cartilage; however, there are more elastic fibers identical
found where strength and exceptional stretchability are needed; forms skeletons of external ear and epiglottis elastic cartilage
flap that covers opening to respiratory passageway when swallowing, prevents food/fluid from entering lungs epiglottis
perfect structural intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissues fibrocartilage
in fibrocartilage, its rows of chondrocytes __ with rows of thick collagen fibers alternate
because fibrocartilage is __ and resists __ well, it is found where strong support and ability to withstand heavy pressure are required compressible; tension
resilient cushions between bony vertebrae intervertebral discs
intervertebral discs and menisci of knee are examples of fibrocartilage structures
either of 2 crescent-shaped lamellae of fibrocartilage; border and partly cover articulating surfaces of tibia/femur at knee menisci
connective tissue that forms bony skeleton bone/osseous tissue
because of rock-like hardness bone has exceptional ability to __ and __ body structures support; protect
bone of skeleton provide __ for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells cavities
hard tissue that resists both compression and tension; functions in support general features of bone
inorganic calcium salts located in bone matrix are also called bone salts
produce organic portion of bone matrix, and then bone salts deposited on and btwn fibers osteoblasts
mature bone cells; reside in lacunae within matrix they have made osteocytes
closely packed structural units formed of concentric rings of bony matrix that surround a central canal (Haversian canal) containing blood vessels and nerves serving bone osteons
unlike cartilage, which is next firmest connective tissue, bone is well __ by invading blood vessels supplied
fluid that circulates in blood vessels, carrying nourishment/O2 to/bringing away waste products from all parts of body blood
blood is most __ connective tissue because it does not connect things/give support atypical
connective tissue because develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells, surrounded by blood plasma blood classification
nonliving fluid matrix of blood blood plasma
vast majority of blood cells are red blood cells (RBCs)
neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils are white blood cells (WBCs)
soluble protein molecules that precipitate, forming fiber-like structure during clotting blood fibers
blood __ as transport vehicle for cardio sys., carrying nutrients, wastes, resp. gases, and many other substances throughout body functions
subclasses of loose connective tissue are areolar, adipose, and reticular
subclasses of dense connective tissue are regular, irregular, and elastic
cells of connective tissue proper fibroblasts, fibrocytes, defense cells, fat cells
gel-like ground substance; all 3 fibers types: collagen, reticular, elastic connective tissue proper matrix
subclasses of connective tissue proper loose/dense connective tissue
6 different types; vary in density/types of fibers; functions as binding tissue; resists mechanical stress, particularly tension general features of connective tissue proper
subclasses of bone compact and spongy
cells of bone osteoblasts and osteocytes
gel-like ground substance calcified w/inorganic salts; fibers: collagen bone matrix
erythrocytes (RBCs), leukocytes (WBCs), and platelets blood cells
blood matrix consists of __ and there are no fibers plasma
anything outside of CT cells is __ matrix extracellular
fillers around ground substance & fibers is __ substance ground
ground substance; fibers, all 3 types; cells: fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic stem cells (as well as mature cells) structural elements of connective tissues
ground substance consists of __ fluid interstitial
act as glue btwn cells and matrix in ground substance of CT adhesion proteins
protein cores w/attached GAGs proteoglycans
trap water forming fluid to viscous medium through which proteins diffuse btwn capillaries and cells glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
widely distributed under epithelia of body, forms lamina propria of mucous membranes, packages organs, & surrounds capillaries areolar loose connective tissue
located under skin in hypodermis; around kidneys & eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts adipose loose connective tissue
located in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow & spleen) reticular loose connective tissue
located in tendons, most ligaments & aponeuroses dense regular connective tissue
located in fibrous capsules of organs & joints; dermis of skin; submucosa of digestive tract dense irregular connective tissue
located in walls of large arteries (aorta); within certain ligaments associated w/vertebral column; within wall of bronchial tubes elastic dense connective tissue
forms most of embryonic skeleton; covers ends of ling bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of ribs; cartilages of nose, trache & larynx hyaline cartilage
supports external ear (pinna); epiglottis elastic cartilage
forms intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joints fibrocartilage
forms bones osseous tissue
Created by: lfrancois



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