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Pave 5 review

pave exam

Most common in dairy cattle within one month of parturition or prepartum LDA & RDA
Due to hypocalcemia resulting in abomosal atony LDA & RDA
Leads to metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia, hypokalemia due to sequestration of acid, chlorine & potassium in abomasums LDA & RDA
Left 5-10x more common than right
Left-sided ping between ribs 9-13 LDA
Normal TPR,Anorexia, decreased production, ketosis, Diarrhea is poor px sign LDA & RDA
Treatment - roll cow, but recurrence likely,Surgical correction with omentopexy or abomasopexy LDA & RDA
RDA can become Abomasal volvulus
Dairy cows near parturition w/ sudden drop in milk prod,Usu counterclockwise from rear,Very sick, clinical signs more severe dt vascular compromise,Rt sided ping, palpable,Treatment is surgery,Poor prognosis Abomasal volvulus
Most common in high-producing dairy cows in first 6 weeks of production,Stress decreases protective prostagl Abomasal ulcers
Ulceration at the ventral portion of the fundic region of the greater curvature,See melena,anorexia, occult blood, abdominal pain Abomasal ulcers
is significant cause of bleeding ulcers in older cattle LSA
Bleeding ulcers don’t perforate & perforating ulcers (seen in calves) don’t bleed
Pregnant beef cattle in winter with poor quality feed Abomasal impaction
Left Ping LDA, pneumoperitoneum, atonic rumen
Right Ping Spiral colon, rectum/colon, RDA, RAV (palpable)
Herd problem: IBR, BVD, brucellosis, leptospirosis, campylobacteriosis, trichomoniasis, anaplasmosis,ureaplasmas, mycoplasmas Abortion in Cattle
Mycotic (Aspergillus, Mucor spp)Reach uterus hematogenously cause late term abortion in cattle
Dx via culture of fetal tissue abortion due to mycosis
Also Listeria, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus,bluetonque,Nitrates, lupine, locoweed, mycotoxins can cause abortion in cattle
Most common infectious cause of abortion in horses is Equine Herpes 1, last trimester
Equine viral arteritis less frequent cause of abortion in horses
EVA & EH1 Vax available for both diseases
Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichic coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodococcus equi, Actinobacillus equuli Causes sporadic abortion in horses
These infections occur through ascending infection via the cervix Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichic coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodococcus equi, Actinobacillus equuli
Twin pregnancies in horses often result in abortion
Crush the smallest embryo at day 22-25 after confirmation of pregnancy Tx for twin pregnancy in horses
Most common cause of abortion is campylobacteriosis sheep
Campylobacteriosis Infection via ingestion of organisms
Late-term abortion of edematous fetus,liver with gray necrotic foci,Carrier sheep shed organisms in feces, uterine discharges, aborted fetuses Campylobacteriosis
Culture & ID organism in fetal abomasal fluid & liver Campylobacteria
Vaccinate ewes at breeding,booster at second month gestation Campylobacteriosis
Toxoplasma gondii – protozoan, life cycle is completed in the cat
Abortion & still births in sheep, pigs, & goats Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii White foci in cotyledons, leukoencephalomalacia
Chlamydia psittaci in sheep late-term abortion
Sheep-Exposure via ingestion, inhalation or venereal,Fetus well-preserved or mummified chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydia psittaci in sheep Placentitis most consistent finding
Leptospirosis in sheep late-term abortions
Listeriosis late-term abortion, birth of weak lambs,Slight to marked autolysis of fetus, fluid in serous cavities, necrotic foci in liver, lung & spleen
Erosions in abomasal mucosa,CNS deficits,Man can be affected Listeriosis
Akabane virus disease arthrogryposis, hydrancephaly
Pigs Vaccinations parvovirus, pseudorabies, enterovirus, brucellosis, leptospirosis can affect reproductive performance
Vaccinate sows & gilts against leptospirosis, parvovirus & erysipelas
Also permit >21 day exposure to herd before breeding to allow natural exposure to endemic herd pathogens including parvovirus & enteroviruses that can cause reproductive failure
Parvovirus Early fetal resorption, reduced litter size, mummies Due to persistence of maternal immunity in gilts until sexual maturity, exposure at breeding time
Pseudorabies Abortion, stillbirths, mummies, weak pigs,Also fever, respiratory signs, nervous signs
Brucellosis Venereal
Leptospirosis – L interrogans one of most common causes of reproductive failure
L Pomona is late term abortion
L Bratislava commonly id in serologic surveys in midwest US but NOT affected w/ abortion or repro problems
Abortion induced in Cow PGF2 up to 4th month
Months 5-8 PGF2 & Dexamethasone combination for induced abortion in cow
PG for abortion only Mare
May need double dose or repeated treatment at 48 hour intervals after 4th month PG for abortion in mare
Douching of uterus also works at any stage of pregnancy Abortion in mare
for live foal only after cervix has begun to relax & colostrum is in udder oxytocin for use in mare
PGF2 can be used after day 40 Small animal
Dexamethasone 10 days produces fetal death & resorption Small animal
Phenothiazine tranquilizer,Block release & uptake of dopamine in the CNS,Also has anticholinergic, antihistaminic, antispasmodic & alpha-adrenergic blocking effects Acepromazine
Acepromazine Depresses RAS,Administer atropine to counteract bradycardic effects
Adverse effects Precipitates seizures,-RR,-arterial BP,+CVP, bradycardia, sinoatrial arrest,Bradycardia negated by physiological response to decreased BP Acepromazine
Causes extrusion of penis in male large animals,No analgesic effects Acepromazine
Positive effects - Antidysrhythmic effects,Inhibit arrhythmias induced by ultra-short barbiturates, halothane, Epinephrine Acepromazine
Reduces halothane-induced malignant hyperthermia in pigs Acepromazine
Contraindications - Decrease dose in animals with hepatic dysfunction, cardiac disease,Contraindicated in patients w/ hypovolemia, shock, tetanus, strychnine Acepromazine
If there is no displacement, fractures treated conservatively w/ Ehmer sling & restricted Activity,Bone plates & screws used for internal fixation Acetabelar
Acetaminophen poisoning Tylenol
Clinical signs - Hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia,Dark-colored urine,Icterus, facial edema,lethargy Acetaminophen poisoning
Clin path - Heinz body anemia, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria Acetaminophen poisoning
Therapy - N-acetylcysteine (Mucomist) Acetaminophen poisoning
Acrodermatitis Lethal familial zinc deficiency in white bull terriers
Retarded growth, progressive, acral, hyperkeratotic dermatitis, pustular dermatits at mucocutaneous jxns,Death by 2 yrs of age Acrodermatitis
Acute Abdomen Syndrome Acute presentation, showing systemic signs, abdomen painful, distended, V/D, weakness,Major categories are bacterial sepsis, obstruction/perforation, ischemia/thrombosis
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone,Suppresses excretion of urine
Has specific effect on the epithelial cells of the renal tubules ADH
Stimulates the resorption of water, resulting in concentration of urine ADH
Adrenal Gl&s Endocrine gl&, Adrenal cortex Three zones
Zona glomerulosa (outer) secretes mineralocorticoids
Zona fasciculata (middle) layer secretes glucocorticoids
Zona reticularis (inner) secretes sex steroids
Accessory cortical tissue seen as small nodules in aged dogs is common & nonfunctional
Adrenal Medulla Modified sympathetic nervous system ganglion
Secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine adrenal medulla Important role in response to stress or hypoglycemia
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone regulates ion transport of epithelial cells, resulting in excretion of K+ & conservation of Na+
Glucocorticoids Regulate carbohydrate, protein & lipid metabolism resulting in sparing of glucose & lipolysis
Glucocorticoids suppress inflammatory & immunologic responses
Can have negative effect on wound healing due to inhibition of fibroblast proliferation & collagen synthesis glucocorticoids
Sex hormones Progesterone, estrogens, &
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Cat lungworm
Life cycle includes snail first host,frog, lizard, bird or rodent vector aelurostrongylus abstrusus encysted larvae
Cat eats transport host, larvae migrate from stomach to lungs & embed in lung tissue Eggs form nodules in alveolar ducts, larvae hatch, coughed up, swallowed & passed in feces,Larvae in feces have dorsally spined tails aelurostrongylus abstrsus
Causes coughing, dyspnea,Treatment is levamisole aelurostrongylus abstrusus
African Swine Fever Iridovirus
Highly contagious viral disease that resembles hog cholera & is therefore REPORTABLE ASF
Eradicated from western hemisphere ASF
Replicates in RE cells, found in all fluids & tissues, No vaccine ASF
Ornithodoros ticks are vectors,Oronasal exposure,Survivors carriers for life ASF
Clinical signs include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, eye discharge, abortion, death,Hemorrhage of lymph nodes, renal cortex, splenomegaly (bigger than in hog cholera) Excessive pleural, pericardial & peritoneal f luids ASF
Air Sacculitis Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Causes respiratory tract infection in chickens,High rate of carcass,condemnation,Caseous exudates Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Aldosterone The main mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
Regulates electrolyte & water balance by promoting retention of Na+ & the excretion of K+,Retention of water induces an increase in plasma volume & an increase in blood pressure Aldosterone
Secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by angiotensin II
Aleutian Disease Parvoviral infection of mink resulting in immune complex formation & deposition, No vaccine
Alimentary Lymphosarcoma Most have normal or low peripheral lymphocytes,Nonresponsive IBD,Can be diffuse or multinodular,Dx w/ full thickness biopsy,Very difficult to treat
Alkalosis incHCO3,incTCO2
hyperventilation causes alkalosis
Cow saliva rich in HCO3 (horse saliva rich in Cl-)
Amyloidosis Consists of B pleated sheets of amino acids, refractory to enzymatic breakdown,2 major amyloid proteins,AA released from hepatocytes due to chronic infection,AL composed of partially degraded immunoglobulin light chains produced by malignant plasma cells
Disease caused by displacement of normal cells with amyloid deposits, mainly liver, spleen, brain & kidneys Amyloidosis
Anal Sac Disease Hematochezia, Chronic bright red blood w/ normal stools
Anaplasmosis Anaplasma marginale,Rickettsia located in the stroma of RBC
Disease of ruminants,Transmission through contamination with infected blood via ticks (Boophilus, Dermacentor), horse flies, stable flies, mechanical transfer of blood (vax, dehorn, etc),Fomites anaplasmosis
Carriers maintain disease in a herd, More severe in adult cattle, lifelong resistance if exposed young anaplasmosis
Clinical signs Depression, inappetence, fever, decreased production, marked icterus,Anemia leading to hypoxemia, Diagnosis Suspect in mature cattle showing anemia without hemoglobinuria, Blood smear, see anisocytosis, presence of agent,Serology anaplasmosis
Treatment Tetracycline LA200, Do not stress patients, may die,Insect control
Vax – May cause neonatal isoerythrolysis anaplasmosis
Ancylostoma caninum Canine hookworm
Anemia CRC percent reticulocytes X patient PCV/normal PCV (45 in dog, 37 in cat)
anemia Regenerative if > than 1percent in dog or 5percent in cat
Horses have no peripherally circulating reticulocytes
Regenerative Anemia Macrocytic, normochromic, nRBCs
Regenerative response take 2-5 days
Hemolysis – Intravascular RBC destruction w/in blood vessels & loss of Hgb from cells,Often severly ill w/ weakness, fever, icterus, Hgbemia, Hbguria
Blood pressure Systolic below 80 & mean below 60 are worry numbers when anesthetized
Hypotension is mean BP<60 for >20min
Assist by dec anesthetic percent, inc fluid rate, inc ventilation Hypotension
Kidney cannot autoregulate when BP<60mmHg
Arterial Pressures CO x Peripheral resistance
Systolic 100-160
Diastolic 60-100
Mean 80-120
CVP 0-10
Blood gasses – Hypoventilation kills slowly
Hypoxemia kills quickly
PaCO2 - Measures ventilatory status of the patient
Normal 35 – 45 mmHg PaCO2
PaCO2 < 35 hyperventilation
Inc HR,inc CO,inc BP, injected mucous membranes hyperventilation
PaCO2 > 45 hypoventilation
PaCO2 > 60 severe respiratory acidosis
Hypercapnia may be caused by hypoventilation, upper or lower airway obstruction, pleural filling disorders, pulmonary parenchymal disease, abdominal or thoracic restrictive disorders
PaO2 Measures oxygenating efficiency of the lungs
Normal 90-100 PaO2
Patients on 100percent O2 have PaO2 400-500
PaO2 5x what breathing
PaO2 < 60mmHg hypoxemia
SpO2 predictor of O2 saturation (PaO2),percent saturation of Hgb
Measure w/ pulse oximeter, want >90percent Hgb saturation
Urine output Indirect measure of major visceral organ perfusion
Intraoperative urine output should be 1-2ml/kg/hr, 1/2mg/kg/hr in horse,Renal fxn dec after general anest & sx in normal, healthy animal for 24-48 hrs
pH Acid base status Normal 7/4
Primary derangement is always in direction of pH, body won’t overcompensate 3 x bas deficity x wt(kg) = HCO3mEq (give ½ & reasses)
Temperature Can spontaneously fibrillate if < 90F
Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) Only anesthetic agent approved by FDA for fish
E cylinder of O2 Contains 700L at 2200 psi
H cylinder of O2 Contains 7,000L at 2200 psi
Angiotensin Vasoconstrictive principle formed in the blood when renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney
The enzymatic action of rennin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Angiotensin I is activated in the lung to become angiotensin II (by ACE)
Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone secretion & raises blood pressure, thereby decreasing fluid loss
Antacids & Antisecretory Agents Gastric ulceration, hypersecretory diz, EPI, NSAID tox
AlOH Cations bind bile acid, stimulate prostagl&in sythesis, cytoprotective,Rapid,Also binds P in renal disease
H2 antagonists Antisecretory, competitive blockade
Cimetidine TID H2 antagonist, least potent, most bioavailable
Ranitidine 5-12x more potent H2 antagonist, BID, less bioavail, minimal drug interactions
Omeprazole Proton pump inhibitors,Most effective antisecretory
Misosprostol Synthetic prostagl&in, antisecretory,Local effects
Sucralfate Cytoprotective, needs acidic environment to work,Protects & promotes healing, physiologic b&aid, NSAID prophy
Anterior Uveitis Inflammation of the anterior uveal tract iris, ciliary body, choroid
AU Signs Pain,blepharospasm,tearing,conjunctivitis,constricted pupil, reduced IOP,aqueous flare,keratic precipitates,hypopyon, miosis
Glaucoma, cataract & corneal opacification may be complication AU
AU Cause Trauma,infectious systemic disease,intraocular neoplasm,intraocular helminths,immune-mediated disease
Recurrent uveitis immune-mediated
Treatment - Topical atropine, corticosteroids if no ulcer, prostagl&in inhibitors, antibiotics AU
Blepharospasm spasm of the orbicular muscle of the eyelid
Aqueous flare turbidity of the aqueous humor caused by increased protein levels
Keratic precipitates fibrous deposits on the posterior surface of the cornea, usually associated with uveitis
Hypopyon pus in the anterior chamber of the eye
Pyrantel pamoate Nemex, Strongid-T,Neuromuscular blocker, paralyzes,Used for roundworms & hookworms in dogs & cats, also Physaloptera,Strongyles, ascarids in horses,Not absorbed, safe for puppies, kittens, pregnant & lactating animals,Pamoate salt limits absorption – just passes through
Fenbendazole Panacure,Least hepatotoxic benzimidozole,Treats rounds, hooks, whips, Taenia, lungworms (cats) & Giardia
NOT effective against D caninum tapes Fenbendazole
3 doses over 3 days Fenbendazole
Febantel is prodrug metabolized to fenbendazole in dogs, don’t use in cats
HPS reactions to dying parasites esp, at high doses Fenbendazole
Benzimidozoles interfere w/ parasite metabolism via inhibition of glucose transport = starvation
Brucellosis in dogs Brucella canis 3rd trimester abortion – orchitis
Also B abortus, B suis, orB melitensis associated with infected domestic livestock
Brucellosis in sheep – Brucella melitensis, abortion, B ovis, produces disease unique to sheep
Epididymitis & orchitis impair fertility B melitensis
Brucellosis in pigs – B suis Usually self limiting, can remain in herd for yrs,Man working in pack houses at risk
Prevalence highest in feral pigs B suis
Brucellosis card test,No vax B suis
Brucellosis in horses – B abortus, B suis
Suppurative bursitis, fistulous withers or poll evil,Occasionally abortion Brucellosis in horses
Unlikely source for disease to other horses, animals or man Brucellosis in horses
Brucellosis in people – Undulent Fever
Usu mild, can be serious public health problem esp when B melitensis Brucellosis in people
Bucked shins Front limb lameness in 2-3 yr old Thoroughbred or racing QH,Metacarpal bone painful on manual compression
Lameness likely dt microfractures in bone as result of compression during exercise at high speed,Metacarpal periostitis Bucked shins
Bullous diseases Autoimmune diseases of skin & mucous membranes characterized by pustules, vesicles, bulges, erosions & ulcerations
Occur in dogs, cats & horses Bullous diseases
Pemphigus foliaceus Young to middle aged dogs uncommonly, even less so in cats & horses
Pustular crusting disease sparing mucous membranes (no lesions in mouth) Pemphigus foliaceus
May form widespread heavy crusts, marked hyperkeratosis of footpads, & involvement of nailbeds that may lead to loss of the nails Pemphigus foliaceus
Tx w/ high doses of immunosuppressive drugs Pemphigus foliaceus
Pemphigus vulgaris Less common than PF
Vesicular disease affecting mucous membranes, Blisters, vesicles(rupture quickly), erosions in mouth, rectum, Suprabasilar acantholysis PV
Tx with high doses of immunosuppressive drugs PV
Difficult to get into remission, Poor px PV
Bullous pemphigoid Collies, DPs Rare, sloughing diz Lesions widespread, tend to concentrate in groin
Resembles severe scald Bullous pemphigoid
Pemphigus erythematosus Affects face & ears,has features of DLE,Scaling lesions,hypopigmentation of the planum nasale,Not well defined
Pemphigus vegetans Rare,Benign variant of pemphigus vulgaris,Bullae replaced by verrucoid hypertrophic vegetative masses
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Dermal SLE,Autoimmune skin dz of dogs characterized by depigmentation, erythema,scaling,erosions,ulcerations & crusting, particularly on & spreading up bridge of nose & sometimes face & lips
Immunoglobulins &/or complement are deposited at the basement membrane in the skin,Tx w/ tetracycline/ niainamide promising Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Controversial,Multisystemic autoimmune disease of dogs & cats
Extremely wide variety of clinical signs may occur, but immune-mediated polyarthritis, hemolytic anemia & skin disease are most common SLE
Griseofulvin Inhibits fungal mitosis by disrupting mitotic spindle, inhibit nucleic acid & fungal wall sythesis
Limited to dermatophytes only Give w/ fatty food to inc absorption Side effects include GI, teratogenic & carcinogenic at inc doses, bone marrow dyscrasias Do not give to pregnant animals Griseofulvin
Antiseptic Agents Agents applied to the body
disinfectants which are used on inanimate objects
Amphotericin B Polyene macrolide Binds to fungal sterols, altering permeability of membrane Fungistatic, Dimorphic fungi (histo, blasto, crypto, coccidio)
Because of the risk of severe toxicity reserved for disseminated,progressive, potentially fatal fungal infections,Nephrotoxic, anaphylactoid Amphotericin B
Apomorphine Most consistently effective antiemetic in dogs
Atropine Anticholinergic Central Too many side effects for antiemetic use
Chlorpromazine Phenothiazine Central, antidopaminergic Very effective centrally acting antiemetic, esp for blood born stimuli
2nd drug of choice for antiemetic Chlorpromazine
Diphenhydramine Antihistaminergic Central Good for motion sickness, otitis media/interna
Metaclopramide Antidopaminergic Peripheral & central Physiologically antagonizes vomiting reflex Also prokinetic from esophageal sphincter to upper duodenum, don’t give w/ obstruction, perforation, or epilepsy
1st drug of choice antiemetic agent Metaclopramide
Bismuth Subsalicylate Antiprostagl&in, antibacterial Peripheral Antidiarrheal Care in cats
Metronidazole Bactericidal & antiprotozoal Obligate anaerobes Disrupts DNA & nucleic acid synthesis
Immunolmodulator in IBD Metronidazole
Rifampin Bactericidal or bacteriostatic Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Used for treatment of Rhodococcus equi in combo w/ erythromycin
Fluoroquinolones Good G- aerobes, facultative anaerobes, atypical mycobacterium, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ehrilichia, BRD Bactericidal
DNA gyrase inhibitor, prevent DNA synthesis, Enrofloxacin (SID, prostate, RMSF,deethylated to cipro)ciprofloxacin Fluoroquinolones
Variable activity against Streptococci – not recommended Fluoroquinolones
Contraindicated in young animals due to cartilage defects Fluoroquinolones
Baytril (Fluroquinolones) associated with blindness in cats
Sulfonamides G+, easy G-,anaerobes, nocardia & actinomyces
Bacteriostatic, Inhibit folic acid pathway(PABA/pteridine not converted to DHFA),Broad spectrum Many bacteria have developed resistance sulfonamides
Potentiated sulfonamides TMPS Bactericidal, inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis in folic acid pathway
Exc tissue distribution Most drug side effects of all Abs,allergic rxs, hepatotoxic, KCS, hypothroidism, crystalluria, thyrotoxic, anemia,BM toxicity(aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia hypoprothrombinemia) Sulfonamides
Tetracyclines G+,easy G-,Mycoplasma,spirochetes, Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Hemobartonella, Brucellosis, Bacteriostatic
Inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal unit SafeProstate, Includes doxycycline tetracyclines
(biliary excretion), oxytetracycline, tetracycline Resistance inc May cause esophagitis
Chloramphenicol G+,G-Bacteriostatic,Binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit preventing protein synthesis
Penetrates everything, Can cause aplastic anemia in humans Chloramphenicol
Lincosomides G+aerobes,anaerobes,No G-Often combo w/ aminoglycosides, Lincomycin, clindamycin, Bacteriostatic or bactericidal,Bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit,Distribute well, biliary elimination
Contr in rabbits, rodents, horses, ruminants due to serious GI effects Lincosomides
Macrolides G+,selected G- Bacteriostatic
Bind 50S ribosomal subunit in alveolar macrophages, great for pulmonary infections Macrolides
Erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin Macrolides
Erythromycin is used in the treatment of Rhodococcus equi in combo w/ rifampin Can cause increase in GI motility
Tilmicosin used in BRD,CV toxicity in primates, horses,swine
Imidazoles Fungistatic Inhibit ergosterol/steroid synthesis (blocks cytochrome p450),inc cell membrane permeability,dec cell membrane fluidity
Use for dermatophytes, yeast, dimorphic fungi, Impairs steroid sythesis, so sometimes used in hyperadrenocorticism & prostate diz Imidazoles
Ketaconazole Fairly safe (hepatotoxicity), give w/ food
Short t½ Not got w/ dimorphic fungi, esp blasto Ketaconazole
Itraconazole more effective spectrum
Fluconazole Crosses BBB
5-Flucytosine Ancoban Inhibits DNA synthesis (antimetabolite, competes with uracil, interfering with pyrimidine metabolism & protein synthesis)
Limited spectrum Cryptococcus, C&ida,Rapid absorption, excellent distribution 5-Flucytosine
Synergistic effect with amphotericin B Adverse effects include BM depression (pancytopenia),GI disturbances, rashes, oral ulceration, increased liver enzymes 5Flucytosine
Alcohol Protein denaturation,70percent effective against G+ & G- bacteria
Good bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal,Most rapid acting but least residual action Alcohol
Fast kill, defatting agent Evaporates quickly 2 min for max effect Alcohol
May be drying or irritating,May cause cytotoxicity Alcohol
Often used in combo w/ povidone iodine Alcohol
Arginine Essential amino acid for cats
Needed to drive the urea cylce b/c it transforms ammonia into urea Arginine
Arginine deficiency may potentiate hepatic encephalopathy
Arsenic Poisoning Sources include rodenticides, wood preservatives, weed killers, baits, insecticides
Clinical signs Acute effects on GIT & CV system,Profuse watery diarrhea, may be blood tinged,Severe colic, dehydration, weakness, depression, weak pulse Arsenic Poisoning
Diagnosis Determination of arsenic levels in tissue & ingesta
Arsenic Poisoning Treatment Thioctic acid, Dimercaprol (BAL)
Phenylarsonic toxicosis arsenical additives to swine & poultry diets to improve production, treat dysentery
Toxicosis results from excess supplementation
Atropine – Anticholinergic, antimuscarinic, Used as preanesthetic to dec respiratory secretions, prevent sinus bradycardia & AV block
Also an antidote for cholinergic overdose (physostigmine) & organophosphate toxicity Atropine
Don’t use in patients with glaucoma Atropine
Atrophic rhinitis- Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Pigs
Clinical signs - Sneezing, followed by atrophy of turbinate bones
Signs begin in pigs 3-8 wks Atropic rhinitis
Diagnosis - Signs, lesions, culture Atrophic rhinitis
Control - Difficult to keep herds free of diz, but usually low level Atrophic rhinitis
Control measures taken when reach unacceptable levels,Antibiotic (tet, sulf, tm, tyl) administration to prefarrowing sows, newborn piglets, weaners Atrophic rhinitis
Bacterin admin to sows (4 & 2 wks prefarrowing) & piglets (1 & 4 wks) Atrophic rhinitis
Atypical pneumonia - Includes acute bovine pulmonary emphysema & edema (ABPEE), fog fever, bovine atypical interstitial pneumonia
One of the more common causes of acute respiratory distress in cattle, esp adult beef cattle Atypical pneumonia
Typically occurs in autumn, 5-10 days after change to a lush pasture Atypical pneumonia
Lush pasture high in L-tryptophan, which is degraded in the rumen to indoleacetic acid, which is converted by rumenal microorganisms to 3-methylindole Atypical pneumonia
3-MI is absorbed into the bloodstream & is the source of pneumotoxicity after it is activated by pulmonary macrophages Atypical pneumonia
Autonomic Nervous System – Involuntary branch of peripheral efferent nervous system,works in conjunction w/ somatic NS which is voluntary branch of efferent division
Innervates cardiac mm, smooth mm, most exocrine gl&s, some endocrine gl ANS
Neurotransmitters are acetylcholine & norepinephrine ANS
ANS subdivides into sympathetic & parasympathetic NS
Cell body of 1st neuron in CNS – preganglionic fiber – cell body of 2nd neuron in ganglion outside CNS – postganglionic fiber – effector organ ANS
Most visceral organs dually innervated by SNS & PNS Sympathetic NS –Fight or flight,Originate in thoracolumbar SC,Short preganglionic fibers, synapse w/ ganglia in sympathetic trunk,Long postganglionic fibers
Parasympathetic NS –General housekeeping (SLUDDE) Originate in craniosacral SC,Long preganglionic, short postganglionic
Acetylcholine – Neurotransmitter for both sympathetic & parasympathetic preganglionic fibers
Also,parasympathetic postganglionic neurotransmitter,Called cholinergic fibers Ach
Ach also acts at sympathetic postganglionic fibers of sweat gl&s & efferent skeletal muscle terminals
Cholinergic receptors Nicotinic Found on postganglionic cell bodies in all autonomic ganglia,Respond to Ach released from both sympathetic & parasypathetic preganglionic fibers,Also on motor end plates of skeletal mm
Muscarinic Found on effector cell membranes of smooth mm,cardiac mm & gl&s,Bind w/ Ach from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers,Atropine blocks muscarinic receptors Cholinergic receptors
Norepinephrine – Released by sympathetic postganglionic fibers,Called adrenergic fibers (adrenaline),Also acts at adrenal medulla
Feathers don’t grow continuously, molt once a year (some spp twice)new feathers have blood supply
Urophygial gl& at dorsal base of tail for preening
Proximal axial skeletal system is pneumatized
Do not attempt to get BM or put catheters in femur or humerus
Eyes have skeletal muscles in the iris,cannot dilate pupil w/ atropine (use NM blocker)Optic chiasm 100%, no concentual PLR Avian
Respiratory system requires filling of air sacs with 1st breath, goes to caudal air sac, lungs, cranial air sac & back out
Avian Digestive system is beak-tongue-cervical esophagus-crop-thoracic esophagus-proventriculus (gl&ular stomach)-ventriculus (grinding)-intestines-cloaca
Lobulated kidneys are dorsal in synsacral fossa Avian
Renal portal system in addition to hepatic portal system, why don’t give injections in hindlimbs (filtered prior to systemic circulation) Avian
Birds can decrease GFR b/c uric acid is secreted not filtered
Assess renal fxn w/ uric acid; severe renal failure leads to gout Birds
Liver measured by AST & bile acids (not SAP, ALT), eval CPK concurrently Birds
Icterus is rare, see bright green urates when urates should be white Birds
Female bird has 1 ovary on left, poultry have right remnant (often cystic)
Males birds have 2 testes, some have phallus
Heart has 4 chambers, right AV valve is muscular not tendinous,R aortic arch,not L Bird
Do not have lymph nodes but lymphoid tissue – if spleen enlgd, serious systemic disease Birds
Birds Lymphoid tissue includes thymus & bursa of fabrecious (outpouching of cloaca), both of which shrink up w/ sexual maturity
Heterophils instead of neuts w/ rod shaped granules, nucleated thrombocytes instead of platelets, nRBCs Birds
Avocado – Pulmonary edema & death in birds
Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head – Leg Perthy’s Disease in humans
Effects young toy & small breed dogs LPD
Decreased blood supply to femoral head & neck, femoral head collapses, pathologic fracures can occur, osteoarthrosis LPD
Usually unilateral lameness,Can be traumatic or spontaneous,On rads, see dec opacity of femoral head & neck, collapse of femoral head, joint laxity LPD
Sx, require FHO,Warn O that may occur in other side later LPD
Avulsion fracture - A fragment of bone, which is the site of insertion of a muscle, tendon or ligament, is detached as a result of a forceful pull,Repair with a pin or screw
Babesiosis – Babesia canis, B gibsoni in dogs, B felis in cats, B bigemina, B bovis in cows
Intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks Babesiosis
Dogs & cats – Rhipicephalus, the brown dog tick & some Dermacentor Babesiosis
Boophilus tick spp in cattle Babesiosis
Destroys RBCs intravascularly during escape from cells,No human health risk Babesiosis
Clinical signs – Can look just like IMHA, regenerative anemia,Most subclinical Babesiosis
If immunocompromised or splenectomized (parasitized cells removed by spleen), see Hgburia, hgbemia, anemia, hemolysis, icterus,Death Babesiosis
Diagnosis – Hx of tick infestations,Giemsa-stained capillary blood or organ smears,ELISA, IFA,Often Coombs +, polyclonal gammopathy Babesiosis
Treament – Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol), Diminazene aceturate (Berenil)Feline may be nonresponsive, primaquine phosphate reported to be effective Babesiosois
Barium Series Should move out of stomach into duodenum by 30 min,Reach ileocolic valve w/in 2 hrs
Beak & Feather Virus – Immunosuppressive disease, often die of 2ndary causes
Feather disease w/ damaged follicles, dystrophic feathers, hemorrhage in shafts,Necrotic beaks,Old world birds at risk PCR of blood sample to dx Beak & Feather Virus
Bence-Jones Proteins – In urine, comprised of immunoglobulin light chains
Bethanocol – Parasympathomimetic used for treating disorders of micturition when no obstruction present
Other drugs include dantrolene, diazepam, diethylstilbestrol, estrogen, testosterone, propantheline treating disorders of micturition
Cholinergic, effects primarily muscarinic, negligible nicotinic activity,Has inc duration of action compared to acetylcholine,Used to inc detrusor muscle tone & stimulate bladder contractions in small animals Bethanocol
Also an esophageal or GI stimulant, but metoclopramide & neostigmine are better Bethanocol
Biliary Tract Obstruction – Bilirubin causes normal colored feces
If no bilirubin, as in complete obstruction get pale white feces (i/d, rice will also do this) Biliary Tract Obstruction
#1 cause of BTO is pancreatitis
In surgery, if see little white dots, suponified fat, not mets BTO
Biopsy in pancreatitis in cats (uncommon)
Bismuth Subsalicylate – Effective antisecretory dt salicylate,Good for acute diarrhea
Blackleg - Clostridium chaovoei,Also C septicum & sordelli
An acute febrile disease of cattle & sheep characterized by myonecrosis & emphysematous swelling, usually in the heavy muscles Blackleg
Caused by ingestion of spores & deposition into mm,Usually in young adult beef cattle w/ no hx of trauma Blackleg
Usually trauma induced in sheep,Most common in summer & fall Blackleg
Clinical findings - Crepitant swellings of the heavy muscles,Acute lameness,Acute death in healthy young beef Cattle Blackleg
Diagnosis - History, clinical findings, IFA Blackleg
Blackleg Control – Vaccination
Blastomycosis - Blastomyces dermatitidis, Fungal disease of the Midwest,Hunting dogs
Large (8-20μm) broad based budding yeast w/ refractive cell wall,Infection causes primary granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesions in the lungs Blastomycosis
N∅s infiltrate,May occur in the skin, eyes, bone & elsewhere Blastomycosis
Draining cutaneous tracts, respiratory disease, Bone diz looks like tumor (ddx coccidio)AGID test, serology Tx w/ amphotericin B (nephrotoxic)Poor px if disseminated Blastomycosis
Blister Beetle – Cantharidin toxicity,Most often in horses
Blister beetles swarm in alfalfa hay during harvesting
Blister Beetles contain cantharidin, a potent irritant & vesicant that causes GI & renal signs as well as hyperemia & ulceration of the oral, esophageal & GI mucosa
Clinical signs include colic, salivation, choke, pollakiuria, hematuria, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia,Horses can die within 48 hours,Treat with supportive care Blister Beetle (Cantharidin toxicity)
Blood - Hemoglobin formation consists of a globin molecule & four heme groups
Each heme group contains an iron atom with which a molecule may associate & dissociate
Each Hbg molecule can transport a max of four molecules of O2
Each erythrocyte contains 200-300 million molecules of hemoglobin
When blood passes through the lungs, Hgb becomes saturated with O2, forming oxyhemoglobin
When this blood passes through body tissues, some of the O2 dissociates from theHgb oxyhemoglobin
Normal blood contains 15 grams Hgb per deciliter, 98percent of that is saturated with oxygen
Blood Transfusion – wt (lbs) x 40(dog) or 30 (cat) x desired PCV – patient PCV/PCV of donor,Rate approx 10ml/kg/hr, slowly at first to check for adverse rxns
If giving to fast, patient will vomit Blood Transfusion
Blood Types –Cat A, B, & AB
Severe transfusion rxns in type B cats receiving type A blood
Type Bs carry alloantibodies to type A
Purebreds are more commonly type B
Risk for severe rxn on 1st transfusion
AB blood type is very rare
Dog blood type A (DEA1,1 or DEA1,2), B,C,D, F, Tr (DEA7), J,L,M,N
Dogs Blood Natural antibodies are anti-B,-D,-Tr, Donors should be DEA1/1, DEA1/2 & DEA7 negative Neonatal isoerythrolysis assoc w/ anti-DEA1/1
Horse blood types A,C,D,K,P,Q,T,U, Natural antibodies anti-A,-C, NI assoc w/ Aa or Qa,Donors should be non Aa or Qa
Cow Blood types A,B,C,F,J,L,M,R,S,T,Z, Natural antibodies anti-J,B system most complex w/ >1000 alleles
Cow Blood Donor Ideally same blood type or at least w/out reactive antigens
Cross Match – Major 2 drops donor RBC in 2 drops recipient serum; if incompatible, recipient serum contains Abs to donor RBCs,Most important, if incompatible, cannot tranfuse for any reason
Minor Cross Match 2 drops recipient RBC in 2 drops donor serum; if incompatible, donor serum contains Ab to recipient RBCs,Cannot transfuse plasma, but can RBCs, if washed & major cross match compatible
Blood Volume Total body water 60percent of body weight; ECF = 50 of TBW, ICF = 50 of TBW
ECF divided into plasma volume (8per TBW), IF (37per TBW), & TF (5perTBW)
Blood volume can be approximated as 10 percent body weight, plasma volume as ½ blood volume
Normal blood volume is 90mls/kg in dog, 50mls/kg in cat, 75mls/kg in horse
Blood loss exceeding 20-25percent blood volume can lead to shock
Blue Tongue Virus - Orbivirus carried by Culicoides, Endemic in USA
Disease of sheep, cattle, goats, & wild ruminants BTV
Cattle are the reservoir, Inappetance in cattle & goats, severe disease in sheep & deer BTV
Clinical signs - Sheep- hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears; dyspnea, erosion/ulceration of oral mucosa; muscle necrosis, cyanotic tongue BTV
Abortions, congenital defect Mortality 0-30percent,Cattle usually asymptomatic BTV
If develop clinical signs, same as sheep,If infected during gestation, may abort or give birth to abnormal calves BTV
Diagnosis & Prevention – IFA,Vaccinate sheep,Insect control BTV
Bog Spavin Chronic synovitis in tibiotarsal (hock) joint causing obvious distension of joint capsule
Bone Blood Supply - Diaphyseal nutrient artery enters & passes through cortex to medullary cavity w/out supplying collaterals to the cortex
Divides into ascending & descending branches which anastomose with the epiphyseometaphyseal vessels to supply the BM & compact & cancellous bone Diaphyseal nutrient artey
Blood flows centrifugally through cortex to exit via periosteal venules
In areas of the cortex with heavy fascial attachment, the outer 1/3 of the cortex is supplied by periosteal arteries
Bone Repair Sequence of events trauma local blood vessel damage, local necrosis of bone & soft tissue back to sites of intact vascular perfusion,Active hyperemia to help w/ fracture healing,Removal of necrotic tissue & bone
Bone repair cont Clot organization,Formation of Fibrous callus appears 4-5 days after fracture,Bony callus visible radiographically 11- 38 days after fracture,Remodeling of callus,Trabecular bone converted into compact bone between ends of bone fragments
Bone Spavin – DJD of hock joint terminating in the formation of exostoses & ankylosis of the joint
Borreliosis – Tick-born bacterial disease of domestic animals & man,See Lyme Disease
Botulism - Ingestion of Clostridium botulinum toxin or via wound,Neurotoxin
Prevents synthesis of acetylcholine at motor end plates Botilism toxin
Clinical signs are weakness, flaccid paralysis w/ intact pain perception Progressive,Disturbed vision, difficulty chewing & swallowing, generalized progressive weakness Botulism
Shaker foals, Death is due to respiratory or cardiac paralysis,Difficult to isolate organism Once bound to nerves, antitoxin will no affect Botulism(clostridium botulinum)
Bovine Corona Virus – Neonatal Calf Diarrhea Winter dysentery,Fecal-oral w/ possible respiratory transmission, Can cause diarrhea in HUMANS
Bovine Leukosis Virus – Retrovirus AKA lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, leukemia
Common cattle disease, 2nd most common bovine neoplasia after SCC BLV
Transmitted by transfer of blood b/w animals,Trauma & surgery most common mechanisms of transmission, also insect vectors BLV
Only 3-5% of those infected get LSA BLV
Pyrantel pamoate Nemex, Strongid-T,Neuromuscular blocker, paralyzes,Used for roundworms & hookworms in dogs & cats, also Physaloptera,Strongyles, ascarids in horses,Not absorbed, safe for puppies, kittens, pregnant & lactating animals,Pamoate salt limits absorption – just passes through
Benzimidozoles interfere w/ parasite metabolism via inhibition of glucose transport = starvation
All are hepatically metabolized Benimidozoles
Albendazole is hepatoxic to SA, used in LA
Oxibendazole & Thiabendozole are indicated for removal of equine parasites in addition to use in other animals, (Many equine parasites have developed resistance to their drugs)
Praziquantel Droncit, Drontal Plus (combo w/ pyrantel & febantel)Isoquinolone derivative,Widely distributed to tissues after oral admin
Used in tapeworm (cestode) infections, Dipylidium, Taenia, P Kellicotti, Echinococcus granulosis, Impairs function of sucker, stimulates motility,Puppies >4 wks, kittens >6 wks Praziquantel
May see anorexia, V, D, ataxia,Avoid injectable Droncit – burns Praziquantel
Epsiprantel – Cestex Isoquinolone derivative,Membrane destabilization causing disruption in worm’s integument, host immune system destroysTx tapes in cat, dog, >7 wks of age,Not systemically absorbed, safe, Single dose adequate
Ivermectin – Macrolide Enhances the release of GABA,GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in nematodes & arthropods
Ivermectin causes paralysis & eventual death of the parasite via increase in Cl- channel permeability
Ivermectin is ineffective against flukes & tapeworms because they do not use GABA as a peripheral nerve transmitter
Mammals do not use GABA as a peripheral nerve transmitter
Heartworm prophylaxis, microfilaricidal; effective against hooks, whips & rounds at higher dose Ivermectin
Lower bioavailability in cats,Young >6 wks old; safe in pregnant/lactating,Does not cross the blood brain barrier Ivermectin
Contraindications: do not use dose higher than prophy dose in collie breeds (does cross BBB) Ivermectin
Also contraindicated in shelties, australian shepherds, old english sheepdogs Ivermectin
Other Macrolides – Moxidectin Proheart, heartworm prophy, ok in collies
Selamectin, Revolution, HW prophy Macrolides,hooks, rounds, fleas, sarcoptes, otodectes
Milbemycin oxime, Interceptor, Sentinel (w/luferenon) HW prophy – make sure HW(-) 1st, microfilaricidal, can cause anaphylaxis; also hooks, rounds, whips, puppies >8 wks
Piperazine - Pipa tabs Only effective against ascarids (roundworms)
Paralyzes the worm, allowing it to be passed out with the feces Piperazine
Piperazine Blocks acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, >3 wks of age otc products.
Levamisole, Imidothiazole Promotes unchecked excitatory neurotransmitter activity = paralysis, death
Indicated for treatment of many nematodes usually with LA Levamisole
More effective against adult worms than larval forms,Not effective against horse parasites Levamisole
Arsenicals Interfere w/ parasite metabolism (inhibit glycolysis), kill adult heartworms,Melarsomine, Immiticide; give IM only,HW infection in dogs
More effective & less irritating, less hepatotoxicity than Thiacetarsemide sodium, Caparsolate Melarsomine
Injection site reactions common, low therapeutic index & low margin of safety in both Caparsolate,Melarsomine
Caparsolate can cause significant hepatic & renal damage
Diethylcarbamazine Filaribits,Not used much anymore
Apparent filaricidal activity via paralysis,HW prevention with daily oral dosing, can’t skip a dose,Do not give if MF+, else shock like syndrome,Effective against rounds at higher doses Diethylcarbamazine (Filaribits)
Anthrax- Bacillus anthracis Gram+, nonmotile, spore forming bacterium
Acute, febrile disease of all warm-blooded animals,REPORTABLE,ZOONOTIC,Found in soil Anthrax (bacillus)
Not communicable between animals, acquire from consumption of contaminated meat, grazing contaminated soil, spore inhalation, or open skin wound Anthrax
Clinical findings – Septicemia w/ rapidly fatal course,Abrupt rise in temp, stupor, staggering, dyspnea, trembling, collapse, sudden death,Bloody discharges from natural body openings,Anorexia, GI stasis, colic, hematuria Anthrax
Chronic infections characterized by local, SQ, edematous swellings usually in ventral neck, thorax, shoulders Anthrax
After death, rigor mortis usually incomplete or absent, dark blood from orifices, bloat,rapid decomposition Anthrax
Diagnosis- ELISA, western blot, culture, PCR, IFA,Ddx – other causes of sudden death Anthrax
Treatment & Control – Penicillin, oxytetracycline,Control w/ live vaccine Anthrax
If suspect – Inform regulatory agency, rigid quarantine, prompt disposal of dead, manure, bedding by cremation or deep burial, isolate sick, disinfection, insect repellants, control scavengers, sanitary procedures Anthrax
Depth of anesthesia Stage I All levels of consciousness when patient responsive, including sleep
Depth of anesthesia Stage II Loss of consciousness,Uncontrolled spontaneous reflex activity
Depth of anesthesia Stage III Cessation of spontaneous motor activity,Stage of surgical anesthesia
Penicillins – B-Lactams,G+, easy G-,anaerobes,Bactericidal,Inhibit cell wall synthesis,Safe,Elimated via kidney, good for UTIs
Natural penicillins G+, poor G-, spirochetes, destroyed by penicillinase PenG & PenV
Penicillinase-resistant penicillins – Penicillinase producing G+ cocci, esp Staphylococcus
Cloxacillin, dicloxacillin Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
Aminopenicillins – Broad spectrum,inc G- activity,Ampicillin, amoxicillin
Extended spectrum penicillins – addl Gactivity, Pseudomonas,Carbenicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin
Potentiated penicillins - Developed to inactivate B-lactamases Clavomox, timentin
Don’t use penicillins in rodents & lagomorphs; elimination of G+ gut flora can lead to fatal colibacillosis
Cephalosporins B-Lactams,G+,some G- (more with each generation), anaerobes,Bactericidal
B-lactam antibiotics Inhibit cell wall synthesis,More effective against actively growing bacteria
Classifications – 1st generation cepholosporins include cephalothin, cefazolin, cephapirin, cephadine, cephalexin, cefadroxil
Activity against most G+, poor G- activity 1st generation cepholosporins
2nd generation cepholosporins not very popular, same G+ activity, exp&ed G-
3rd generation cepholosporins same G+ activity, much exp&ed G- activity; cefotaxime, moxolactom, cefoperazone, ceftiofur (BRD, no withdrawal time)
Aminoglycosides primary G- aerobes, Some G+,Pseudomonas, staphylococcus, atypical mycobacterium (nocardia/actinomyces)
Irreversibly bind to 30S ribosomal unit & inhibits protein synthesis,Bactericidal Aminoglycosides
Includes amikacin (SID, parvo pups), gentamicin, neomycin, & spectinomycin,Inactive against fungi, viruses & most anaerobic bacteria Aminoglycosides
Accumulate in inner ear & kidneys,Elimination via glomerular filtration Aminoglycosides
Adverse Effects –Nephrotoxic,Casts in urine, increased BUN & Cr Nephrotoxicity reversible when drug discontinued,Ototoxic,8th cranial nerve toxicity Aminoglycosides
Auditory & vestibular symptoms may be irreversible Aminoglycosides
Chlorhexidine – Cytoplasmic membrane disruption,05per soln effective against Gram+ & Gram-
Persists on skin to give cumulative antibacterial effect,Less irritating Chlorhexidine
Not inactivated by organic matter,05percent is 1:40 dilution,most bactericidal & least toxic to tissues Chlorhexidine
Hydrogen peroxide – Poor antiseptic,Short-acting germicidal effect through release of nascent O2, irreversibly alters proteins
Effective sporicide,Effervescent action mechanically removes pus & bacteria Hydrogen peroxide
Iodine – One of most potent antiseptics Bactericidal,virucidal,fungicidal,Takes 15 min for sporicidal action
Organic matter inactivates free I in PI
Iodine Soln USP has little to no stinging on broken skin
Iodine tincture USP (I in alcohol) is even more effective, but stings & irritates skin,Rare HPS rxns
Povidone iodine often used in conjunction w/ alcohol
Use PI in 0,1 to 1percent more dilute solns have inc free I & faster, potent bactericidal activity,Dilute stock solution 1:100 or 1:10
Camplobacter – Acute enteritis in dogs, Bloody diarrhea,ZOONOTIC,Transmissible to people
Candida – Fungal disease,Yeast infection of GIT in birds
Sour crop, fuzzy white layer on crop/GIT candida
Tx w/ nystatin orally candida
Capillaria aerophila - Respiratory parasite of carnivores,Ingestion of larvated eggs,Eggs hatch in intestine, larvae reach lungs via circulatory system,Eggs layed in lungs, coughed up & swallowed
Clinical signs include coughing, sneezing, & nasal discharge,Diagnose w/ fecal float, see eggs with bipolar plugs Capillaria aerophilia
Treat with levamisole, fenbendozole Capillaria aerophila
Capillaria plica - Bladder worm,Found in kidney, ureter, bladder of dogs, cats,No clinical signs,Earthworm host
Eggs passed in urine,Treat with fenbendozole, ivermectin, levamisole capillaria plica
Calcitriol – Synthesized in kidney,Acts on intestine & kidneys to maintain normal calcium levels
Carbohydrate Engorgement - inc fermentable feedstuff, new inc carbo diet (pasture)Rumenal organisms proliferate & cause ceased motility,Bloat,splashy rumen Fluid shifts into rumen = dehydration,Rumen ph < 5,5, sour
Tx w/ oral antacids/carmilax,Remove grain Carbohydrate engorgement
Sinus arrhythmia Normal in dogs, uncommon in cats
Sinus bradycardia Caused by increased vagal tone
Treat with atropine, glycopyrrolate, isoproterenol, artificial pacemaker Sinus bradycardia
Sinus tachycardia Caused by atrial enlargement, stress response,Treat underlying cause
Placing pressure on eyeballs will induce vagal response, slow heart rate
S1 Signals closure of AV valves & start of systole S2
Heart Block Middle aged, older dogs,inc vagal tone dt drugs, endocarditis, DCM, HCM, hyperkalemia
If high grade, may see syncope, exer intol, weakness Heart block
On ECG, dec HR, P w/ no QRS, large T 1st, 2nd or 3rd (complete) degree Heart Block
Long term mgmt in pacemaker,Do not give antiarrythmic drugs, may suppress escape rhythm Heart Block
Sick Sinus Syndrome Female mini schnauz, dachs, cocers, pugs,May see w/ supraventricular tachyarrythmias
Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus,Chickens,Respiratory, urogenital & GIT involvement, decreased lay, misshapen eggs, Control by vax
Infectious Bursal Disease Viral disease of chickens,Causes immunosuppression, Prostration, diarrhea, Depopulate, Vaccinate
Iodine Deficiency Goiter Budgies w/ big thyroids, not palpable b/c in thoracic cavity,If budgie is squeaking or clicking, do not h&le (will kill!)Supplement I & will get better, Midwest millet is I poor
Iodine Toxicity Foals of dams fed excess iodine may develop extreme thyroid enlargement (goiter) & may die before birth or shortly thereafter
Clinical signs are generalized weakness, long hair, marked limb abnormalities Iodine Toxicity
Iron Deficiency Microcytic, hypochromic anemia,Non-regenerative anemia,Dt chronic external blood loss, Internal blood loss reuses iron
Johne's disease Mycobacterium paratuberculosis,Acid fast rod Infiltrative intestinal diz Chronic, contagious, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants
Organism very resistant, see long term environmental contamination,Bacteria localize in lower small intestine & associated lymph nodes Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Transmission: Fecal-oral, colostrum, milk, in utero,Cow to calf after birth most commonly Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Ingestion of contaminated feed & water,In utero & transmammary infection,Cow to cow in confinement situations Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Long term incubation – cases show up 3-5 years later,Brahmans tend to be older when show clinical signs Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Clinical findings: Weight loss, muscle wasting, chronic diarrhea, dehabilitation,Appetite stays good Terminates in emaciation & death Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Small ruminants usually do not have diarrhea Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Lab findings – Anemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Lesion - Granulomatous response characterized by progressive accumulation of epithelioid cells in mucosa & submucosa of lower small intestine,Diffuse hypertrophy of lower jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve, cecum Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Diagnosis & Control - Fecal culture (very difficult), serologic tests (less than ideal)Positive test is meaningful, negative test is not Johne’s disease
No sure way to prove a living cow is free of infection,Sheep have different strain, different culture Goats have same strain Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Treatment – None! Cull Vaccination reduces disease incidence, does not eliminate Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Prevention – Remove calf immediately after birth, feed negative cow colustrum, don’t pool Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Public Health - Crohne’s disease Organism not killed in pasteurization process Theory of humans infected via milk Mycobacterium paratuberculosis(Johne’s disease)
Johnson Grass -Sorghum,Sudan,Red top Causes 3 problems Cystitis-Horses,lose mare,Bladder thick,drib urine,uncomfort,Nitrate toxicity if rtilized johnson grass,Chocobrown blood,Methlene blue tx,Cyanide poison if damage,prussicacid Resp distress,cherryredblood,Emerg,Give100ccNa thionitrosol gets up & walks away
Joint Fluid Analysis Normal 1-3 cells per HPF <10 percent PMNs
Juvenile Pyoderma Puppy strangles,Pustular skin diz on face & head of puppies at weaning age, 3wk to 4mos,See fever anorexia,subm&ibular lymphadenopathy,Pustules & lymphadenopathy (huge ln)on face&head May not see pustules if already eroded Tx w/steriods,see fast response One of rare times ever put young animals on steroids
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca KCS Immune-mediated destruction of lacrimal gl&s,Bulldogs, WHWT, lhasa apso, cockers are prone
Acute cases ulceration KCS
Chronic cases – conjunctivitis KCS
Can be 2ndy to sulfa drugs & Canine Distemper KCS
Dx w/ Schirmer tear test <10mm/min is suspicious, <5mm/min is diagnostic KCS
Always check for ulcers KCS
Tx / cyclosporine (Optimmune) eyedrops,Will only works if some tearing function remains KCS
Intussusception Acute see painful abdomen, scant bloody feces, vomiting
Intussusception Chronic see diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhea
Often palpable, U/S is best way to dx
Usu ileocolic,Can perform enema contrast (not oral) intussusception
Parvo is a major cause of intussusception
Ddx is rectal prolapsed,If fornix is present on rectal palpation, then prolapsed Intussusception
Ketamine Rapid-acting general anesthetic,Significant somatic analgesia, poor visceral analgesia,Lack of cardiopulmonary depressant effects,Get inc CO, HR, BP
Don't use w/ trauma, glaucoma dt inc CSF,Epileptogenic, do not use w/ myelography or seizure disorders Ketamine
Ketoconazole Antifungal inc cellular membrane permeability & blocks P-450s, inhibiting steroid synthesis
Activity against most pathogenic fungi, Med tx for hyperadrenocorticism Ketoconazole
Knemidokoptes Mites –Scaley leg & face mites of budgerigars, Skin scrape in mineral oil, see lots of mites
Tx w/ 1/10,000 ivermec orally & repeat in 2 weeks Knemidokoptes Mites
If severe, parotid duct transposition KCS
Cheyletiella Walking d&ruff,Occurs in dogs, cats, rabbits,ZOONOTIC
Likes high altitudes (CO),Highly contagious scaling on dorsal trunk,Moderate-to intense pruritus,Alopecia & inflam changes 2ndy to scratching Cheyletiella
Treat environment, ivermectin, sulfur shampoo Cheyletiella
Chinchillas Require regular dust baths to maintain healthy coat & skin,Pans should be provided in cages,Grab by tail
Chlamydia psittaci – Psittacosis Common infectious disease of birds,ZOONOTIC
Gives people URT infection, flulike signs Chlamydia psittaci – Psittacosis
Signs vary w/ avian spp from subclinical to systemic disease involving respiratory tract & liver, see yellow urates Chlamydia psittaci – Psittacosis
Very high WBC in birds (ddx Mycobacterium (avian TB), Aspergillosis) Chlamydia psittaci – Psittacosis
Dx via serology (EBA test) or PCR of oral/cloacal swabs Tx w/ doxycycline Chlamydia psittaci – Psittacosis
Choke Obstruction of esophagus by food masses or FB
choke on greedily eaten dry grains Horses
Localized esophageal dilation, hemorrhage necrosis,Exhibit anxiety, arched neck, retching, salivation Choke
Food, froth through nose,May get aspiration pneumonia,Pull food, provide water, painkillers, sedatives,May pass stomach tube Choke
Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis Common hepatic diz of cats, dogs get also
Inc ALT,inc SAP, inc bilirubin, Bx to dx, culture & cytology of bile Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis Suppurative form dt ascending infection,Has inc neutrophils; tx w/ antibiotic such as amoxicillin &/or enrofloxacin
Nonsuppurative form has lymphs & plasma cells,Imm mediated dz,tx w/ prednisolone Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis
Chorioptic Mange Chorioptes bovis
Most common mange in cattle Chorioptic Mange
Pastern area most common -leg mange Chorioptic Mange
High proportion of cattle may be infested without exhibiting signs Chorioptic Mange
More prevalent in winter Chorioptic Mange
Non-zoonotic but REPORTABLE, since r/o sarcoptic mange which is zoonotic Chorioptic Mange
Chronic Active Hepatitis Group of diseases that tend to progress to cirrhosis
Glucocorticoids indicated in moderate to severe symptomatic autoimmune chronic active hepatitis
They are not indicated in asymptomatic cases, mild cases, or viral-induced disease hepatitis Glucocorticoids
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – COPD heaves, asthma
Allergic rxn thought to initiate COPD
Usu in north when kept indoors COPD
Prevalence inc w/ age COPD
Inflammation, chronic bronchoconstriction, thickened bronchi COPD
Increased expiratory effort, exercise intolerance, cough, Afebrile COPD
Dx w/ endoscopy, TB asp, thor auscultation of expiratory wheezes COPD
Tx with environmental changes, antiinflammatories, steroids, bronchodilators COPD
Summer Pasture Associated OPD – same but summer, south, in pasture COPD
Chronic Urticaria Characterized by transient wheals in the skin or mucous membranes
Most frequently recognized in the horse Chronic Urticaria
Drugs & ingestants are most frequent causes Chronic Urticaria
Treat with corticosteroids, avoidance of the allergens, hyposensitization to inhaled allergens Chronic Urticaria
Chylothorax Accumulation of chylous fluid in the pleural space
High triglyceride w/ low cholesterol Chylothorax
Dt malignancy, trauma, congenital, pancreatic, parasitic, infectious, idiopathic, lymphangiectasis Chylothorax
Conservative tx is sporadic thoracocentesis, chest tube placement,If fails, pleurodesis (variable outcome)Treat cause ( pericardectomy) Chylothorax
Cirrhosis End stage liver diz from any cause
Dogs > cats Cirrhosis
Cobblestone liver Cirrhosis
Cockers inc risk Cirrhosis
See microhepatica on rads, need bx to confirm Cirrhosis
Supportive tx, slow progression Cirrhosis
Clostridial Diseases Anaerobic, spore-forming, exo- or enterotoxin forming
Bacillary Hemoglobinuria C haemolyticum
Cattle, red water disease,Sudden death, Hgburia Bacillary Hemoglobinuria
Blackleg C chauvoei (also septicum, novyi, sordelli)
Cattle, sheep,Swelling, hemorrhage, & emphysema in heavy muscles Blackleg
Rancid butter odor Blackleg
Botulism C botulinum, Rapidly fatal motor paralysis by ingestion of carrion & subsequent neuro-intoxication (not infection)
Neuromuscular weakness progessing to paralysis Botulism
Hemorrhagic Enteritis & Enterotoxemia C perfringens
Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis Black disease,C novyi + liver flukes
Usually in sudden death in sheep Black disease
Malignant Edema C septicum usually, also chauvoei, perfringens, sordelli, novyi,Farm animals
Tetanus C tetani, Neurotoxin in necrotic tissue
All mammals (dogs, cats, birds seem resistant)Stiffness, spasms, progressive,Immunization Tetanus
Club foot Caused by deep digital flexor contracture
Results in flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint, resulting in a raised heel club foot)
Treat with a distal check desmotomy, corrective shoeing,If nonresponsive, deep digital flexor tendonotomy may be required for salvage Club foot
Coagulation Goal to form a localizeed fibrin meshwork
3 components necessary for normal coagulation are intact vasculature (trauma, vasculitis), coagulation factors (DIC, rodenticide, liver failure, congenital), & platelets (aspirin, NSAIDs)
Most common bleeding problems are dt thrombocytopenia & coag factor deficiency
Intrinsic pathway Starts w/ exposure to abnormal surface
Factors XII, XI, IX, VIII Intrinsic Pathway
Factor VIII deficiency is hemophilia A
most common inherited bleeding deficiency in dogs & cats Hemophilia A
X-linked, females are asymptomatic carriers, males are affected Factor VIII def hemophilia A
Factor IX deficiency is hemophilia B
In cats, Factor XII deficiency commonly recognized but rarely causes clinical bleeding
Extrinsic pathway Starts w/ tissue injury, factor III (Thromboplastin) released,Factor VII
Common pathway Factor V, X, prothrombin to thrombin, fibrinogen to fibrin
ATIII Thrombin antagonist
Acts on II, IX, X, XI, XII ATIII Thrombin antagonist
Vitamin K dependent factors II, VII, IX, X
Vita K antagonism or deficiency assoc w/ rodenticide tox (warfarin,coumarin), malabsorption, BTO, heriditary (devon rex cats), & hemorrhagic porcine stress syndrome
Expect prolonged clotting times (PT, then PTT) Vit K
If suspicious, tx w/ vita K & watch for improved clotting times w/in 24-48 hrs Vit K def or antagonism
Test of vasculature Bleeding time test, biopsy
Test of platelets Need good,clean stick, Platelet count, blood smear, platelet aggregation, bleeding time test
Test of coag factors – Intrinsic system w/ ACT, PTT (XII, XI, X, IX, VIII, II or I)
Test of coag factors -Extrinsic system w/ PT (VII, X, V,II, I), also good test for vita K antagonism since factor VII has shortest t½ of vita K dependent factors
Fibrinogen & FDP assay test for DIC, vWD assay in certain breeds (DPs), PIVKA (glorified PT, rodenticide testing)
Inhibitors of coagulation ATIII, aspirin, EDTA (binds divaalent Ca ions), heparing (activates ATIII), dicoumarol (vita K antagonist, rodenticide)
Coccidiomycosis Coccidioides immitis, San Joaquin Valley Fever,Dimorphic soil pathogen
Fungus found in arid regions of SW USA Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Infection via inhalation of fungal spores Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Most common in dogs Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Large (50+μm) round organism w/ thick basophilic walls & small internal structures Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Acute infections are respiratory in nature & usu self-limiting Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Chronic respiratory disease affecting lungs, can disseminate to eye & bone,Osseus involvement has poor LT px, resembles osteosarcoma,Bone lesion of baboons Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Clinical signs - Chronic cough, anorexic, cachexia, lameness, big joints, fever, intermittent diarrhea Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Diagnosis - Dog w/ chronic bronchopulmonary diz in endemic area,Pulmonary nodules & enlgd hilar ln found on thor rads Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Positive coccidiodin test indicates exposure,Serology helpful, do not culture Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Treatment: Amphotericin B is drug of choice Coccidiomycosis,Coccidioides immitis
Coccidiosis Causes acute invasion & destruction of intestinal mucosa
Problem in young animals, develop immunity as adults,Host-specific coccidiosis
Oocysts sporulate in environment w/in several days,Infection via ingestion of sporulated oocysts,Clean environment daily Coccidiosis
Diarrhea may precede output of oocysts, so not always possible to dx coccidiosis via fecal exam,Impression smear of intestine more diagnostic Coccidiosis
Finding oocysts in feces does not indicate coccidiosis infection unless clinical signs are present
Treat w/ sulfadimethoxine, a folate antagonist & coccidiostat & good sanitation Coccidiosis
Poultry coccidia Eimeria, Cryptosporidia
Small animals coccidia Isospora, Cryptosporidia
Large animals coccidia - cows/sheep/goats/pigs Eimeria, Cryptosporidia
Diz of pigs 5 - 15 days old Eimeria, Cryptosporidia (coccidian)
Contagious Equine Metritis Taylorella equigenitalis, Highly contagious venereal disease of horses,REPORTABLE
Transmitted during coitus, resides in smegma of stallion prepuce,Self-limiting Contagious Equine Metritis,Taylorella equigenitalis
Clinical signs – None in males,Mare develop endometritis w/ vulvar discharge 2-6 days after service,Low conception rate,Once infection subsides, fertility is regained,Abortion uncommon CEM
Diagnosis - Recovery of organism,Hemagglutinating antibody CEM
Copper Deficiency Common in Texas in young pastured ruminants
Cu stored in liver, absorbed in SI & excreted in bile
Primary Cu deficiency decreased Cu in soil & forage
Secondary Cu deficiency interdependent inc Mo dec Cu,inc Fe dec Cu, S-Mo
Clinical signs – Unthiftiness, achromotrichia, diarrhea, lameness, demyelinization, falling disease Copper Deficiency
Swayback in lambs, anemia Copper Deficiency
Copper Deficiency Diagnosis Liver Cu [ ], serum Cu [ ], cerulopasmin in serum, diet Cu [ ]
Copper Deficiency Treatment Copper gylcinate injection every 6 mos SQ,Copper sulfate in feed,Copper oxide needle bolus
Copper Deficiency Prevent Salt/trace mineral mixes with Cu,CuSO4 fertilizer
Copper Poisoning Sheep
Chronic ingestion of excess amount of Cu leads to sequestration in liver Copper Poisoning,Sheep
A stressor induces sudden release of copper from the liver, resulting in severe intravascular hemolysis Copper Poisoning,Sheep
Clinical findings - Acute hemolytic crisis, depression, weakness, anorexia, hemoglobinuria, jaundice Copper Poisoning,Sheep
Control - Restrict copper intake; supplement with molybdenum Copper Poisoning,Sheep
Congenital Hyperlipidemia Inherited disease of miniature schnauzers
Constipation 1)Protatomegaly in dogs,2)pelvic fractures in cats(real concer if cat preg),3)hypothroidism in dogs
Contagious Ecthyma aka Contagious Pustular Dermatitis, Sore Mouth, Orf
Poxvirus, related to pseudocowpox and bovine papular stomatitis
Infectious dermatitis of sheep and goats transmitted by direct contact, usually in young Contagious Ecthyma
Goats > sheep,Organism is highly resistant to dessication Contagious Ecthyma
Lesions on skin of lips with extension into oral mucosa, also on feet, interdigital regions,Vaccination Contagious Ecthyma
Once recovered usu highly resistant,ZOONOTIC, vets and sheep handlers lesions on hands, face usu more proliferative, distressing Contagious Ecthyma
Copper Storage Hepatopathy of Bedlington Terriers Recessive inherited copper storage disease in which Bedlington terriers accumulate copper in liver
See signs of liver disease, slowly progressive hepatopathy, usu by 3 yrs old,Incurable,Manage with penicillamine, Trientine,Severe disease,See similar diz in Westies, but mild Copper Storage Hepatopathy of bedlington terriers
Corkscrew Claw Heritable defect of the lateral claw of cattle,Causes serious 2ndary lameness,Must trim continually,Cannot diagnose from dorsal aspect,Cull
Coronavirus Milder than parvo but cannot distinguish by clinical signs,Diarrhea, vomiting
Corticosteroid Responsive Meningitis Large breed, < 2 yr, cervical pain, rare to have neuro disorder, px excellent with treatment
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Horse – Causes pectoral abscesses
Seasonal, late summer and fall Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Transmitted by fomites, arthropods, skin wound,Lance abscesses, flush with iodine Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Penicillin or TMS may be used, but antibiotic therapy may delay abscess maturation Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
CN I Olfactory nerve,Sense of smell
CN II Optic nerve,Vision,Prechiasmal vs postchiasmal (PLR intact, no menace)
CN III Oculomotor nerve,Motor to muscles of eye, constriction of pupil, accommodation
Divide into 3 major branches CN III: Ophthalmic n(sensory to eyeball, medial canthus, nasal mucosa), Maxillary n(sensory to dorsal/rostralhead), Mandibular n(motor to mastication mm and sensory to lower jaw)
CN IV Trochlear nerve,Motor to dorsal oblique muscle of the eye
CN V Trigeminal nerve,Motor to muscles of mastication and sensory to head
CN VI Abducens nerve,Motor to lateral rectus and retractor bulbi,Abduction of eyeball
CN VII Facial nerve,Motor to muscles of facial expression and sensory to rostral tongue/taste
CN VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve,Sense of hearing and proprioception
CN IX Glossopharyngeal nerve,Motor and sensory to pharynx and caudal tongue,Gag reflex, taste on caudal 1/3 of tongue, involuntary phase of swallowing
CN X Vagus nerve,Parasympathetic to viscera of neck, thorax, abdomen,Motor to skeletal mm of pharynx, laryns esophagus and sensory to mucosa,Gag reflex, coughing, swallowing
CN XI Accessory nerve,Motor to skeletal mm of neck and trapezius
CN XII Hypoglossal nerve,Motor to intrinsic and extrinsic mm of tongue
Remember CN w/ parasympathetic functions CN III, VII, IX, X, XI
Arytenoid Chondropathy or Chondritis Horse,Bilateral inflammation of the arytenoid cartilage causing exercise intolerance, noise, coughing, dyspnea, syndrome similar to that caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis
Dx via endoscopy Arytenoid Chondropathy or Chondritis
Tx – partial/total arytenoidectomy (leave muscular process)Bilateral – temporary and permanent tracheotomy Arytenoid Chondropathy or Chondritis
Ascariasis Toxocara canis, felis, Roundworms found in the SI of dogs and cats
Aspergillosis Inhaled fungus
Most common nasal fungal infection in dogs (A fumigatus), esp dolichocephalics
Urinary aspergillosis in GSD, systemic
Primary a respiratory disease aspergillosis
Causes pulmonary infections in birds and death in penguins, mycotic abortion in cattle, gutteral pouch mycosis in horses, infections of the nasal and paranasal tissues of dogs Aspergillosis
Clinical signs and lesions in birds include yellow nodules in respiratory passages, etc,See matts of hyphae,Eats away at turbinates aspergillosis
Tx w/ itraconazole and others,Flush nasal cavity w/ chlortrimazole aspergillosis
Aspiration pneumonia Right middle lung lobe most commonly affected (1st major bronchus)2 complication in many diseases,Can be fatal
Treat aggressively with antibiotics Aspiration pneumonia
Aspirin – NSAID Irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthetase) thereby dec synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes
Platelets cannot synthesize new cyclooxygenase causing an irreversible effect reduction of platelet aggregation NSAIDS
Antiinflammatory by local actions, antipyretic and analgesic by effects on CNS NSAID
Pharmacokinetics - Metabolized in the liver by conjugation with glycine and glucuronic acid via glucuronyl Transferase NSAID
Cats are deficient in this enzyme, so aspirin has a prolonged half life in cats and may accumulate glucuronyl transferase
Excreted by kidneys NSAID
Use - Analgesia, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, inhibition of platelet aggregation NSAID
Adverse eff ects - GI ulcers,Toxicity in cats NSAID
Comparison of NSAIDs – Phenylbutazone more effective peripherally (antiinflammatory) than centrally (antipyretic)
Acetaminophen has weak peripheral actions and does not produce significant GI irritation, nor does it have siqnificant antiinflammatory activity, though it acts centrally as an analgesic
Atopy - Type I HPS histamine mediated release from mast cells,IgG mediated,Hives, wheals, urticaria distributed to face, feet, ears, armpits, legs in dogs
Miliary dermatitis in cats
Includes food allergies and atopic dermatitis dt inhaled allergens Atopy
Intradermal skin testing and ELISA testing (controversial)Remove offending allergen, hyposensitization, glucocorticoids Atopy
Horner's syndrome Failure of sympathetic innervations,Mitosis, ptosis (droopy lid), enophthalmos (sunken eye), prolapsed nictitans
Hydralazine Alters calcium metabolism in smooth muscle, preventing initiation and maintenance of the contractile state,Arterioles > veins
Used as an afterload reducer for treatment of CHF, especially mitral insufficiency, and systemic hypertension Hydralazine
Hydronephrosis Dilated pelvis, loss of medulla
Hypercalcemia Always correct for albumin,Corrected Ca++ = Msrd Ca++ + 3,5 – Albumin
Most common cause in small animals is Hypercalcemia of Malignancy, usu dt lymphoma or apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of the anal sac
Hyperparathyroidism hypercalcemia which is most common cause in horse, nutritional 2ndy hyperparathyroidism, Addison’s diz (late in diz), hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, granulomatous diz, Quintox intoxication, and lab error
Tx fluid therapy, saline diuresis, loop diuretics (max Na+ excretion and thus Ca++ excretion), bicarbonate to reduce the ionized fraction of serum Ca++ Hypercalcemia
Hyperestrogenism Only pruritic endocrine disorder, often neoplasia
Intense pruritis in young, female dogs, immature mammae and genitalia, alopecia,Bone marrow suppression Hyperestrogenism Dx w/ ACTH stim and sex hormone panel, biopsy
Tx w/ low dosages of lysodren Hyperestrogenism
Hyperkalemia ECG changes include bradycardia, tall tented T waves, loss of P waves, wide QRS complexes
Treatment for hyperkalemia sodium bicarbonate to send K+ into cell and regular insulin/glucose,Volume expansion
Hypersensitivity – Immune-mediated injury Type I Immediate, Acute, severe, allergic reactions,Anaphylaxis,Evident in seconds to minutes,Drug reaction
Hypersensitivity – Immune-mediated injury Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity,Actives complement cascade,Autoimmune disease
Hypersensitivity – Immune-mediated injury Type III Antigen+Antibody complexes,Arthus reaction,Deposited in tissues, leads to inflammation and necrosis,Serum Sickness in equine dt IV tetanus toxoid
Hypersensitivity – Immune-mediated injury Type IV Delayed HPS,Cell mediated cytotoxicity,Lymphocyte and macrophage mediated,Tissue graft rejections,+ TB skin test
Leukocytozoon Blood parasite of wild birds,Common, inside RBC, non pathogenic, don’t treat
Lidocaine Toxicity 1st see CNS signs such as tremors, seizures,Then cardiopulmonary depression
Lime Sulfur Safe dip for many derm diz,Notoedres, scabies, dermatophytosis,Don’t let cats lick when wet
Linear Foreign Bodies Under the tongue in cats and in pylorus of dogs and cats
Dx via palpation and rads (tear drop bubbles, not dilatation; plication),Contrast rads w/ iodine (not barium) Linear Foreign Bodies
Tx by releasing attachment,If not better in 18-24 hours, sx Linear Foreign Bodies
Listeria - Listeria monocytogenes Found in soil, mammalian GI tracts,Localized in intestinal wall, medulla oblongata, and placenta
Clinical signs - Causes encephalitis or meningoencepholitis in adult ruminants, late abortion, septicemia, placentitis, and autolyzed fetuses Listeria
Diagnosis - Isolation and identification,Submit brain stem Listeria
Treatment – Penicillin Listeria
Lipemia Fast 12-18 hours, should be no lipemia,If present after fast, likely eating, hypothyroidism, or idiopathic hyperlipidemia of schnauzers
Increased risk for pancreatitis,Often see complications in eye Lipemia
Liver in Large Animals Biliary – GGT, STH,Hepatocellular – AST (no ALT)
Function test – bile acids, do not have to fast Liver in Large Animals
No gallbladder in horses
The test for Albumin has long t1/2 in horses, don’t use
Bilirubin,Ammonia Liver test in Large Animals
Lumpy Jaw Actinomyces bovis Gram+ filamentous anaerobe
Cows and wallabees,Damage to mucosa 1st Painless rarefying osteomyelitis of mandible/maxilla, hard nonmoveable swelling Lumpy Jaw,Actinomyces bovis
Difficult to culture Lumpy Jaw,Actinomyces bovis
Dx with clin signs, exudates smears, rads, biopsy Lumpy Jaw,Actinomyces bovis
Salvage less valuable,NaI for 3 separate treatmentsOxytet, penicillin parenterally Lumpy Jaw,Actinomyces bovis
Lungworms – Cow and deer Dictyocaulus viviparus
Lungworms - Horse/donkey Dictyocaulus arnfeldi
Lungworms - Sheep/goat D filaria,Protostrongulus rufescens, Mullerius capillaris
Lungworms – Pigs Metastrongylus apri
Lungworms – Dog Filaroides osleri
Lungworms- Cat Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila
Lower respiratory tract infection, coughing, respiratory distress Lungworms
Dx larvae in fecal Lungworms
Tx w/ levamisole, ivermectin, fenbendazole,Thiabendazole not effective, Some vax Lungworms
Lupine Toxicity Ingestion of lupine plants between days 40-70 of gestation causes crooked calf disease
Joint contracture, torticollis, scoliosis, kyphosis, cleft palate Lupine toxicity
Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi
Bacterial disease transmitted by Ixodes ticks,Tick must be on animal for > 12 hrs Lyme Disease
ZOONOTIC, skin lesions in people, Incidence inc in spring and fall Lyme Disease
See lameness, intermittent and nonerosive arthritis, fever, lymphadenopathy,Neurological, cardiac, and renal abnormalities (no thrombocytopenia!) Lyme Disease
Dx by serologic tests - IFA, ELISA, Western blot Lyme Disease
Titers can be inc w/ no diz Lyme Disease
Tx w/ doxycycline Lyme Disease
Control via tick avoidance/treatment (permethrin, amitraz, fipronil) Lyme Disease
Lymphoid Leukosis Retrovirus of chickens
Neoplasms,Difficult to ddx from Marek’s Disease,Look for tumor in bursa = pathognomonic Lymphoid Leukosis
Macaw Wasting Disease Psittacine Proventricular Dilatation Syndrome (PPD)
Unknown etiology, virus likely Psittacine Proventricular Dilatation Syndrome (PPD)
Dilation of proventriculus and ventriculus ceases digestion,Wasting disease of macaws, see whole seeds in droppings,Death Psittacine Proventricular Dilatation Syndrome (PPD)
Dx via clin signs and rads (dilation, dec barium passage) Psittacine Proventricular Dilatation Syndrome (PPD)
Malasezzia Yeast involved in otitis externa
Moist, greasy, malodorous and highly pruritic,Normal flora in dec#’s in dogs, rare in cats Malasezzia
Dx via ear smear, 1º or 2º bacterial infection common Malasezzia
Tx w/ miconazole, ketaconazole, conofite topical lotion Malasezzia
Malignant Catarrhal Fever Gammaherpes virus
Acute, sporadic, infectious and highly fatal diz of cattle near lambing sheep Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Little to no cow to cow transmission Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Also see in farmed deer, wildebeests,Low morbidity, high mortality (lethal) Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Clinical signs - Extensive erosion and edema of GIT and URT,KCS, photophobia, corneal opacity,blindness,pytalism, encephalitis, and lymphadenopathy Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Also interstitial infiltration of organs by lymphocytes Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Kidney - evident as white, raised foci under capsule Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Diagnosis – Virus isolation, ELISA, IFA,Cross reacts with other herpesviruses Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Treatment and control – Survival rare, if so, carriers,Separate from source Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Malignant Edema Clostridium septicum (Also C chauvoei, C perfringen, C sordelli, and C novyi)
Acute fatal toxemia of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs caused by contamination of wounds Malignant Edema
Clinical findings include anorexia,intoxication, high fever,Wounds edematous,Muscle in area dark brown to black Malignant Edema
Dx by IFA Malignant Edema
Tx w/ penicillin or broadspectrum antibiotics early in diz, Bacterins for immunization,Blackleg/Malignant Edema vax Malignant Edema
Malignant Hyperthermia Porcine Stress Syndrome
Hypermetabolic syndrome involving skeletal muscle Malignant Hyperthermia
Genetically transmitted myopathy most prevalent in lean, heavily muscled meat pigs - Pietrain, Landrace, Poland China, Duroc Malignant Hyperthermia
Also occurs in the wallaby,Abnormality in skeletal mm Ca++ kinetics Malignant Hyperthermia
Stressor or drug (inhalation anesthestics like halothane, methoxyflurane) stimulates sustained release of Ca++ resulting inc glycogenolysis and heat production Malignant Hyperthermia
Lactic acid production leads to acidosis,Hyperthermia + acidosis + ATP depletion = rhabdomyolysis,inc K+ causes cardiac dysrhythmia and arrest Malignant Hyperthermia
Clinical findings – Fine muscle tremors in sk mm progress to muscle rigor, then blanching and cyanosisTachycardia, dyspnea, dysrhythmias,Extreme fever (113ºF)Rapid rigor mortis,Affected muscles pale and wet in animals that die Malignant Hyperthermia
Diagnosis - History of stress, exposure to stressor drugs,DNA test Malignant Hyperthermia
Treatment – Genetics, test and cull,Dantrolene (muscle relaxant) given early before blood flow is reduced inhibits and controls episodes,Fluid tx, control acidosis, surface cooling Malignant Hyperthermia
Marek's disease Herpesvirus of chickens
Ubiquitous and highly contagious,Neurotropic disease, see thickened sciatic nerves and tumor in the eyes Marek’s disease
Transmitted via aerosol if stable in environment Marek’s disease
Three forms: productive infection (virion formation in feather follicles); latent infection (carrier state); neoplastic transformation (lymphoid neoplasms) Marek’s disease
Ddx from lymphoid leukosis Marek’s disease
Clinical findings – Depression than death,Enlarged nerves dt lymphoid proliferation in peripheral nerves and CNS inflammation causing ataxia and transient paralysis Marek’s disease
Diffuse nodular lymphoid tumors in various organs,Enlarged feather follicles (skin leukosis) Marek’s disease
Diagnosis - Based on enlarged, thickened nerves and lymphoid tumors upon necropsy Marek’s disease
Control – Vaccinate chicks at hatching,Strict sanitation,Breed resistance Marek’s disease
Mast Cell Tumor Most frequently recognized malignant neoplasms of dogs and cats (cutaneous, leukemic and visceral forms)
Dogs - local aggregation of mast cells in skin of dogs; cutaneous mast cell tumors more aggressive in dogs) Mast Cell Tumor
Cats - visceral mast cell tumors much more common (ddx for splenomegaly) Mast Cell Tumor
Release of histamine or other vasoactive substances may be associated with GI ulceration,May become malignant) Mast Cell Tumor
Metastasis occurs most frequently in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen) Mast Cell Tumor
Mastitis In cows, multiple bacterial etiologies (staph, strep, coliform, pseudomonas, actinomyces)
Control and eradication, Segregate and treat based on C&S,Sanitation,Similar in other species Mastitis in cows
Megacolon In dog, dt stricture or tumor,DON’T cut out colon
In cat, idiopathic,If nothing else works, colonectomy (takes weeks before start solidifying feces) Megacolon
Megaesophagus 2ndrary aspiration pneumonia can kill
Barium series, fluoroscopy to dx Megaesophagus
Patient that deteriorates very fast likely has gastroesophageal intussusception Megaesophagus
Congenital – Schnauzer, GSD,Feed from elevated platform Megaesophagus
Acquired – Myesthenia gravis, lead toxicity, hypoadrenocorticism, dysautonomia in cats,esophagitis Megaesophagus
Meningioma Most common primary brain tumor in cats
Mesquite Bean Toxicity Prosopis spp,Must eat large amounts, get addicted if no other food source Get CHO overload, acidosis
Drool, dysphagia, wt loss, tongue protrusion, intermandibular swelling Mesquite Bean Toxicity
Difficult to treat, rumenotomy, B vitamins, fluids w/ bicarb Get them to start eating something else (even if have to tube) Mesquite Bean Toxicity
Metabolic Bone Disease Reptiles,Ca:P ratio should be 1,2:1 (significantly diff than carnivore diet)Gut loaded insects
Vita D and UV light,Abnormalities reflect nutritional 2ndary hyperparathyroidism Metabolic Bone Disease of reptiles
Metaclopramide Central and peripheral antiemetic and prokinetic from esophagus to duodenum
Increases lower esophageal sphincter tone, force of gastric contractions (moves the right direction) Metaclopramide
Metaldehyde Mulluscicide,Shake and Bake,Nervous signs include tremor, incoordination, tonic convulsions, salivation, dyspnea, unconsciousness, death dt respiratory failure
Resembles strychnine poisoning,Tx convulsions w/ diazepam,Tx hyperthermia Metaldehyde
Methotrexate Folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic
Milk Fever Parturient paresis in cows
Hypocalcemia,Dairy > beef,Due to excess Ca++ fed during dry period (like alfalfa)Body has stored and expects more, can’t free in time of need Milk Fever
More common in mature cattle at or soon after parturition Milk Fever
Clinical signs – Afebrile,Prodromal see restlessness, tremor, staggering,Then see recumbent, sternal w/ head turned against back, dry muzzle, dull eyes,dec muscle tone, flaccid paralysis Milk Fever
Final stage is comatose Milk Fever
Treatment – IV calcium gluconate,Administer slowly w/ cardiac ausculation dt cardiotoxicity of calcium,If dysrhythmias heard, stop until rates return to normal Milk Fever
Milking Machine Regular vacuum fluctuation,Pressure should be 13 inches Hg, pulsation rate 40-60/min, ratio 40-50 rest:50-60 vacuum
Pressures above or below associated with mastitis Milking Machine
Moldy Corn Poisoning Fusarium multiforme fungus
Mycotoxin,Assoc w/ aflatoxicosis, estrogenism, ochratoxicosis, trichothecene toxicosis, and equine leukoencephalomalacia Moldy Corn Poisoning,Fusarium multiforme fungus
Equine leukoencephalomalacia see apathy, drowsiness, pharyngeal paralysis, blindness, circling, staggering, recumbency,Lesion is liquefactive necrosis of the white matter of the cerebrum Moldy Corn Poisoning,Fusarium multiforme fungus
Molybdiosis Inc molybdenum dec availability of dietary copper, impedes metabolism of tissue Cu, inhibits Cu enzymes, and promotes Cu excretion
Clinical signs include scours, depigmentation, unthriftiness Molybdiosis
Tx w/ copper sulfate supplementation,Want Cu:Mo ratio of 6:1 Molybdiosis
Monensin poisoning Poultry coccidiostat,Also used in ruminants feed as a growth promotant
Not used in horses dt toxicity Monensin poisoning,Poultry coccidiostat
Toxicity requires a large dose in cattle, a normal dose in horses, and causes death due to heart failure Monensin poisoning,Poultry coccidiostat
Morphine Mu-agonist opiate,Analgesia, antitussive, sedation
Resp depression, emesis, physical dependence, constipation, 2ndry effects include euphoria, confusion, bradycardia dt central vagal stimulation, peripheral vasodilation, inc bladder sphincter tone Morphine
Causes vasoconstriction in dogs Morphine
Motor Unit Includes motor neuron, neuromuscular junction and the myofibrils innervated by neuron
Multiple Myeloma Malignant neoplasm of plasma cells,Proliferate and invade BM causing destruction of bone
Results in bone pain and pathologic frxs, produces Bence-Jones protein Multiple Myeloma
Clinical signs include bone pain, SC compression, serum hyperviscosity, hyperglobulinemia, hypercalcemia Multiple Myeloma
Tx by dec serum viscosity,Melpholan is the antineoplastic of choice Multiple Myeloma
Myasthenia Gravis Autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors which bind to the receptor and dec Ach,Dogs
Clinical signs include extreme generalized muscle weakness accentuated by mild exercise, megaesophagus Myasthenia Gravis
Can be acute,fulminant repisodic,Mimics curare Myasthenia Gravis
Dx by measuring serum anti-ACHR antibodies,Tensilon test - short acting anticholinesterase (Edrophonium Cl) see dramatic inc in strength Myasthenia Gravis
Tx is Pyridostigmine (mestinon) which inhibits acetylcholinesterase,LT immunosuppressive therapy Myasthenia Gravis
Mycetoma Mold pathogens that cause grains, tumefaction, draining tracts,Pseudomycetoma is chronic granuloma usu dt staph
Created by: alljacks



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