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Most common in dairy cattle within one month of parturition or prepartum LDA and RDA
Due to hypocalcemia resulting in abomosal atony LDA and RDA
Leads to metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia, hypokalemia due to sequestration of acid, chlorine and potassium in abomasums LDA and RDA
Left 5-10x more common than right
Left-sided ping between ribs 9-13 LDA
Normal TPR,Anorexia, decreased production, ketosis, Diarrhea is poor px sign LDA and RDA
Treatment - roll cow, but recurrence likely,Surgical correction with omentopexy or abomasopexy LDA and RDA
RDA can become Abomasal volvulus
Dairy cows near parturition w/ sudden drop in milk prod,Usu counterclockwise from rear,Very sick, clinical signs more severe dt vascular compromise,Rt sided ping, palpable,Treatment is surgery,Poor prognosis Abomasal volvulus
Most common in high-producing dairy cows in first 6 weeks of production,Stress decreases protective prostaglandins Abomasal ulcers
Ulceration at the ventral portion of the fundic region of the greater curvature,See melena,anorexia, occult blood, abdominal pain Abomasal ulcers
is significant cause of bleeding ulcers in older cattle LSA
Bleeding ulcers don’t perforate and perforating ulcers (seen in calves) don’t bleed
Pregnant beef cattle in winter with poor quality feed Abomasal impaction
Left Ping LDA, pneumoperitoneum, atonic rumen
Right Ping Spiral colon, rectum/colon, RDA, RAV (palpable)
Herd problem: IBR, BVD, brucellosis, leptospirosis, campylobacteriosis, trichomoniasis, anaplasmosis,ureaplasmas, mycoplasmas Abortion in Cattle
Mycotic (Aspergillus, Mucor spp)Reach uterus hematogenously cause late term abortion in cattle
Dx via culture of fetal tissue abortion due to mycosis
Also Listeria, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus,bluetonque,Nitrates, lupine, locoweed, mycotoxins can cause abortion in cattle
Most common infectious cause of abortion in horses is Equine Herpes 1, last trimester
Equine viral arteritis less frequent cause of abortion in horses
EVA and EH1 Vax available for both diseases
Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichic coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodococcus equi, Actinobacillus equuli Causes sporadic abortion in horses
These infections occur through ascending infection via the cervix Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichic coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodococcus equi, Actinobacillus equuli
Twin pregnancies in horses often result in abortion
Crush the smallest embryo at day 22-25 after confirmation of pregnancy Tx for twin pregnancy in horses
Most common cause of abortion is campylobacteriosis sheep
Campylobacteriosis Infection via ingestion of organisms
Late-term abortion of edematous fetus,liver with gray necrotic foci,Carrier sheep shed organisms in feces, uterine discharges, aborted fetuses Campylobacteriosis
Culture and ID organism in fetal abomasal fluid and liver Campylobacteria
Vaccinate ewes at breeding,booster at second month gestation Campylobacteriosis
Toxoplasma gondii – protozoan, life cycle is completed in the cat
Abortion and still births in sheep, pigs, and goats Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii White foci in cotyledons, leukoencephalomalacia
Chlamydia psittaci in sheep late-term abortion
Sheep-Exposure via ingestion, inhalation or venereal,Fetus well-preserved or mummified chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydia psittaci in sheep Placentitis most consistent finding
Leptospirosis in sheep late-term abortions
Listeriosis late-term abortion, birth of weak lambs,Slight to marked autolysis of fetus, fluid in serous cavities, necrotic foci in liver, lung and spleen
Erosions in abomasal mucosa,CNS deficits,Man can be affected Listeriosis
Akabane virus disease arthrogryposis, hydrancephaly
Pigs Vaccinations parvovirus, pseudorabies, enterovirus, brucellosis, leptospirosis can affect reproductive performance
Vaccinate sows and gilts against leptospirosis, parvovirus and erysipelas
Also permit >21 day exposure to herd before breeding to allow natural exposure to endemic herd pathogens including parvovirus and enteroviruses that can cause reproductive failure
Parvovirus Early fetal resorption, reduced litter size, mummies Due to persistence of maternal immunity in gilts until sexual maturity, exposure at breeding time
Pseudorabies Abortion, stillbirths, mummies, weak pigs,Also fever, respiratory signs, nervous signs
Brucellosis Venereal
Leptospirosis – L interrogans one of most common causes of reproductive failure
L Pomona is late term abortion
L Bratislava commonly id in serologic surveys in midwest US but NOT affected w/ abortion or repro problems
Abortion induced in Cow PGF2 up to 4th month
Months 5-8 PGF2 & Dexamethasone combination for induced abortion in cow
PG for abortion only Mare
May need double dose or repeated treatment at 48 hour intervals after 4th month PG for abortion in mare
Douching of uterus also works at any stage of pregnancy Abortion in mare
for live foal only after cervix has begun to relax and colostrum is in udder oxytocin for use in mare
PGF2 can be used after day 40 Small animal
Dexamethasone 10 days produces fetal death and resorption Small animal
Phenothiazine tranquilizer,Block release and uptake of dopamine in the CNS,Also has anticholinergic, antihistaminic, antispasmodic & alpha-adrenergic blocking effects Acepromazine
Acepromazine Depresses RAS,Administer atropine to counteract bradycardic effects
Adverse effects Precipitates seizures,-RR,-arterial BP,+CVP, bradycardia, sinoatrial arrest,Bradycardia negated by physiological response to decreased BP Acepromazine
Causes extrusion of penis in male large animals,No analgesic effects Acepromazine
Positive effects - Antidysrhythmic effects,Inhibit arrhythmias induced by ultra-short barbiturates, halothane, Epinephrine Acepromazine
Reduces halothane-induced malignant hyperthermia in pigs Acepromazine
Contraindications - Decrease dose in animals with hepatic dysfunction, cardiac disease,Contraindicated in patients w/ hypovolemia, shock, tetanus, strychnine Acepromazine
If there is no displacement, fractures treated conservatively w/ Ehmer sling & restricted Activity,Bone plates & screws used for internal fixation Acetabelar
Acetaminophen poisoning Tylenol
Clinical signs - Hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia,Dark-colored urine,Icterus, facial edema,lethargy Acetaminophen poisoning
Clin path - Heinz body anemia, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria Acetaminophen poisoning
Therapy - N-acetylcysteine (Mucomist) Acetaminophen poisoning
Acrodermatitis Lethal familial zinc deficiency in white bull terriers
Retarded growth, progressive, acral, hyperkeratotic dermatitis, pustular dermatits at mucocutaneous jxns,Death by 2 yrs of age Acrodermatitis
Acute Abdomen Syndrome Acute presentation, showing systemic signs, abdomen painful, distended, V/D, weakness,Major categories are bacterial sepsis, obstruction/perforation, ischemia/thrombosis
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone,Suppresses excretion of urine
Has specific effect on the epithelial cells of the renal tubules ADH
Stimulates the resorption of water, resulting in concentration of urine ADH
Adrenal Glands Endocrine gland, Adrenal cortex Three zones
Zona glomerulosa (outer) secretes mineralocorticoids
Zona fasciculata (middle) layer secretes glucocorticoids
Zona reticularis (inner) secretes sex steroids
Accessory cortical tissue seen as small nodules in aged dogs is common and nonfunctional
Adrenal Medulla Modified sympathetic nervous system ganglion
Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine adrenal medulla Important role in response to stress or hypoglycemia
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone regulates ion transport of epithelial cells, resulting in excretion of K+ & conservation of Na+
Glucocorticoids Regulate carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism resulting in sparing of glucose and lipolysis
Glucocorticoids suppress inflammatory and immunologic responses
Can have negative effect on wound healing due to inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis glucocorticoids
Sex hormones Progesterone, estrogens, and androgens
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Cat lungworm
Life cycle includes snail first host,frog, lizard, bird or rodent vector aelurostrongylus abstrusus encysted larvae
Cat eats transport host, larvae migrate from stomach to lungs and embed in lung tissue Eggs form nodules in alveolar ducts, larvae hatch, coughed up, swallowed and passed in feces,Larvae in feces have dorsally spined tails aelurostrongylus abstrsus
Causes coughing, dyspnea,Treatment is levamisole aelurostrongylus abstrusus
African Swine Fever Iridovirus
Highly contagious viral disease that resembles hog cholera and is therefore REPORTABLE ASF
Eradicated from western hemisphere ASF
Replicates in RE cells, found in all fluids and tissues, No vaccine ASF
Ornithodoros ticks are vectors,Oronasal exposure,Survivors carriers for life ASF
Clinical signs include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, eye discharge, abortion, death,Hemorrhage of lymph nodes, renal cortex, splenomegaly (bigger than in hog cholera) Excessive pleural, pericardial and peritoneal f luids ASF
Air Sacculitis Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Causes respiratory tract infection in chickens,High rate of carcass,condemnation,Caseous exudates Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Aldosterone The main mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
Regulates electrolyte & water balance by promoting retention of Na+ & the excretion of K+,Retention of water induces an increase in plasma volume and an increase in blood pressure Aldosterone
Secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by angiotensin II
Aleutian Disease Parvoviral infection of mink resulting in immune complex formation and deposition, No vaccine
Alimentary Lymphosarcoma Most have normal or low peripheral lymphocytes,Nonresponsive IBD,Can be diffuse or multinodular,Dx w/ full thickness biopsy,Very difficult to treat
Alkalosis incHCO3,incTCO2
hyperventilation causes alkalosis
Cow saliva rich in HCO3 (horse saliva rich in Cl-)
Amyloidosis Consists of B pleated sheets of amino acids, refractory to enzymatic breakdown,Two major amyloid proteins,AA released from hepatocytes due to chronic infection,AL composed of partially degraded immunoglobulin light chains produce by malignant plasma cells
Disease caused by displacement of normal cells with amyloid deposits, mainly liver, spleen, brain and kidneys Amyloidosis
Anal Sac Disease Hematochezia, Chronic bright red blood w/ normal stools
Anaplasmosis Anaplasma marginale,Rickettsia located in the stroma of RBC
Disease of ruminants,Transmission through contamination with infected blood via ticks (Boophilus, Dermacentor), horse flies, stable flies, mechanical transfer of blood (vax, dehorn, etc),Fomites anaplasmosis
Carriers maintain disease in a herd, More severe in adult cattle, lifelong resistance if exposed young anaplasmosis
Clinical signs Depression, inappetence, fever, decreased production, marked icterus,Anemia leading to hypoxemia, Diagnosis Suspect in mature cattle showing anemia without hemoglobinuria, Blood smear, see anisocytosis, presence of agent,Serology anaplasmosis
Treatment Tetracycline LA200, Do not stress patients, may die,Insect control
Vax – May cause neonatal isoerythrolysis anaplasmosis
Ancylostoma caninum Canine hookworm
Anemia CRC percent reticulocytes X patient PCV/normal PCV (45 in dog, 37 in cat)
anemia Regenerative if > than 1percent in dog or 5percent in cat
Horses have no peripherally circulating reticulocytes
Regenerative Anemia Macrocytic, normochromic, nRBCs
Regenerative response take 2-5 days
Hemolysis – Intravascular RBC destruction w/in blood vessels & loss of Hgb from cells,Often severly ill w/ weakness, fever, icterus, Hgbemia, Hbguria
Blood pressure Systolic below 80 & mean below 60 are worry numbers when anesthetized
Hypotension is mean BP<60 for >20min
Assist by dec anesthetic percent, inc fluid rate, inc ventilation Hypotension
Kidney cannot autoregulate when BP<60mmHg
Arterial Pressures CO x Peripheral resistance
Systolic 100-160
Diastolic 60-100
Mean 80-120
CVP 0-10
Blood gasses – Hypoventilation kills slowly
Hypoxemia kills quickly
PaCO2 - Measures ventilatory status of the patient
Normal 35 – 45 mmHg PaCO2
PaCO2 < 35 hyperventilation
Inc HR,inc CO,inc BP, injected mucous membranes hyperventilation
PaCO2 > 45 hypoventilation
PaCO2 > 60 severe respiratory acidosis
Hypercapnia may be caused by hypoventilation, upper or lower airway obstruction, pleural filling disorders, pulmonary parenchymal disease, abdominal or thoracic restrictive disorders
PaO2 Measures oxygenating efficiency of the lungs
Normal 90-100 PaO2
Patients on 100percent O2 have PaO2 400-500
PaO2 5x what breathing
PaO2 < 60mmHg hypoxemia
SpO2 predictor of O2 saturation (PaO2),percent saturation of Hgb
Measure w/ pulse oximeter, want >90percent Hgb saturation
Urine output Indirect measure of major visceral organ perfusion
Intraoperative urine output should be 1-2ml/kg/hr, 1/2mg/kg/hr in horse,Renal fxn dec after general anest and sx in normal, healthy animal for 24-48 hrs
pH Acid base status Normal 7/4
Primary derangement is always in direction of pH, body won’t overcompensate 3 x bas deficity x wt(kg) = HCO3mEq (give ½ and reasses)
Temperature Can spontaneously fibrillate if < 90F
Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) Only anesthetic agent approved by FDA for fish
E cylinder of O2 Contains 700L at 2200 psi
H cylinder of O2 Contains 7,000L at 2200 psi
Angiotensin Vasoconstrictive principle formed in the blood when renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney
The enzymatic action of rennin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Angiotensin I is activated in the lung to become angiotensin II (by ACE)
Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone secretion and raises blood pressure, thereby decreasing fluid loss
Antacids and Antisecretory Agents Gastric ulceration, hypersecretory diz, EPI, NSAID tox
AlOH Cations bind bile acid, stimulate prostaglandin sythesis, cytoprotective,Rapid,Also binds P in renal disease
H2 antagonists Antisecretory, competitive blockade
Cimetidine TID H2 antagonist, least potent, most bioavailable
Ranitidine 5-12x more potent H2 antagonist, BID, less bioavail, minimal drug interactions
Omeprazole Proton pump inhibitors,Most effective antisecretory
Misosprostol Synthetic prostaglandin, antisecretory,Local effects
Sucralfate Cytoprotective, needs acidic environment to work,Protects and promotes healing, physiologic bandaid, NSAID prophy
Anterior Uveitis Inflammation of the anterior uveal tract iris, ciliary body, choroid
AU Signs Pain,blepharospasm,tearing,conjunctivitis,constricted pupil, reduced IOP,aqueous flare,keratic precipitates,hypopyon, miosis
Glaucoma, cataract and corneal opacification may be complication AU
AU Cause Trauma,infectious systemic disease,intraocular neoplasm,intraocular helminths,immune-mediated disease
Recurrent uveitis immune-mediated
Treatment - Topical atropine, corticosteroids if no ulcer, prostaglandin inhibitors, antibiotics AU
Blepharospasm spasm of the orbicular muscle of the eyelid
Aqueous flare turbidity of the aqueous humor caused by increased protein levels
Keratic precipitates fibrous deposits on the posterior surface of the cornea, usually associated with uveitis
Hypopyon pus in the anterior chamber of the eye
Pyrantel pamoate Nemex, Strongid-T,Neuromuscular blocker, paralyzes,Used for roundworms & hookworms in dogs & cats, also Physaloptera,Strongyles, ascarids in horses,Not absorbed, safe for puppies, kittens, pregnant & lactating animals,Pamoate salt limits absorption – just passes through
Fenbendazole Panacure,Least hepatotoxic benzimidozole,Treats rounds, hooks, whips, Taenia, lungworms (cats) & Giardia
NOT effective against D caninum tapes Fenbendazole
3 doses over 3 days Fenbendazole
Febantel is prodrug metabolized to fenbendazole in dogs, don’t use in cats
HPS reactions to dying parasites esp, at high doses Fenbendazole
Benzimidozoles interfere w/ parasite metabolism via inhibition of glucose transport = starvation
Brucellosis in dogs Brucella canis 3rd trimester abortion – orchitis
Also B abortus, B suis, orB melitensis associated with infected domestic livestock
Brucellosis in sheep – Brucella melitensis, abortion, B ovis, produces disease unique to sheep
Epididymitis & orchitis impair fertility B melitensis
Brucellosis in pigs – B suis Usually self limiting, can remain in herd for yrs,Man working in pack houses at risk
Prevalence highest in feral pigs B suis
Brucellosis card test,No vax B suis
Brucellosis in horses – B abortus, B suis
Suppurative bursitis, fistulous withers or poll evil,Occasionally abortion Brucellosis in horses
Unlikely source for disease to other horses, animals or man Brucellosis in horses
Brucellosis in people – Undulent Fever
Usu mild, can be serious public health problem esp when B melitensis Brucellosis in people
Bucked shins Front limb lameness in 2-3 yr old Thoroughbred or racing QH,Metacarpal bone painful on manual compression
Lameness likely dt microfractures in bone as result of compression during exercise at high speed,Metacarpal periostitis Bucked shins
Bullous diseases Autoimmune diseases of skin & mucous membranes characterized by pustules, vesicles, bulges, erosions & ulcerations
Occur in dogs, cats and horses Bullous diseases
Pemphigus foliaceus Young to middle aged dogs uncommonly, even less so in cats and horses
Pustular crusting disease sparing mucous membranes (no lesions in mouth) Pemphigus foliaceus
May form widespread heavy crusts, marked hyperkeratosis of footpads, & involvement of nailbeds that may lead to loss of the nails Pemphigus foliaceus
Tx w/ high doses of immunosuppressive drugs Pemphigus foliaceus
Pemphigus vulgaris Less common than PF
Vesicular disease affecting mucous membranes, Blisters, vesicles(rupture quickly), erosions in mouth, rectum, Suprabasilar acantholysis PV
Tx with high doses of immunosuppressive drugs PV
Difficult to get into remission, Poor px PV
Bullous pemphigoid Collies, DPs Rare, sloughing diz Lesions widespread, tend to concentrate in groin
Resembles severe scald Bullous pemphigoid
Pemphigus erythematosus Affects face & ears,has features of DLE,Scaling lesions,hypopigmentation of the planum nasale,Not well defined
Pemphigus vegetans Rare,Benign variant of pemphigus vulgaris,Bullae replaced by verrucoid hypertrophic vegetative masses
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Dermal SLE,Autoimmune skin dz of dogs characterized by depigmentation, erythema,scaling,erosions,ulcerations & crusting, particularly on & spreading up bridge of nose & sometimes face & lips
Immunoglobulins and/or complement are deposited at the basement membrane in the skin,Tx w/ tetracycline/ niainamide promising Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Controversial,Multisystemic autoimmune disease of dogs & cats
Extremely wide variety of clinical signs may occur, but immune-mediated polyarthritis, hemolytic anemia & skin disease are most common SLE
Griseofulvin Inhibits fungal mitosis by disrupting mitotic spindle, inhibit nucleic acid & fungal wall sythesis
Limited to dermatophytes only Give w/ fatty food to inc absorption Side effects include GI, teratogenic & carcinogenic at inc doses, bone marrow dyscrasias Do not give to pregnant animals Griseofulvin
Antiseptic Agents Agents applied to the body
disinfectants which are used on inanimate objects
Amphotericin B Polyene macrolide Binds to fungal sterols, altering permeability of membrane Fungistatic, Dimorphic fungi (histo, blasto, crypto, coccidio)
Because of the risk of severe toxicity reserved for disseminated,progressive, potentially fatal fungal infections,Nephrotoxic, anaphylactoid Amphotericin B
Apomorphine Most consistently effective antiemetic in dogs
Atropine Anticholinergic Central Too many side effects for antiemetic use
Chlorpromazine Phenothiazine Central, antidopaminergic Very effective centrally acting antiemetic, esp for blood born stimuli
2nd drug of choice for antiemetic Chlorpromazine
Diphenhydramine Antihistaminergic Central Good for motion sickness, otitis media/interna
Metaclopramide Antidopaminergic Peripheral & central Physiologically antagonizes vomiting reflex Also prokinetic from esophageal sphincter to upper duodenum, don’t give w/ obstruction, perforation, or epilepsy
1st drug of choice antiemetic agent Metaclopramide
Bismuth Subsalicylate Antiprostaglandin, antibacterial Peripheral Antidiarrheal Care in cats
Metronidazole Bactericidal & antiprotozoal Obligate anaerobes Disrupts DNA and nucleic acid synthesis
Immunolmodulator in IBD Metronidazole
Rifampin Bactericidal or bacteriostatic Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Used for treatment of Rhodococcus equi in combo w/ erythromycin
Fluoroquinolones Good G- aerobes, facultative anaerobes, atypical mycobacterium, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ehrilichia, BRD Bactericidal
DNA gyrase inhibitor, prevent DNA synthesis, Enrofloxacin (SID, prostate, RMSF,deethylated to cipro)ciprofloxacin Fluoroquinolones
Variable activity against Streptococci – not recommended Fluoroquinolones
Contraindicated in young animals due to cartilage defects Fluoroquinolones
Baytril (Fluroquinolones) associated with blindness in cats
Sulfonamides G+, easy G-,anaerobes, nocardia & actinomyces
Bacteriostatic, Inhibit folic acid pathway(PABA/pteridine not converted to DHFA),Broad spectrum Many bacteria have developed resistance sulfonamides
Potentiated sulfonamides TMPS Bactericidal, inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis in folic acid pathway
Exc tissue distribution Most drug side effects of all Abs,allergic rxs, hepatotoxic, KCS, hypothroidism, crystalluria, thyrotoxic, anemia,BM toxicity(aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia hypoprothrombinemia) Sulfonamides
Tetracyclines G+,easy G-,Mycoplasma,spirochetes, Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Hemobartonella, Brucellosis, Bacteriostatic
Inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal unit SafeProstate, Includes doxycycline tetracyclines
(biliary excretion), oxytetracycline, tetracycline Resistance inc May cause esophagitis
Chloramphenicol G+,G-Bacteriostatic,Binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit preventing protein synthesis
Penetrates everything, Can cause aplastic anemia in humans Chloramphenicol
Lincosomides G+aerobes,anaerobes,No G-Often combo w/ aminoglycosides, Lincomycin, clindamycin, Bacteriostatic or bactericidal,Bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit,Distribute well, biliary elimination
Contr in rabbits, rodents, horses, ruminants due to serious GI effects Lincosomides
Macrolides G+,selected G- Bacteriostatic
Bind 50S ribosomal subunit in alveolar macrophages, great for pulmonary infections Macrolides
Erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin Macrolides
Erythromycin is used in the treatment of Rhodococcus equi in combo w/ rifampin Can cause increase in GI motility
Tilmicosin used in BRD,CV toxicity in primates, horses,swine
Imidazoles Fungistatic Inhibit ergosterol/steroid synthesis (blocks cytochrome p450),inc cell membrane permeability,dec cell membrane fluidity
Use for dermatophytes, yeast, dimorphic fungi, Impairs steroid sythesis, so sometimes used in hyperadrenocorticism & prostate diz Imidazoles
Ketaconazole Fairly safe (hepatotoxicity), give w/ food
Short t½ Not got w/ dimorphic fungi, esp blasto Ketaconazole
Itraconazole more effective spectrum
Fluconazole Crosses BBB
5-Flucytosine Ancoban Inhibits DNA synthesis (antimetabolite, competes with uracil, interfering with pyrimidine metabolism and protein synthesis)
Limited spectrum Cryptococcus, Candida,Rapid absorption, excellent distribution 5-Flucytosine
Synergistic effect with amphotericin B Adverse effects include BM depression (pancytopenia),GI disturbances, rashes, oral ulceration, increased liver enzymes 5Flucytosine
Alcohol Protein denaturation,70percent effective against G+ and G- bacteria
Good bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal,Most rapid acting but least residual action Alcohol
Fast kill, defatting agent Evaporates quickly 2 min for max effect Alcohol
May be drying or irritating,May cause cytotoxicity Alcohol
Often used in combo w/ povidone iodine Alcohol
Arginine Essential amino acid for cats
Needed to drive the urea cylce b/c it transforms ammonia into urea Arginine
Arginine deficiency may potentiate hepatic encephalopathy
Arsenic Poisoning Sources include rodenticides, wood preservatives, weed killers, baits, insecticides
Clinical signs Acute effects on GIT and CV system,Profuse watery diarrhea, may be blood tinged,Severe colic, dehydration, weakness, depression, weak pulse Arsenic Poisoning
Diagnosis Determination of arsenic levels in tissue and ingesta
Arsenic Poisoning Treatment Thioctic acid, Dimercaprol (BAL)
Phenylarsonic toxicosis arsenical additives to swine and poultry diets to improve production, treat dysentery
Toxicosis results from excess supplementation
Atropine – Anticholinergic, antimuscarinic, Used as preanesthetic to dec respiratory secretions, prevent sinus bradycardia and AV block
Also an antidote for cholinergic overdose (physostigmine) and organophosphate toxicity Atropine
Don’t use in patients with glaucoma Atropine
Atrophic rhinitis - Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Pigs
Clinical signs - Sneezing, followed by atrophy of turbinate bones
Signs begin in pigs 3-8 wks Atropic rhinitis
Diagnosis - Signs, lesions, culture Atrophic rhinitis
Control - Difficult to keep herds free of diz, but usually low level Atrophic rhinitis
Control measures taken when reach unacceptable levels,Antibiotic (tet, sulf, tm, tyl) administration to prefarrowing sows, newborn piglets, weaners Atrophic rhinitis
Bacterin admin to sows (4 and 2 wks prefarrowing) and piglets (1 and 4 wks) Atrophic rhinitis
Atypical pneumonia - Includes acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPEE), fog fever, bovine atypical interstitial pneumonia
One of the more common causes of acute respiratory distress in cattle, esp adult beef cattle Atypical pneumonia
Typically occurs in autumn, 5-10 days after change to a lush pasture Atypical pneumonia
Lush pasture high in L-tryptophan, which is degraded in the rumen to indoleacetic acid, which is converted by rumenal microorganisms to 3-methylindole Atypical pneumonia
3-MI is absorbed into the bloodstream and is the source of pneumotoxicity after it is activated by pulmonary macrophages Atypical pneumonia
Autonomic Nervous System – Involuntary branch of peripheral efferent nervous system,works in conjunction w/ somatic NS which is voluntary branch of efferent division
Innervates cardiac mm, smooth mm, most exocrine glands, some endocrine glands ANS
Neurotransmitters are acetylcholine and norepinephrine ANS
ANS subdivides into sympathetic and parasympathetic NS
Cell body of 1st neuron in CNS – preganglionic fiber – cell body of 2nd neuron in ganglion outside CNS – postganglionic fiber – effector organ ANS
Most visceral organs dually innervated by SNS and PNS Sympathetic NS –Fight or flight,Originate in thoracolumbar SC,Short preganglionic fibers, synapse w/ ganglia in sympathetic trunk,Long postganglionic fibers
Parasympathetic NS –General housekeeping (SLUDDE) Originate in craniosacral SC,Long preganglionic, short postganglionic
Acetylcholine – Neurotransmitter for both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers
Also,parasympathetic postganglionic neurotransmitter,Called cholinergic fibers Ach
Ach also acts at sympathetic postganglionic fibers of sweat glands and efferent skeletal muscle terminals
Cholinergic receptors Nicotinic Found on postganglionic cell bodies in all autonomic ganglia,Respond to Ach released from both sympathetic and parasypathetic preganglionic fibers,Also on motor end plates of skeletal mm
Muscarinic Found on effector cell membranes of smooth mm,cardiac mm & glands,Bind w/ Ach from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers,Atropine blocks muscarinic receptors Cholinergic receptors
Norepinephrine – Released by sympathetic postganglionic fibers,Called adrenergic fibers (adrenaline),Also acts at adrenal medulla
Feathers don’t grow continuously, molt once a year (some spp twice)new feathers have blood supply
Urophygial gland at dorsal base of tail for preening
Proximal axial skeletal system is pneumatized
Do not attempt to get BM or put catheters in femur or humerus
Eyes have skeletal muscles in the iris,cannot dilate pupil w/ atropine (use NM blocker)Optic chiasm 100%, no concentual PLR Avian
Respiratory system requires filling of air sacs with 1st breath, goes to caudal air sac, lungs, cranial air sac and back out
Avian Digestive system is beak-tongue-cervical esophagus-crop-thoracic esophagus-proventriculus (glandular stomach)-ventriculus (grinding)-intestines-cloaca
Lobulated kidneys are dorsal in synsacral fossa Avian
Renal portal system in addition to hepatic portal system, why don’t give injections in hindlimbs (filtered prior to systemic circulation) Avian
Birds can decrease GFR b/c uric acid is secreted not filtered
Assess renal fxn w/ uric acid; severe renal failure leads to gout Birds
Liver measured by AST and bile acids (not SAP, ALT), eval CPK concurrently Birds
Icterus is rare, see bright green urates when urates should be white Birds
Female bird has 1 ovary on left, poultry have right remnant (often cystic)
Males birds have 2 testes, some have phallus
Heart has 4 chambers, right AV valve is muscular not tendinous,R aortic arch,not L Bird
Do not have lymph nodes but lymphoid tissue – if spleen enlgd, serious systemic disease Birds
Birds Lymphoid tissue includes thymus and bursa of fabrecious (outpouching of cloaca), both of which shrink up w/ sexual maturity
Heterophils instead of neuts w/ rod shaped granules, nucleated thrombocytes instead of platelets, nRBCs Birds
Avocado – Pulmonary edema and death in birds
Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head – Leg Perthy’s Disease in humans
Effects young toy and small breed dogs LPD
Decreased blood supply to femoral head and neck, femoral head collapses, pathologic fracures can occur, osteoarthrosis LPD
Usually unilateral lameness,Can be traumatic or spontaneous,On rads, see dec opacity of femoral head and neck, collapse of femoral head, joint laxity LPD
Sx, require FHO,Warn O that may occur in other side later LPD
Avulsion fracture - A fragment of bone, which is the site of insertion of a muscle, tendon or ligament, is detached as a result of a forceful pull,Repair with a pin or screw
Babesiosis – Babesia canis, B gibsoni in dogs, B felis in cats, B bigemina, B bovis in cows
Intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks Babesiosis
Dogs and cats – Rhipicephalus, the brown dog tick and some Dermacentor Babesiosis
Boophilus tick spp in cattle Babesiosis
Destroys RBCs intravascularly during escape from cells,No human health risk Babesiosis
Clinical signs – Can look just like IMHA, regenerative anemia,Most subclinical Babesiosis
If immunocompromised or splenectomized (parasitized cells removed by spleen), see Hgburia, hgbemia, anemia, hemolysis, icterus,Death Babesiosis
Diagnosis – Hx of tick infestations,Giemsa-stained capillary blood or organ smears,ELISA, IFA,Often Coombs +, polyclonal gammopathy Babesiosis
Treament – Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol), Diminazene aceturate (Berenil)Feline may be nonresponsive, primaquine phosphate reported to be effective Babesiosois
Barium Series Should move out of stomach into duodenum by 30 min,Reach ileocolic valve w/in 2 hrs
Beak and Feather Virus – Immunosuppressive disease, often die of 2ndary causes
Feather disease w/ damaged follicles, dystrophic feathers, hemorrhage in shafts,Necrotic beaks,Old world birds at risk PCR of blood sample to dx Beak and Feather Virus
Bence-Jones Proteins – In urine, comprised of immunoglobulin light chains
Bethanocol – Parasympathomimetic used for treating disorders of micturition when no obstruction present
Other drugs include dantrolene, diazepam, diethylstilbestrol, estrogen, testosterone, propantheline treating disorders of micturition
Cholinergic, effects primarily muscarinic, negligible nicotinic activity,Has inc duration of action compared to acetylcholine,Used to inc detrusor muscle tone and stimulate bladder contractions in small animals Bethanocol
Also an esophageal or GI stimulant, but metoclopramide and neostigmine are better Bethanocol
Biliary Tract Obstruction – Bilirubin causes normal colored feces
If no bilirubin, as in complete obstruction get pale white feces (i/d, rice will also do this) Biliary Tract Obstruction
#1 cause of BTO is pancreatitis
In surgery, if see little white dots, suponified fat, not mets BTO
Biopsy in pancreatitis in cats (uncommon)
Bismuth Subsalicylate – Effective antisecretory dt salicylate,Good for acute diarrhea
Blackleg - Clostridium chaovoei,Also C septicum and sordelli
An acute febrile disease of cattle and sheep characterized by myonecrosis and emphysematous swelling, usually in the heavy muscles Blackleg
Caused by ingestion of spores and deposition into mm,Usually in young adult beef cattle w/ no hx of trauma Blackleg
Usually trauma induced in sheep,Most common in summer and fall Blackleg
Clinical findings - Crepitant swellings of the heavy muscles,Acute lameness,Acute death in healthy young beef Cattle Blackleg
Diagnosis - History, clinical findings, IFA Blackleg
Blackleg Control – Vaccination
Blastomycosis - Blastomyces dermatitidis, Fungal disease of the Midwest,Hunting dogs
Large (8-20μm) broad based budding yeast w/ refractive cell wall,Infection causes primary granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesions in the lungs Blastomycosis
N∅s infiltrate,May occur in the skin, eyes, bone and elsewhere Blastomycosis
Draining cutaneous tracts, respiratory disease, Bone diz looks like tumor (ddx coccidio)AGID test, serology Tx w/ amphotericin B (nephrotoxic)Poor px if disseminated Blastomycosis
Blister Beetle – Cantharidin toxicity,Most often in horses
Blister beetles swarm in alfalfa hay during harvesting
Blister Beetles contain cantharidin, a potent irritant and vesicant that causes GI and renal signs as well as hyperemia and ulceration of the oral, esophageal and GI mucosa
Clinical signs include colic, salivation, choke, pollakiuria, hematuria, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia,Horses can die within 48 hours,Treat with supportive care Blister Beetle (Cantharidin toxicity)
Blood - Hemoglobin formation consists of a globin molecule and four heme groups
Each heme group contains an iron atom with which a molecule may associate and dissociate
Each Hbg molecule can transport a max of four molecules of O2
Each erythrocyte contains 200-300 million molecules of hemoglobin
When blood passes through the lungs, Hgb becomes saturated with O2, forming oxyhemoglobin
When this blood passes through body tissues, some of the O2 dissociates from theHgb
Normal blood contains 15 grams Hgb per deciliter, 98percent of that is saturated with oxygen
Blood Transfusion – wt (lbs) x 40(dog) or 30 (cat) x desired PCV – patient PCV/PCV of donor,Rate approx 10ml/kg/hr, slowly at first to check for adverse rxns
If giving to fast, patient will vomit Blood Transfusion
Blood Types –Cat A, B, and AB
Severe transfusion rxns in type B cats receiving type A blood
Type Bs carry alloantibodies to type A
Purebreds are more commonly type B
Risk for severe rxn on 1st transfusion
AB blood type is very rare
Dog blood type A (DEA1,1 or DEA1,2), B,C,D, F, Tr (DEA7), J,L,M,N
Dogs Blood Natural antibodies are anti-B,-D,-Tr, Donors should be DEA1/1, DEA1/2 and DEA7 negative, Neonatal isoerythrolysis assoc w/ anti-DEA1/1
Horse blood types A,C,D,K,P,Q,T,U, Natural antibodies anti-A,-C, NI assoc w/ Aa or Qa,Donors should be non Aa or Qa
Cow Blood types A,B,C,F,J,L,M,R,S,T,Z, Natural antibodies anti-J,B system most complex w/ >1000 alleles
Cow Blood Donor Ideally same blood type or at least w/out reactive antigens
Cross Match – Major 2 drops donor RBC in 2 drops recipient serum; if incompatible, recipient serum contains Abs to donor RBCs,Most important, if incompatible, cannot tranfuse for any reason
Minor Cross Match 2 drops recipient RBC in 2 drops donor serum; if incompatible, donor serum contains Ab to recipient RBCs,Cannot transfuse plasma, but can RBCs, if washed and major cross match compatible
Blood Volume Total body water 60percent of body weight; ECF = 50 of TBW, ICF = 50 of TBW
ECF divided into plasma volume (8per TBW), IF (37per TBW), and TF (5perTBW)
Blood volume can be approximated as 10 percent body weight, plasma volume as ½ blood volume
Normal blood volume is 90mls/kg in dog, 50mls/kg in cat, 75mls/kg in horse
Blood loss exceeding 20-25percent blood volume can lead to shock
Blue Tongue Virus - Orbivirus carried by Culicoides, Endemic in USA
Disease of sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants BTV
Cattle are the reservoir, Inappetance in cattle and goats, severe disease in sheep and deer BTV
Clinical signs - Sheep- hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears; dyspnea, erosion/ulceration of oral mucosa; muscle necrosis, cyanotic tongue BTV
Abortions, congenital defect Mortality 0-30percent,Cattle usually asymptomatic BTV
If develop clinical signs, same as sheep,If infected during gestation, may abort or give birth to abnormal calves BTV
Diagnosis and Prevention – IFA,Vaccinate sheep,Insect control BTV
Bog Spavin Chronic synovitis in tibiotarsal (hock) joint causing obvious distension of joint capsule
Bone Blood Supply - Diaphyseal nutrient artery enters and passes through cortex to medullary cavity w/out supplying collaterals to the cortex
Divides into ascending and descending branches which anastomose with the epiphyseometaphyseal vessels to supply the BM and compact and cancellous bone Diaphyseal nutrient artey
Blood flows centrifugally through cortex to exit via periosteal venules
In areas of the cortex with heavy fascial attachment, the outer 1/3 of the cortex is supplied by periosteal arteries
Bone Repair Sequence of events: trauma local blood vessel damage, local necrosis of bone & soft tissue back to sites of intact vascular perfusion,Active hyperemia to help w/ fracture healing,Removal of necrotic tissue & bone
Bone repair cont Clot organization,Formation of Fibrous callus appears 4-5 days after fracture,Bony callus visible radiographically 11- 38 days after fracture,Remodeling of callus,Trabecular bone converted into compact bone between ends of bone fragments
Bone Spavin – DJD of hock joint terminating in the formation of exostoses and ankylosis of the joint
Borreliosis – Tick-born bacterial disease of domestic animals and man,See Lyme Disease
Botulism - Ingestion of Clostridium botulinum toxin or via wound,Neurotoxin
Prevents synthesis of acetylcholine at motor end plates Botilism toxin
Clinical signs are weakness, flaccid paralysis w/ intact pain perception Progressive,Disturbed vision, difficulty chewing and swallowing, generalized progressive weakness Botulism
Shaker foals, Death is due to respiratory or cardiac paralysis,Difficult to isolate organism Once bound to nerves, antitoxin will no affect Botulism(clostridium botulinum)
Bovine Corona Virus – Neonatal Calf Diarrhea Winter dysentery,Fecal-oral w/ possible respiratory transmission, Can cause diarrhea in HUMANS
Bovine Leukosis Virus – Retrovirus AKA lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, leukemia
Common cattle disease, 2nd most common bovine neoplasia after SCC BLV
Transmitted by transfer of blood b/w animals,Trauma and surgery most common mechanisms of transmission, also insect vectors BLV
Only 3-5% of those infected get LSA BLV
Created by: alljacks



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