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Chapter 2 anat/physi

Chapter 2 Intro to Anatomy and Physiology

What is an element an element is matter that cannot be divided by ordinary chemical processes into another substance
what is a chemical symbol a chemical symbol uses a letter or letters to refer to elements. Chemical symbols are derived from the element's name in English, Latin or Greek
name the three subatomic particles proton, neutron and electron
what is the electrical charge of each particle? protons have a positive charge, neutrons have no electrical charge and electrons have a negative electrical charge
which particles are in the nucleus of an atom protons and neutrons
how many electron shells would an atom with four electrons have? 2
what is a molecule molecules are atoms joined together by chemical bonds
how does an ionic bond differ from a covalent bond a covalent bond is the bond formed when atoms share elctrons. an ionic bond is formed when elctrons are transferred from one atom to another
in what circumstances is a hydrogen bond commonly used hodrogen bonds are mostly between molecules (ex water molecules) and act to stabilize the solution. hydrogen bonding is key to water's unique properties as a universal solvent and a medium for the life processes.
can hydrogen bonds form between parts of the same molecule yes..this works to stabilize and hold the shape of large complex molecules such as proteins and DNA
what is a chemical reaction a chemical reaction is a change or transformation in a substance during the formation or breaking of chemical bonds
what are the three types of chemical reactions synthesis reaction, decomposition reaction and exchange reaction
what is synthesis reaction a new more complex chemical is made from multiple, simpler chemicals
what is decomposition reaction a complex substance breaks down into its simpler parts
what is exchange reaction certain atoms are exchanged between molecules. it is a combination of a synthesis and a decomposition reaction
the process of catabolism uses which type of chemical reaction decomposition reaction
what is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds organic compounds are molecules that contain hydrocarbon groups (hydrogen and carbon) and usually are covalently bonded. Inorganic molecules do not contain hydrocarbon groups. They often have ionic bonding
are only organic compounds necessary for life no. both organic and inorganic compounds are necessary for life on earth
what are the three types of inorganic molecules that are important for life water, salts, and acids and bases
what are the four types of organic molecules that are important for life carbohydrates, lipids, porteins, and nucleic acids
why is water called a polar molecule it has a slight positive charge in the area of the hydrogen atoms and a slight negative charge in the area of the oxygen atom. this polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other and with other polar molecules
what are the four properties of water that make it so necessary for life water is the universal solvent. water is an ideal transport medium. water has a high heat capacity and a high heat of vaporization. water is used for lubrication
how is an ion different from an atom atoms are neutral. they contain the same number of protons as electrons. an ion is an electrically charged particle produced by either removing electrons from a neutral atom to yield a positive ion or adding electrons to a neutral atom to yield a neg.ion
what is an electrolyte electrolytes are substances that have the ability to transvmit an electrical charge
what are some examples of electrolytes sodium, potassium, and calcium are examples of elcectrolytes
which type of compound is known as a proton donor, acid or base acid
what does PH measure the PH of a solution is measure of its acidity or alkalinity
is a solution with a PH of 8.5 acidic or basic basic
how does a weak acid act as a buffer it helps the cell maintain a neutral PH by not allowing excessive hydrogen or hydroxyl ions to accumulate. in water a weak acid will initially ionize into: free hydrogen (H+) ions, a weak base product and remaining intact weak acid molecules.
what three elements are found in all carbohydrates carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
what is the name of a simple sugar monosaccharide
what process joins multiple simple sugars dehydration synthesis
what is another name for a complex, multiunit carbohydrate polsaccharide
what three elements are found in all lipids carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
which atom makes up the backbone of all lipid molecules carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
which lipids are polar, neutral fats or phospholipids phospholipids
what is the function of lipids in the body lipids are used in the body for energy and are stored in fat for future energy needs. lipids also serve as chemical messengers in the form of some hormones.
what element is found in all proteins that is not found in carbohydrates or lipids nitrogen
what are the building blocks for proteins amino acids
what is the name of the bond holdng two amino acids together peptide bond
what is a peptide a peptide is a molecule consisting of two or more amino acids in which the carboxyl group of one acid is linked to the amino group of the other
how does an enzyme work enzymes speed up or catalyze chemical reactions without being destroyed or altered. enzymes are specific to the reaction they catalyze and the substrates (the subtances they act upon) they use
how does a nucleotide differ from a nuclic acid nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
what three parts compose a nucleotide nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a 5-carbon (pentose) sugar, and a phosphate group
how many nitrogenous bases are there there are 5 nitrogen bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U), and thymine (T)
why is DNA important to life DNA is the molecule that contains all the instructions needed by the cell to build portein. these instructions determine the shape and function of every tissue in the body and therefore the shape and fuction of the living organism
how does an ATP molecule differ from a nucleotide ATP is an RNA nucleotide containing the nitrogen base adenine with two additional phosphate groups attached
how does an ATP molecule supply a cell with energy to do work as a nutrient (ex. glucose) is catabolized, the energy created is stored in ATP molecules. ATP stores this energy in the bonds between its phosphate groups. when these bonds are broken, that energy is released from the ATP molecule.
Created by: cmonkey8



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