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Pharmacology Drugs 6

SA antimicrobials-Antifungals

QuestionAnswer
characteristics of metronidazole used largely on anaerobic, gram- microbes; can be used on some gram+; has tissue penetration; is a bacteriocidal; shows toxicities in GI and brain
T/F: the more life-threatening a disease is, the more you'll see antimicrobials used in combination. True
when/why would you use a high dose and long duration of therapy of an antimicrobial? Life threatening infection Intracellular pathogen Immunocompromised host Chronic or recurrent infection Hard to reach site
what are some possible choices for treating a female with a simple urinary tract infection? amoxicillin, clavomox, cephalexin, TMS, Enrofloxacin
What are some choices of antimicrobials to use in a male intact dog presenting with infertility and prostatitis? fluoroquinolone--> enrofloxacin, TMS, Chloramphenicol
Why wouldn't you elect to use TMS in a doberman pinscher with prostatitis, even though it's a good choice? causes polyarthropathy
An animal presents with a foreign body in it's nasal sinus. What antimicrobial would you choose to use? none; remove foreign body and only treat if infection occurs after removal
what are some antimicrobial choices for a male castrated mixed breed dog with a cough after boarding in a kennel? depends, if the dog is otherwise healthy treat with: doxycycline, azithromycin, enrofloxacin, TMS
what is your top diagnosis on a dog with actue polyarthropathy and PMN inclusion bodies? Ricketsial disease
what would you use to treat a dog with acute polyarthropathy and PMN inclusion? Doxycycline
A female intact dog presents with ciliary dyskinesia and severe pneumonia. What would you treat with? Enrofloxacin and ampicillin; Imipenem/meropenem; Amikacin and ampicillin; Ticarcillin and Enrofloxacin; Ticarcillin and gentamycin
you are presented with a MC DSH with a fever, anorexia, and a fluctuant subcutaneous mass. what do you do first before beginning antimicrobial treatment. confirm it is an abcess and drain the abcess
what would you use to treat an abcess in a cat? Amoxicillin; Clavamox; Cefazolin; Simplicef; Convenia
what would you use to treat a shar pei with pyoderma? Convenia; Cefpodoxime; Cephalexin; Clavamox; TMS; Enrofloxacin
A female lab presents at your clinic with sudden onset severe depression, findings of sepsis. She is being treated for lymphoma with chemotherapy. What do you use to treat? Enrofloxacin and ampicillin; Imipenem/meropenem; Amikacin and ampicillin
what would you use to treat periodontal disease in a cat? Clindamycin; Clavamox; Doxycycline
a calf presents with diptheria. What is your first choice of the infectious agent? Fusobacterium necrophorum
a calf presents with pneumonia. What is your first choice of the infections agent? Mannheimia hemolytica
a calf presents with septicemia. What is your first choice of the infections agent? E. coli
a calf presents with blackleg. What is your first choice of the infections agent? Clostridium chauvei
A pig presents with Enzootic pneumonia. What is your first diagnosis of the infectious agent? mycoplasma pneumonia
In reference to economics iin LA medicine, why would you use one drug over another, even if the one you decide on is more expensive? Drug cost is of little importance. The most important thing to think about is THE WITHHOLD TIME of the animal. A more expensive drug, may be cheaper in the long run b/c of a short withdraw time.
what else should you consider when prescribing a drug for LA if drug cost is relatively minor? efficacy of the drug; dosing interval of the drug
Which of these would you choose to treat a cow after a DA surgery? No other complications to worry about. Oxytetracycline SID 3 days, $9 Penicillin G BID 3 days, $18 Ceftiofur SID 3 days, $24 ceftiofur b/c no withdraw time
if a cow is really sick, should you worry more about withdraw times or cost of the drug? cost of drug; really sick= drop in production anyway
If a producer decides to cull the cow should you give antibiotics? if you have to give antibiotics, give one with lowest withdraw period. If the animal doesn't need drugs, don't give
define extra label drug use. use of a drug in a fashion other than specified on the product label
what is ELDU regulated under? AMDUCA= Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
what are the three classes of drugs used on a farm? Over the counter (OTC) drugs; Prescription drugs; OTC or prescription drugs used in a manner other than described on the label
what are the categories of drug use? lable use, legal extra label drug use, illegal
what are the requirements of ELDU? no approved animal drug labeled for intended useage; drug muse FDA approved animal or human drug; valid Veterinary-Client-Patient relationship
When can an drug be used legally in an extra-label fashion? Prescribed by a licensed veterinarian in your state; Diagnosis based on examination, history or laboratory data; No illegal drugs used; Appropriate withdrawal times set and followed; Appropriate and complete labeling and record keeping
when is a human drug not allowed for use in veterinary medicine? When a drug meant for use in veterinary medicine is available
what is required in the records to prescribe out an extra-label drug? Client name; Animals being treated; Disease being treated; Drug name and active component; Keep records for a min of 2 years; Veterinarian’s name and address; Name of drug; Dosing information; Cautionary statements; withdrawal
what are the animals defined as food animals? cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and includes those kept for breeding purposes and as pets
which drugs have a voluntary restricted use? aminoglycosides, phenylbutazone, DMSO
what is the most commonly used drug in equine medicine? penicillin G
the use of antibiotics in equine medicine carries an increased risk of? diarrhea
what pathogen is most commonly associated with diarrhea in equine? salmonella
what factors interfere with bacterial conolizaition resistance of the gut of equids? stress, energy dense diets, antibiotics
if a foal is sick, what should you assume it is sick with? septicemia
newborn foals will become infected with what type of bacteria? pathogens from normal horse environment; NOT SUPERANTIGENS
If you see a mare that has just foaled with a distended udder, what should you assume? foal is sick and not nursing (not, the mare is producing a lot of milk)
If you seen enophthalmia in a foal, what does that indicate? dehydration
uveitis in a foal is highly indicative of?? sepsis
If you see jaundice in a foal what is it a result of? newborn= Neonatoal Isoerythrolysis; young foal= sepsis
T/F: you don't have to use different enrichment medias to test the blood of a foal for sepsis if it has already had antibacterial treatment. False
when doing a bacterial culture for sepsis, should you be concerned if you see a growth of staph. epidermititis? What does it mean? No; your culture is contaminated, you must re-do
in foals, should you use antibiotics that are metabolized by the kidneys or liver? more so by kidneys; liver not fully functional and will retain drugs for up to 14d
when giving drugs to neonates, what do you have to keep in mind when the drug is given orally? higher chance of toxicosis
when giving a CNS depressent, what do you have to keep in mind? BBB of foal not as well developed as adult, so will have large effects
what is the preferred route of administration of a drug for neonatal foals? parenteral route
which drugs are excreted unchanged in urine? penicillin G, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins
you should avoid using drugs that are metabolized by the liver in foals. what are those drugs? chloramphenicol, erythromycin
aminoglycosides and beta lactams are often paired together to treat infections. what should you pay attention to when giving this mixture? why? renal function. if renal status changes due to onset of renal disease, stop use of this b/c aminoglycosides causing the disease
what does Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) ENSURE? dosing intervals and quantities that are safe and effective
respiratory infection "rattles" caused by?? rhodococcus equi
what would you use to treat rhodococcus equi? Erythromycin + rifampin; Azithromycin + rifampin; Clarithromycin + rifampin
if you have brick red gums and a prolonged CRT in a horse, what should you suspect? endotoxemia due to typhlocolitis
what antimicrobial would you use to treat potomac horse fever? oxytetracyline
what antimicrobial would you use to treat clostridium difficile metranidazole
what antimicrobial would you use to treat lawsonia intracellularis? erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracyclin
what is one of the most common topical fungal diseases in small animals? dermatophytosis
what are some common systemic fungal diseases of small animals? blastomycocsis, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis
which fungal disease can be either systemic or topical? aspergillus
which fungal disease has no treatment and why? phthyosis b/c it's casued by an algae
why is it difficult to treat a fungal disease? there are few drug options, treatment takes months, diseases are usually challenging and expensive
how are systemic fungal diseases commonly acquired? inhalation
characteristics of blastomycosis? infects mainly dogs; will attack lungs, bone, skin, eyes, LN, and CNS; blue broad-based budding organism; found from minnesota to louisiana and east to virginias and NC
characteristics of histoplasmosis? infects dogs or cats; will attack the GI (mainly), liver/spleen, LN, lungs, eyes, bone marrow; small multiple intracellular organism; found in midwest (minnesota to louisiana) to Georgia Michigan and upper northeast
characteristics of cryptococcosis? found in cats more than dogs, but will cause CNS signs in dogs; infects the nasal cavity, brain and lungs; see budding, large capsule with variable sized daughter cells; found worldwide
Characteristics of coccidiomycosis? dogs>cats; infects lungs, heart, CNS, bone, and eyes; large and thick-walled with few cells; found in SW US
T/F: the antibody test for coccidiomycosis is not useful in identifying the organism. false
why is pthyosis so hard to treat? it doesn't have ergoterol in its cell wall
what clinical signs will you see with pthyosis? cutaneous or GI granulomas
what is the nasal form of aspergillus? A. fumigatas
what is the systemic form of aspergillus? A. terries
in which breed will you commonly see the nasal form of aspergillus? the systemic form of asperfillus? dolichocephalic dogs; German Shepherds
what are the two most clinically used antifungals? polyene antibiotics; azole derivatives
Amphotericin B is used to treat which types of fungal disease? systemic (except cryptococcosis)
dose limitations of amphotericin B? yes; nephrotoxic
how does amphotericin B work? binds ergosterol
what are the azole drug derivatives? ketaconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole
which azole drug derivative is most hepatotoxic? ketaconazole
which azole derivative has better CNS penetration and is okay to use on an empty stomach? fluconazole
of the newer azole drugs, which is an itraconazole analog? posaconazole
of the newer azole drugs, which are fluconazole derivatives? voriconazole, ravuconazole
what can be used to treat nasal aspergillus? topical clotimazole
what is griseofulvin used to treat? ringworm
which antifungal is used in combo with amphoteracin B to inhibit DNA/protein synthesis? 5-Fluorocytosine
t/f: supportive care is not necessary during fungal infections which involve the lungs or GI tract. False
Created by: clcxrf