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VetMed Pharm11

Antihelminthic Therapy

QuestionAnswer
RxTx of Canine Ascarids piparazine
Piparazine MOA cholinergic stimulatory-like properties
Diethylcarbamazine tx dirofilaria immitis, the larval stage in the mosquito and the microfilarial stage
Benzimidazoles MOA bind to nematode dimeric tubulin --> prevents polymerization during microtubule assembly --> decreased fumarate reductase activity/production
Spectrum of Anti-Nematode Activity 90% level of activity against equine adult large strongyles, small strongyles, mature Oxyuris equi, small pinworms, Trichostrongylus axei, lung worms, Ostertagia, whips, flukes, tapes, etc.
Margin of Safety of Benzimidazoles extremely well-tolerated larvacidal doses of thiabendazole in horses --> +/- laminitis C
C/I to Use of Benzimidazoles early pregnancy (excreted in milk)
Pyrantel MOA depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent in nematodes resulting in stimulation to the extent of paralysis
Margin of Safety of Pyrantel mostly devoid of sequelae and well-tolerated enhanced by hexamethonium neutralized by phentolamine
C/I to Use of Pyrantel debilitated animals
Organophosphorus Anthelmentics MOA cause accumulation of NT, ACh and over-stimulation of ACh receptor complexes
Macrolide Endectocides MOA specific binding and opening of glutamate-gated chloride channels
Advantages of Macrolide Endectocides over Other Antihelmentics do not cross BBB effective against nematodes resistant to benzimidazoles large margin of safety
RxTx for TBZ-Resistant Haemonchus contortus in Cattle tetrahydropyrimidines - pyrantel & morantel
Agent Equal to TBZ in Efficacy Against Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Oesophagostomum, Dictyocaulus imidazothiazoles - buamisole, lavamasole, tetramisole
Agent Capable of Killing Parasites in GI Tract and Respiratory System benzimidazoles imidazothiazoles (levamisole, tetramisole) pyrantel OP compounds microcyclic lactones
Class of Anthelmintics with a Broad Nematode Spectrum of Activity in Dogs benzimidazoles pyrantel OP compounds macrocyclic lactones
RxTx of Habronema muscae and H. majus in the Horse trichlorofon (an organophosphate) benzimidazoles
RxTx of Infective Larvae from Mosquito and Microfilariae ivermectin
Relative Margin of Safety for OPs vs. BZMs, Macrolide endectocides, Pyrimidines less than observed
RxTx of Strongylus vulgaris diclorvos trichlorofon
RxTx of Ectoparasites and Benzimidazole-Resistant Nematodes macrolide endectocides
Only Macrolide Endectocide that Kills Screwworms doramectin
RxTx Existing Canine Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) thiacetarsamide sodium
RxTx of Gastrophilus (bots) in horses diclorvos trichlorofon
Therapeutic Advantages of Ivermectin wide margin of safety doesn't cross the BBB effective against many ectoparasites and endoparasites
Bunamidine Hydrochloride MOA taeniacide that compromises the integument layer all the way down to the level of the fibrous basal lamina
Niclosamide MOA taeniacide that inhibits glucose absorption and uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation thereby increasing lactic acid production and over-stimulation of ATPase activity
Class of Anti-Nematode Agent Also Very Effective Against Cestodes benzimidazoles
Stage of Trematodes Hardest to Tx immature forms
Clorsulan tx of trematode infestations
Class of Anti-Nematode Agent Also Very Effective Against Trematodes benzimidazoles
Stages of Protozoa and Coccidians Resistant to Tx cyst stage
Tx of Giardia metronidazole quinacrine
Tx of Cryptosporidiosis usually self-limiting paromomycin
Class of Anti-Nematode Agent Also Very Effective Against Protozoa benzimidazoles
Class of Agents Used to Tx and Prevent Coccidiosis sulfonamides amprolium/polyether ionophores (prevention)
Tetracycline Uses wide spectrum against amoebas, flagellates, coccidia, malaria, piroplasms, ciliates, bacteria
Created by: 26509889