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VetMed Prev Med

Preventative Medicine Final

Transstadial Transmission infection with pathogen is maintained in vector as it develops between life stages not passed to next generation
Direct Zoonoses requires only one vertebrate host to complete life cycle rabies, trichinosis, brucellosis
Cyclozoonoses requires more than one vertebrate host, but not invertebrate host human taeniasis echinococcosis pantastoma
Metazoonoses requires both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts arbovirus (west nile), plague, schistomiasis
Saprozoonoses requires non-animal development site larval migrans, coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis
Category A Agents (6) anthrax botulilsm plague smallpox tularemia viral hemorrhagic fever
Only Category A Agent that is NOT Zoonotic smallpox
Anthrax agent: bacillus anthracis reservoir: herbivores, soil txfr: aerosol, cutanous, ingest
Brucellosis agent: b. abortus, canis, suis, melitensis reservoir: cattle, swine, sheep, goats, dogs txfr: contact, ingest, iatrogenic
Campylobacteriosis agent: c. jejuni, coli reservoir: poultry, cattle, sheep, puppies, kittens txfr: contact, ingest
Cat Scratch Disease agent: bartonella henselae reservoir: cats, fleas txfr: cats, fleas
Colibacillosis agent: EH escherichia coli 0157:H7 reservoir: cattle, humans txfr: aerosol, ingest, fecal/oral
Mycobacterium agent: m. bovis, tuberculosis, marinum, fortuitum, ulcerans reservoir: cattle, human, badger, swine, water txfr: aerosol, contact
Plague agent: yersinia pestis reservoir: rodent, small mammal txfr: aerosol, fleas
Psittacosis ("parrot fever") agent: chlamydophilia psittici reservoir: psitticine birds, poultry, pigeons txfr: aerosol
Salmonellosis agent: s. typhimurium, arizonae reservoir: domestic/wild animals txfr: aerosol, ingest, transovarial
Tetanus agent: clostridium tetani reservoir: horse, human, soil txfr: punctures, wounds
Tularemia ("rabbit fever") agent: francisella tularensis reservoir: rabbit, hare, small rodents txfr: ticks, tissues
Leptospirosis agent: leptospira interragans serovars hardjo, canicola, pomona, bratislava reservoir: domestic/wild animals txfr: mucous membranes, ingest, waterborne
Q-fever agent: coxiella burnetti (rickettsial) reservoir: cattle, sheep, goat, dog, bird, tick, wildlife txfr: aerosol, placenta, raw milk
SARS agent: coronavirus reservoir: horseshoe bat (DH), civet cat, dog, raccoon txfr: person-to-person contact
Arenavirus (2) agent: lassa virus reservoir: mutimammate rat txfr: aerosol, contact, ingest, nosocomial
Arenavirus (1) agent: lymphocytic chroiomeningitis reservoir: house mouse, hamster, rodent colonies txfr: aerosol, contact, NOT contagious
Monkeypox agent: orthopoxvirus reservoir: squirrel, prairie dog, giant gambian rat txfr: aerosol, contact, bites
Hantavius Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) agent: hantavirus reservoir: mice, rat txfr: aerosol, contact, bite, ingest
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy agent: prion reservoir: cattle txfr: ingestion
Influenza A agent: orthomyxovirus H5N1 reservoir: wild bird, migratory bird txfr: aerosol, mm contact (human); ingest (bird)
West Nile Virus agent: flavivirus reservoir: passerine, american robin txfr: metazoonotic (culex mosquito)
Rabies agent: lyssavirus reservoir: canine, raccoon, bat, skunk, fox txfr: aerosol, bite, milk, NOT thru intact skin
Rabies Vx dead virus peaks at 28d (not considered vx until then)
Postexposure - UnVx euthanize or isolate for 6mos vx
Postexposure - Vx vx observe for 45d
Postexposure - livestock slaughter immediately and cook thoroughly
Postexposure - humans isolate animal for 10d and observe
Aspergillosis ("brooder pneumonia") agent: many spp reservoir: soil, decaying plant material txfr: aerosol (not true zoonosis)
Blastomycosis agent: blastomyces dermatitidis reservoir: soil, wooded wet places, acidic, pigeon/bat feces in soil txfr: aerosol, needle stick
Coccidioidomycosis ("valley fever") agent: coccidioides immites spores reservoir: soil txfr: aerosol (not true zoonosis)
Cryptococcosis agent: cryptococcus neoformans reservoir: human, cattle, fowl feces, soil, eucalyptus tree txfr: aerosol, contact, iatrogenic into cow udders (NOT contagious)
Histoplasmosis agent: histoplasma capsulatum reservoir: soil with bird/bat feces txfr: aerosol
Sporotrichosis ("rose handler's disease") agent: sporothrix schenckii reservoir: soil, wood, plants, mouth/nasal cavity/nails of cats txfr: aerosol, wounds, cats (true zoonosis)
Dermatophytosis ("ringworm" "tinea" "dermatomycosis") agent: microsporum spp; trycophyton spp. reservoir: dog, cat, cattle txfr: contact, aerosol, fomites
Cryptosporidiosis agent: cryptosporidium parvum reservoir: human, cattle, dog, cat txfr: aerosol, ingest, mechanical, fecal/oral
Giardiasis agent: giardia intestinalis reservoir: human, beaver, dog, cat, ruminant txfr: fecal/oral of cyst
Leishmaniasis agent: leishmania spp. reservoir: human, wild rodent, marsupial, foxhound txfr: female sandflies
Toxoplasmosis agent: toxoplasma gondii reservoir: cat (DH), rodent, bird, sheep, goat, swine txfr: ingest, transovarial
Ancylostomiasis (hookworm) agent: ancylostoma caninum reservoir: dog, cat txfr: contact (cutaneous larval migrans)
Toxocariasis (roundworm) agent: toxocara canis reservoir: dog, cat, buffalo/bovine calves txfr: ingest (visceral/ovular larval migrans)
Baylisascariasis agent: baylisascaris procyonis reservoir: raccoon txfr: ingest embryonated egg
Taeniaisis agent: t. solium, saginata reservoir: human (DH), undercooked pork/beef txfr: ingest
Cysticercosis agent: t. solium, saginata, ovis, taeniaeformis reservoir: human (IH), fruit, veggies, soil, water txfr: ingest
Echinococcosis agent: echinococcus granulosus, multilocularis reservoir: canid (DH), herbivore (IH), human (IH) txfr: ingest
Three Routes of Disease Transmission contact aerosol vector
Three Elements Needed for Disease Transmission susceptible host conducive environment source of organism
% of Human Pathogens that are Zoonotic 60%
% of Emerging Diseases that are Zoonotic 75%
Components of a Biosecurity Plan (BITS) Biosecurity assessment Isolation/quarantine Traffic control Sanitation
Components of a Biosecurity Plan (STAIRS) Sanitation Traffic control Assessment Isolation/quarantine Resistance Security
Characteristics of Water that Effect Detergents temperature (hotter the better) hardness (Mg2+ and Ca2+) pH
Order of Susceptibility of Pathogens to Disinfectants enveloped viruses > vegetative bacteria > fungi > non-enveloped viruses > mycobacteria > bacterial spores
Factors Effecting Disinfection Efficacy temperature hydration extraneous organic material pH time number of microorganisms
Factors Effecting Disinfectant Selection efficacy concentration odor/taste stability residual activity time temperature activity with soap/detergent cost
Phenols wide activity - NOT nonenveloped viruses & spores good for organic debris and hard water cheaper
Iodophores wide activity poor in organic debris, sunlight, hard water
Chlorines (Bleach) viruses, fungi, bacteria, algae - NOT spores poor in organic debris cheap
Quaternary Ammoniums bacteria, enveloped viruses poor in detergents and hard water
Chlorahexadine enveloped viruses, bacteria - NOT nonenveloped viruses, spores, fungi, gram (+) cocci poor in hard water and organic debris
Oxidizing Agents anaerobic bacteria (H2O2) wide range, expensive (Virkon-s)
Alcohols bacteria, fungal spores, enveloped viruses - NOT nonenveloped viruses
Aldehydes wide activity expensive
Only Form of Vx that Prevents Disease mucosal
DIVA differentiate infected from vaccinated vx that contains antigen-marker so that vx titer can be distinguished from natural infection titer
Why Vx Fail improper antigen selection (#1) improper timing improper administration improper handling/storage
Metaphylactic Abx used to treat high risk animals
USDA APHIS Regulation vaccines on-farm regulation
FDA Regulation animal drugs and feed sets tolerance levels for animal drug residues in human food animal welfare fish, shellfish, produce, milk, canned foods, infant formula, juices, bottled water, shell eggs authority to seize products
FSIS Regulation meat, poultry, egg products humane slaughter no authority outside of plant
AMDUCA Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act - extra label drug use permitted only by vet - valid VCPR required for ELDU - ELDU in feed is prohibited
PETS Act requires that all state and local emergency preparedness operational plans address the needs of individuals with household pets and service animals following a major disaster or emergency
CBRNE Hazards chemical biological radiological nuclear explosive
Epidemiological Triad wildlife EID domestic animal EID human EID
First Vet Schools Lyon and Alfort, France, 1760's
Daniel Salmon described Salmonella choleraesuis established 1st federal meat inspection program in USA
Bernard Bang described the TB test
Charles Carpenter demonstrated relationship between cow's milk and human brucellosis
Karl Meyer demonstrated relationship between time, temp, pressure
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis correlated cadaveric poisoning to childbed fever (germ theory)
Factors Which Result in Insufficient Withdrawal Times inappropriate drug dose too large of volume at one injection site incorrect route of administration extending therapy beyond label time extra label use of drug
Top Ten Food-Borne Pathogens campylobacter spp. costridium botulinum e. coli 0157:H7 listeria monocytogenes norovirus salmonella spp. staphylococcus aureus shigella spp. toxoplasma gondii vibrio vulnificus
Anthropozoonoses infections transmitted from other vertebrates to man roundworms
Zooanthropozoonoses infections transmitted from man to animals swine flu
Amphixenoses infections maintained in both man and other vertebrates and may be naturally transmitted in either direction influenza
Created by: 26509889