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HLT Licensing Exam

QuestionAnswer
The basic building blocks of plants are: a) leaves. b) cells. c) tissues. d) nomenclature nomenclature b)cells.
Which of the following facts about plant buds is not true? a) buds are embryonic stems b) buds at the tip of stems are called terminal buds c) buds along the stem are called lateral buds d) buds serve as a point of attachment for leaves d) nodes are the point of attachment for leaves not buds
Xylem AND phloem transport (in order): a) water AND carbohydrates. b) water AND cork cambium. c) carbohydrates AND water. d) organic nutrients AND dissolved minerals a) water AND carbohydrates.
All of the following are parts of a leaf except: a) the stomata b) the apical meristem c) the epidermis d) the mesophyll b) the apical meristem
The root does not serve as: a) an anchor for the plant b) a site of uptake for moisture and nutrients c) a reproductive organ d) a storage site for carbohydrates c) a reproductive organ
The female component of a flower is the: a) pistil b) receptacle c) stamen d) corolla a) pistil
A perfect or complete flower contains: a) a pistil only b) a stamen only c) an even number of petals d) a pistil and stamen d) a pistil and a stamen
A fruit is: a) composed of the stamen b) a mature, ripened ovary c) produced by a dioecious plant only d) not a reproductive structure b) a mature, ripened ovary
Food-storage structures of seeds include: a) the seed coat b) the embryo c) cotyledons and endosperm d) fat bodies c) cotyledons and endosperm
New plants are produced: a) from germinating seed only b) when photosynthesis begins c) after water and mineral uptake occur d) from germinating seed and adventitious root and shoot pieces d)from germinating seed and adventitious root and shoot pieces
The primary function of chlorophyll is: a) to absorb sunlight and convert it to chemical energy b) to convert glucose to starch c) to convert carbon dioxide and water to energy d) to make leaves green a) to absorb sunlight and convert it to chemical energy
Which of the following is not a fundamental process of plant growth at the cellular level? a) cell transformation b) cell differentiation c) cell enlargement d) mitosis a) cell transformation
Which group of plant growth hormones promotes cell enlargement? a) cytokinins b) gibberellins c) auxins d) ethylene b) gibberellins
Which group of plant hormones act as growth inhibitors? a) cytokinins b) gibberellins c) auxins d) ethylene and abscisic acid d) ethylene and abscisic acid
Which group of plant hormones are principally responsible for apical dominance? a) cytokinins b) gibberellins c) auxins d) ethylene c) auxins
Which group of plant hormones promote cell division, aid in the regulation of stomatal closure and may prevent aging of some plant parts? a) cytokinins b) gibberellins c) auxins d) ethylene a) cytokinins
The three nutrients that are most important for plant fertilization are: a) nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium b) phosphorus, calcium and ethylene c) sulfur, calcium and nitrogen d) potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen d) potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen
Which of the following is the correct form of the scientific name (genus and species) for annual bluegrass? a) poa annua b) Poa Annua c) Poa annua (italicized) d) Poa annua (not italicized) c) Poa annua (italicized)
If a plant name is preceded by "cv", you know: a) the name is the cultivar name b) the plant is disease resistant c) the plant is a hybrid d) the plant was grown in central Virginia a) the name is the cultivar name
If a plant name is followed by "X", you know: a) the name is the cultivar name b) the plant is disease resistant c) the plant is a hybrid d) the plant is rare c) the plant is a hybrid
A summer annual: a) germinates in the summer and dies the following summer b) germinates in the fall and dies in the summer c) germinates in the spring and dies in the fall d) lives longer than a biennial c) germinates in the spring and dies in the fall
A deciduous plant is one that: a) retains its younger leaves throughout the year b) c) has needles rather than leaves d) is usually classified as an annual b) drops all of its leaves at the end of the growing season
The major body segments of an insect are: a) head and abdomen b) head, torso and limbs c) head, thorax and abdomen d) eyes, legs and antennae c) head, thorax and abdomen
To find an insect's antennae: a) look on the insect's thorax b) don't bother looking; most insects do not have antennae c) look behind the wings d) look on the insect's head d) look on the insect's head
The life stages of insects with incomplete metamorphosis are: a) egg, pupa and adult b) egg, nymph and adult c) larva, pupa and adult d) nymph and adult b) egg, nymph and adult
Which of the following insects does not undergo complete metamorphosis? a) white pine aphid b) house fly c) carpenter bee d) Japanese beetle a) white pine aphid
To describe the age (or size) of an insect nymph or larva, you would use the word: a) instar b) generation c) superstar d) molt a) instar
Pheromones are substances produced by insects which are used to: a) initiate insect growth and development b) make insecticides that disrupt the molting process c) increase egg laying d) cause a specific reaction in receivers of the pheromone d) cause a specific reaction in receivers of the pheromone
The vegetative portion of a fungus is called a: a) spore b) mycelium c) mildew d) fruiting body b) mycelium
The majority of fungi and bacteria: a) are plant pathogenic b) are beneficial c) feed on dead organic matter d) both b and c d) are beneficial and feed on dead organic matter
Viruses enter host plants usually: a) through the roots b) through natural openings c) through wounds d) as spores c) through wounds
Most plant parasitic nematodes occur: a) in the top 6 to 12 inches of soil b) in aboveground plant parts c) in the top 3 to 6 inches d) in the phloem of infected plants a) in the top 6 to 12 inches of soil
All of the following aboveground symptoms may accompany root feeding by nematodes except: a) reduced growth of the plant b) chlorosis c) increased fruit production d) wilting c) increased fruit production
True or False: For all insects, the adult stage is the life stage which overwinters. False
How are most ornamental and turf pesticides applied? a) as granules b) in bait stations c) as liquids d) as low-volume sprays c) as liquids
Important characteristics of a sprayer pump include: a) capacity b) abrasion resistance c) chemical resistance d) all of the above d) all of the above
Control valves should be located: a) between the pump and the pressure regulator b) between the pressure regulator and nozzles c) on top of the tank d) on all hoses b) between the pressure regulator and nozzles
Which of the following usually does not affect nozzle performance? a) nozzle type b) operating pressure c) orifice size d) ambient temperature at time of application d) ambient temperature at time of application
For most fungicide applications, one should use: a) a nozzle with a cone tip b) a flood jet nozzle c) a flat fan nozzle d) the least expensive tips a) a nozzle with a cone tip
For ultra-low-volume applications, the best sprayer would be: a) a backpack sprayer with ceramic, solid-stream nozzle tips b) a boom sprayer running at low pressure c) one fitted with controlled droplet applicators d)an air-blast sprayer c) one fitted with controlled droplet applicators
A hydraulic sprayer running at low pressure: a) uses more pesticide than at high pressure b) is usually used to treat large turf areas c) penetrates dense foilage d) is more likely to produce drift b) is usually used to treat large turf areas
Drop spreaders are better than rotary spreaders because they: a) are less expensive b) are generally more precise and deliver a better pattern c) usually provide a wider swath d) are more difficult to knock out of calibration b) are generally more precise and deliver a better pattern
To ensure application accuracy, the following steps should be completed: a)calculate target area, determine amount of pesticide to apply, calibrate equipment b)calibrate equipment and calculate target area c)calculate area to be treated and apply pesti a)calculate target area, determine amount of pesticide to apply, calibrate equipment
The formula, radius squared times 3.14, is used to determine the area of a: a) trapezoid b) triangle c) golf course fairway d) circle d) circle
Which of the following is not needed to calculate the amount of pesticide needed for an application? a) capacity of the tank (or hopper) b) calibrated output of the application equipment c) the percentage of the pesticide that is inert ingredients c) the percentage of the pesticide that is inert ingredients
An 80% wettable powder is to be applied at 1 lb. active ingredient per acre. How much is added to the 100-gallon tank of a sprayer that delivers 25 gallons per acre? a)2.5 lbs b)4 lbs c)5 lbs d)8 lbs c) 5 lbs
A 5G herbicide is to be applied at the rate of 5 lbs a.i. per acre to a lawn which is 100'x 200'. How much should be added to the spreader to cover the lawn? a)46 lbs b)100 lbs c)25 lbs d)43 lbs a) 46 lbs
You determine the delivery rate of application equipment, even new equipment, by: a) reading the manufacturer's literature b) consulting with owners of similar equipment c) making estimates based on initial applications d) calibrating the equipment d) calibrating the equipment
Perhaps the most important components of spray equipment to inspect before calibration are: a) hoses b) tank agitators c) nozzle tips d) filter c) nozzle tips
Which of the following will not affect the delivery of a manual sprayer? a) change the nozzle b) shorten hose length c) adjust walking speed d) change pump pressure b) shorten hose length
A manual sprayer delivers 2 gallons per 1000 sq.ft. How many gallons will it deliver per acre? a) 87 gallons b) 43 gallons c) 870 gallons d) 500 gallons a) 87 gallons
Which of the following is not an important factor in calibrating a boom power sprayer? a) nozzle spacing (boom width) b) speed c) pump pressure d) active ingredient content of the pesticide to be applied d) active ingredient content of the pesticide to be applied
When calibrating a power sprayer, pump pressure should be adjusted: a) before turning on the pump b) while the pump is operating and water is flowing through the nozzles c) while verifying the travel speed d) every 10 minutes b) while the pump is operating and water is flowing through the nozzles
Regularly used granular spreaders should be calibrated: a) weekly b) monthly c) by different people to verify accuracy d) only when a different size of granule is to be applied a) weekly
The best place to calibrate a drop spreader is: a) the area where the application is to be made b) an area of at least 20 feet in length c) a smooth, flat area d) on turf covered by plastic c) a smooth, flat area
To obtain better application uniformity with a drop spreader: a) push the spreader as quickly as possible b) overlap swaths c) operate the spreader during times of low relative humidity d) overlap one application with another at right angles to the fi d) overlap one application with another at right angles to the first
The distribution pattern of a rotary spreader is best determined by: a) collecting distributed particles in a series of shallow, cardboard boxes b) operating the spreader on a paved area and observing the pattern c) reading the manufacturer's literatur a) collecting distributed particles in a series of shallow, cardboard boxes
Sprayers used for applications to tree foliage usually are not calibrated before treatment because: a) these spray treatments are usually applied to the point of runoff b) these sprayers are difficult to calibrate c) these sprayers are factory-calibrat a) these spray treatments are usually applied to the point of runoff, therefore calibration is not necessary
When using an air-blast sprayer, competent operation is especially critical because: a) the spray pattern is difficult to detect b) these sprayers are expensive and easy to damage c) the extent of coverage is almost impossible to determine d) both a a d) (both a and c) the spray pattern is difficult to detect and the extent of coverage is almost impossible to determine
Strainers are not necessary on the : a) filler opening b) boom between nozzles c) nozzle body d) supply line to the pump b) boom between nozzles
Boom height affects: a) spray pattern uniformity b) nozzle wear c) pesticide dilution d) droplet size a) spray pattern uniformity
After spraying, the initial tank rinse should be made at the application site: a)so that leftover pesticide solution is not spilled when returning to the clean-up area b)to reduce the generation and concentration of wastes at the clean-up area b)to reduce the generation and concentration of wastes at the clean-up area
When preparing a sprayer for storage, which of the following is not done? a) tape over nozzle openings b) flush the system with a water/emulsifiable oil solution c) add antifreeze to the tank d) remove, clean and properly store nozzles and screens c) add antifreeze to the tank
Phytotoxicity is usually characterized by: a) shot-hole-type damage to foliage b) abnormal growth, foliar burn, leaf drop and discolored or spotted leaves c) growths resembling cankers d) wet, slimy areas on foliage b) abnormal growth, foliar burn, leaf drop and discolored or spotted leaves
Which of the following does not contribute to phytotoxicity? a) over watering after pesticide application b) high air temperatures during and immediately after pesticide application c) mixing different forms of pesticides a) over watering after pesticide application
Which of the following is most likely to be damaged by a pesticide? a) holly (small tree) b) tall fescue (grass) c) euonymous (shrub) d) boxwood (shrub) b) tall fescue (grass)
Pesticide persistence is not influenced by: a) soil type or texture b) application rate c) moisture conditions d) total area treated d) total area treated
The downward movement of pesticides through soil is called: a) runoff b) leaking c) leaching d) absorption c) leaching
The best preventative to pesticide runoff on the ground surface is: a) maintained, dense turf b) making applications only on sunny days c) plastic barriers d) using nozzle tips with large orifices a) maintained, dense turf
To prevent volatilization of ester herbicides: a) do not apply when air temperature is above 80 deg.F and relative humidity is high b) lower the vapor pressure setting c) do not apply when air temp is 80-85 deg F and relative humidity is low c) do not apply when air temp is 80-85 deg F and relative humidity is low
Pesticide droplet size can be increased by: a) applying with the nozzle as close to the target as possible b) lowering pump pressure c) increasing pump pressure d) spraying when the relative humidity is high b) lowering pump pressure
The most common form of pesticide degradation is: a) pesticide absorption b) chemical degradation c) photodecomposition d) microbial decomposition d) microbial decomposition
Microbial decomposition of pesticides is most likely to occur: a) in a warm, moist, well-aerated soil with a pH of 6.5-7.0 b) at night c) in a warm, moist, well-aerated soil with a pH of 4.5-5.0 d) to the most toxic pesticides a) in a warm, moist, well-aerated soil with a pH of 6.5-7.0
Which of the following is not considered a safety precaution when treating on slopes near sensitive areas? a) do not treat if rainfall is imminent b) maintain a buffer zone c) use a larger nozzle opening size d)use the lowest effective rate of applica c) use a larger nozzle opening size
Which of the following statements about regular plant inspections is not true? a)they familiarize one with the pests that inhabit particular plants b)they reduce pest infestations by regularly disturbing the pests c)they result in better pest control b)they reduce pest infestations by regularly disturbing the pests
Curled, cupped, distorted and discolored leaves indicate feeding by: a) spider mites b) caterpillars c) aphids d) leafminers c) aphids
In addition to feeding, aphids damage plants by: a) depositing honeydew b) laying eggs in leaves c) transmitting diseases d) both a and c d) both a and c - depositing honeydew and transmitting diseases
White pines infested with the white pine aphid should be treated: a) when 30% of trees are infested b) when 30% of shoots of individual trees are infested c) when aphids are first noticed d) in late spring b) when 30% of shoots of individual trees are infested
A large, woolly mass on the trunk of a white pine indicates: a) a pine bark adelgid infestation b) a white pine aphid infestation c) a pine needle scale infestation d) an insecticide treatment is needed immediately a) a pine bark adelgid infestation
Which stage of scale insects is easiest to control? a) egg b) crawler c) adult d) larva b) crawler
The best way to avoid sooty mold growth is to: a) control the pests that produce honeydew b) spray the foliage with a fungicide c) remove and burn affected foliage d) encourage air circulation around plants a) control the pests that produce honeydew
A small, oval insect covered with white, fluffy wax found at the base of plant stems is probably a(n): a) euonymous scale b) whitefly nymph c) mealybug d) eriophyid mite c) mealybug
To detect a whitefly infestation, one should: a) inspect the base of stems b) look on the underside of leaves c) take soil samples d) inspect flower heads with a magnifier b) look on the underside of leaves
Streaked, silvered foliage results from feeding by: a) mites b) lace bugs c) fungus gnats d) thrips d) thrips
Fine webbing and bronzed foliage usually indicate an infestation of: a) mealybugs b) spider mites c) bagworms d) bark beetles b) spider mites
Damage by the two-spotted spider mite is most prevalent: a) on conifers b) during hot, humid weather c) during hot, dry weather d) in spring and fall c) during hot, dry weather
Circular galls on red maple leaves were probably caused by: a) the southern red mite b) true bugs c) leaf miners d) eriophyid mites d) eriophyid mites
Small, black, spiny insects feeding on the underside of azalea leaves probably are: a) lace bug nymphs b) whitefly nymphs c) not going to damage the plant d) plant bug nymphs a) lace bug nymphs
Perhaps the best solution to home invasion by boxelder bugs is: a) insectide treatments in the fall b) sealing points of entry c) removal of boxelder trees d) treating exterior cracks and crevices with insecticides b) sealing points of entry
Cicadas damage trees by: a) sucking sap from roots b) feeling on foliage c) making slits in limbs to deposit eggs d) depositing honeydew c) making slits in limbs to deposit eggs
A distinguishing feature of beetles is: a) they have leathery wings that meet in a straight line b) they have 6 legs c) they have chewing mouthparts d) the larvae are the most destructive life stage a) they have leathery wings that meet in a straight line
Elm foliage exhibiting shot holes and skeletonization probably was fed upon by: a) elm leaf borer b) two-lines plant bug c) elm leaf beetle d) elm bark beetle c) elm leaf beetle
Trees with branch dieback and cracked, weeping bark have been: a) damaged by egg-laying cicadas b) infested with flatheaded or roundheaded borers c) infested with bark beetles d) attacked by scarabs b) infested with flatheaded or roundheaded borers
Roundheaded borers are: a) caterpillars b) not important pests c) weevil larvae d) beetle larvae d) beetle larvae
White-fringed beetle larvae: a) feed in the roots of many trees and shrubs b) are leafminers c) are serious pests of turf d) feed principally on the roots of conifers a) feed in the roots of many trees and shrubs
Small, s-shaped galleries under the bark of a loblolly pine indicate: a) attack by the Southern pine sawyer b) a Southern pine beetle infestation c) egg laying by the pine chafer d) the tree will soon die b) a Southern pine beetle infestation
"Scorching" of black locust foliage is most likely caused by: a) the locust leaf weevil b) Japanese beetles c) the locust leafminer d) a fungus c) the locust leafminer
In general, caterpillars feed: a) on foliage b) in groups c) only at night d) from the tops of plants downwards a) on foliage
Which of the following is not a symptom of attack by Nantucket pine tip moth larvae? a) webbing on needles b) missing shoots and buds c) dead terminals d) oozing exit holes in trunks and large limbs d) oozing exit holes in trunks and large limbs
An adult rhododendron borer may be mistaken for a: a) small wasp b) small moth c) weevil d) caterpillar a) small wasp
Symptoms of attack by the dogwood borer do not include: a) girdling b) cracked bark c) leaf skeletonization d) branch dieback c) leaf skeletonization
Serpentine of blotchy streaks or blisters on the underside of leaves indicates infestation by: a) sawflies b) adelgids c) crawlers d) leafminers d) leafminers
Sawfly larvae usually can be distinguished from caterpillars by: a) their number of prolegs b) their feeding damage c) their mouthparts d) the time of year when they become numerous a) their number of prolegs
Grasshoppers are most likely to cause problems: a) after migrating b) during warm, dry weather c) after heavy rains d) on shrubbery b) during warm, dry weather
Which of the following statements is not true? a) oak galls are usually caused by small wasps b) insect or mite galls can be chemically controlled after gall development c) one gall may contain several insects d) galls are abnormal plant growth b) insect or mite galls can be chemically controlled after gall development
Severed flower stems are the result of feeding by: a) true bugs b) bagworms c) tent caterpillars d) cutworms d) cutworms
Cultural controls for slugs include: a) opening up garden and landscape space b) mulching no deeper than 1 inch c) irrigating affected areas daily d) both a and b d) both a and b - opening up garden and landscape space and mulching no deeper than 1 inch
To reduce the chance of home invasion by termites one should: a) keep wood mulch at least 1 foot away from the base of a structure b) keep wood mulch moist c) bank mulch around the base of plants d) use pine bark mulch a) keep wood mulch at least 1 foot away from the base of a structure
The best method for early detection of pest infestation is: a) to treat first and see what is killed b) regular visual inspections c) inspecting after damage appears d) inspection leaf litter for overwintering pests b) regular visual inspections
The two most important groups of pests damaging turf in Tennessee are: a) white grubs and cutworms b) sod webworms and white grubs c) armyworms and webworms d) billbugs and crickets a) white grubs and cutworms
The best times to sample for white grubs are: a) early spring and late fall b) at noon and at dusk c) in the spring after the soil warms up and mid-July to early August d) early spring to mid-July c) in the spring after the soil warms up and mid-July to early August
Which of the following statements about white grub control in not true? a)thatch removal or aeration may enhance control b)spring treatments give best control c)best time to treat is from mid-July - mid-Aug. d)affected turf can be cut & lifted for sam b)spring treatments give best control
An important fact regarding sampling for May and June beetle grubs is: a) they have a high economic threshold (>20/sq.ft) b) stressed turf can tolerate as many grubs as healthy turf c) sampling should be done in the top 3 to 4 inches of soil c) sampling should be done in the top 3 to 4 inches of soil
This turf pest is also a major pest of ornamental trees and shrubs: a) sod webworm b) masked Oriental beetle c) wild billbug d) Japanese beetle d) Japanese beetle
Cleanup of weedy areas may reduce numbers of: a) mole crickets b) Asiatic garden beetles c) masked chafers d) black turfgrass ataenius b) Asiatic garden beetles
Which of the following statements about Oriental beetles is not true? a) adults are major pests of fruit trees b) the grubs are more prevalent in unshaded and closely mown turf c) they have one generation a year d) adults vary in color a) adults are major pests of fruit trees
This insect is primarily a pest of golf courses. a) Japanese chafer b) cicada killer c) black turfgrass ataenius d) Oriental beetle c) black turfgrass ataenius
Billbug larvae are similar in appearance to: a) wireworms b) spittlebug larvae c) white grubs d) clover mites c) white grubs
Symptoms of a billbug infestation do not include: a) patchy, dead areas b) a resemblance to dollar spot disease c) easily broken turf stems filled with small droppings d) small mound of soil d) small mound of soil
Wireworms damage turf by: a) boring into the underground parts of stems b) clipping off grass blades and feeding on them underground c) tunneling beneath the soil surface d) sucking plant juices and transmitting diseases a) boring into the underground parts of stems
Small tunneling underneath turf is an indication: a) of a mole cricket infestation b) of a white grub migration c) that sod webworms should be treated d) that fire ants have recently invaded the turf a) of a mole cricket infestation
To control fire ants, one should: a) treat every two weeks beginning in spring b) broadcast a bait, then follow with individual mound treatments c) dethatch infested turf d) treat individual mounds first, then broadcast a bait b) broadcast a bait, then follow with individual mound treatments
Which of the following does not describe cutworms? a) they are mostly hairless b) they are rarely more than 1 inch long when fully grown c) they can appear greasy d) they ofter coil into a spiral when disturbed b) they are rarely more than 1 inch long when fully grown
Cutworm damage appears: a) in late fall b) as large, irregular bare areas c) as circular spots of dead grass or sunken spots d) as blotches on individual leaf blades c) as circular spots of dead grass or sunken spots
What common household item can be used to sample for cutworms and sod webworms? a) steak knife b) flashlight c) dishwashing detergent d) leaf rake c) dishwashing detergent
Which of the following is not true about sod webworm damage? a) the first sign of damage is irregular, brown spots b) damage occurs from May to Sept. c) damaged turf appears ragged d) silk tubes are produced in the thatch of damaged areas c) damaged turf appears ragged
Armyworms and cutworms are similar in that: a) they have similar economic thresholds b) they produce the same type of damage c) they have longitudinal stripes running the length of their sides d) they are moth larvae d) they are moth larvae
Yellowish spots on grass stems are caused by: a) mites b) the "spittle" from spittle bugs c) chinch bugs d) billbug adults c) chinch bugs
The floatation technique of chinchbug sampling includes the use of: a) a large can and water b) soapy water and a wooden frame c) an insecticide drench and a large can d) none of the above a) a large can and water
Which of the following does not apply to leafhopper feeding and damage? a) sap is sucked from leaves and stems b) leaves appear blotched and stippled c) reseeding of new lawns may be necessary d) damage to established lawns appears as white patches b) leaves appear blotched and stippled
This cultural technique can reduce spittlebug numbers. a) daily irrigation b) lowering mowing height c) raising mowing height d) proper dethatching d) proper dethatching
The most prevalent biotic factors affecting plants usually are: a) lack of excess water and sunlight b) weeds c) plant pathogens d) not a problem c) plant pathogens
Most ornamental diseases are caused by: a) nematodes b) fungi c) viruses d) bacteria b) fungi
All of the following are cultural management techniques for fungal diseases except: a) removing and destroying diseased plant parts b) using disease-resistant cultivars c) providing shade d) proper irrigation c) providing shade
The most serious disease of roses is: a) black spot b) cedar-rose rust c) powdery mildew d) Entomosporium (Italics) leaf spot a) black spot
Which of the following does not describe symptoms of Entomosporium leaf spot? b)leaf spots develop depressed, brown centers w/dark, red margins c)symptoms 1st appear on lower branches & spread upward d)symptoms 1st appear on old growth of lower branche d)symptoms 1st appear on old growth of lower branches
All of the following will help reduce dogwood anthracnose except: a) placing trees in shady areas b) providing good air circulation c) removing diseased plant parts d) using drip irrigation a) placing trees in shady areas
Shot holes in dogwood leaves are caused by: a) Septoria (Italics) leaf spot b) spot anthracnose c) dogwood rust d) powdery mildew b) spot anthracnose
The fungus which causes apple scab overwinters primarily: a) on alternate hosts b) on stored apples c) in the bodies of insects d) on dead leaves d) on dead leaves
Galls on cedar and leaf spots on apple are caused by: a) nematodes b) rust disease c) vascular wilt d) a virus b) rust disease
Powdery mildew growth is enhanced by: a) high temperatures & high relative humidity b) proper fertilization & wet foliage c) insect feeding d) cool nighttime temperatures, high relative humidity & lush plant growth d) cool nighttime temperatures, high relative humidity & lush plant growth
White growth on leaves and misshapen flowers are symptoms of: a) powdery mildew b) anthracnose c) fireblight d) Phomopsis (Italics) blight a) powdery mildew
When should fungicides be applied to prevent leaf galls? a) in early fall b) at bud bread c) when spores appear on galls d) any time of year b) at bud bread
Rapid death of foliage on lower branches of juniper is usually caused by: a) root rot b) cedar mildew c) gray mold d) Phomopsis (italics) blight d) Phomopsis (italics) blight
To avoid root rot, the following is not recommended: a) install healthy plants b) locate plants in a well-drained area c) apply a fungicide drench to the base of the affected plant d) remove diseased plants c) apply a fungicide drench to the base of the affected plant
When or where are fungicide drenches recommended for protection against root rot? a) in the landscape b) during nursery propagation c) during rainy weather d) during droughts when symptoms become severe b) during nursery propagation
Stem rots are more prevalent on: a) fruit trees b) herbaceous ornamentals c) plants under drought stress d) pine trees b) herbaceous ornamentals
Damping off is: a) caused by a bacteria b) not controlled by fungicides c) a stem rot affecting ornamental seedlings d) most damaging to woody ornamentals c) a stem rot affecting ornamental seedlings
A small, discolored, water-soaked spot on a limb usually indicates: a) the beginning of a canker b) the tree is over-watered c) a black know is forming d) the plant has a vascular wilt infection a) the beginning of a canker
Dogwood canker affects dogwoods in all of the following ways, except: a) causes water sprouts to form b) makes tress more susceptible to borers c) causes decline over the years d) increases susceptibility to breakage a) causes water sprouts to form
Black knots are most often found on: a) rose stems b) geraniums and petunias c) the underside of leaves d) plum and cherry trees d) plum and cherry trees
Which of the following is not a good method for black knot removal? a)prune 3-4 in. below the knot on small limbs b)on large limbs, remove knots & healthy wood 2-3 in. around the knot c)prune out small infected limbs in summer c)prune out small infected limbs in summer
If a mimosa tree is diagnosed with a severe case of vascular wilt, the best solution is to: a)treat the tree with an appropriate fungicide b)irrigate until symptoms disappear c) remove the tree, including roots d) prune out the diseased parts c) remove the tree, including roots
Which of the following is not a symptom of a vascular wilt disease? a)discolored streaks occur in the wood of affected branches b)usually only one side of the plant is first affected c)individual limbs & branches wilt & die back d)lesions appear on le d)lesions appear on leaves
Symptoms of Lophodermium needlecast of white pine may be confused with: a) symptoms of pine crown gall b) annual needle fall shed c) symptoms of rust disease d) damage caused by white pine aphids b) annual needle fall shed
Most crown gall occur: a) at or below the soil line b) primarily on herbaceous ornamentals c) on young plants d) during cool weather a) at or below the soil line
All of the following will reduce incidence of crown gall except: a) control of root-feeding insects b) avoid wounding plants c) placing plants in full sun d) removal of infected plants c) placing plants in full sun
Shot-hole-type symptoms are caused by: a) nematode feeding b) bacterial leaf spots c) leaf galls d) powdery mildew b) bacterial leaf spots
Spread of fireblight is most rapid: a) during wet weather b) when susceptible plants are in bloom c) in midsummer d) when plants are dormant b) when susceptible plants are in bloom
The best way to prevent the fireblight bacterium from overwintering is to: a) spray the ground under the tree with a bacteriacide b) treat the roots with a fungicide drench c) remove fallen fruit d) prune out diseased branches d) prune out diseased branches
A distinguishing characteristic of bacterial leaf scorch is: a) younger leaves in the lower canopy are affected first b) green leaf tissue is separated from scorched tissue by a yellow halo c) trees recover within one year without treatment b) green leaf tissue is separated from scorched tissue by a yellow halo
Which of the following does not result from wetwood disease? a) formation of water sprouts b) infection by secondary pathogens c) attack by wood-infesting insects d) bark and cambium damage a) formation of water sprouts
Which of the following should not be done to prevent diseases caused by viruses? a) control insects which spread the diseases b) practice good sanitation c) frequently irrigate affected plants d) avoid wounding plants c) frequently irrigate affected plants
Diagnosis of Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus is difficult because: a) symptoms vary with host and host age b) symptoms are difficult to detect c) plant die without symptoms occurring d) the disease occurs on only a few, obscure plant species a) symptoms vary with host and host age
The best way to determine if nematodes are causing a plant problem is to: a) symptoms vary with host and host age b) apply a nematicide and wait to see if plant health improves c) dig up the plant and examine the roots with a hand lens a) symptoms vary with host and host age
All of the following are symptoms of nematode injury except: a) swelling of roots b) stippling and spotting of foliage c) wilting d) stunting of plant growth b) stippling and spotting of foliage
If all of the plants in a large flower bed are in decline, the most probable cause is: a) a fungus b) a cultural practice c) an environmental condition d) both b and c d) both b) a cultural practice and c) an environmental condition
Created by: tannbur