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VetMed SAMS5

SAMS Final - Part 3

Nasal Nematodes capillaria aerophila eucoleus boehmi
Single Best Test for Dx Nasal Disease nasal biopsy
Causative Agents of Canine Fungal Rhinitis aspergillus penicillium
Causative Agent of Feline Fungal Rhinitis cryptococcus
Stridor harsh, high-pitched noise worse with exercise suggests larynx or trachea dz
Stertor typical "snoring" noise suggests soft palate or nose dz
Characteristics of Respiration in Obstructive vs. Restrictive Resp. Dz obstructive - resp. is slow and deep restrictive - resp. is rapid and shallow
Crackles multiple crackles/pops during inspiratory and expiratory phases or only during mid- to end-expiratory suggests bronchial dz
Wheezes faint, musical, high-pitched noises during inspiration and expiration caused by air whistling through narrow bronchi suggests bronchial dz
Causes of Cyanosis arterial hypoxia abnormal hemoglobin pigments peripheral cyanosis
Clinical Hypoxia <80mmHg
Clinical Cyanosis <60mmHg
Most Common Respiratory Syndrome in Dogs canine infectious tracheobronchitis or "kennel cough"
Causative Agents of Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis viruses: parainfluenza +/- CAV-2 bacteria: bordetella bronchiseptica
Most Common Canine Chronic Respiratory Dz canine chronic bronchitis
Uncommon Nematode of Lungs that Mimics Kennel Cough oslerus (filaroides) osleri
Common DDx for Cough in Cats (4) chronic bronchitis asthma lung parasites heartworms
Lung Parasites of Cats (2) aelurostrongylus abstrusus (nematode) paragonimus kellicotti (trematode)
Bronchodilator Rx Used for At-Home ER Tx of Asthma in Cats beta-2 agonists: terbutaline, albuterol C/I with hypertension and/or cardiomyopathy
Prevalence of Blastomyces dermatitidis Fe < Ca
Prevalence of Histoplasma capsulatum Fe = Ca
Prevalence of Coccidioides immitis Fe < Ca
Cryptococcus Fe > Ca
Rx for Mycotic Pneumonia itraconazole amphotericin-B (nephrotoxic) fluconazole - eye, prostate, urinary tract, CNS
Rads for Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema diffuse interstitial pattern in dorsocaudal lung fields
Rads for Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema perihilar interstitial pattern
Most Common Primary Pulmonary Neoplasia in Dogs and Cats adenocarcinoma of bronchial epithelium
C/S of Primary Pulmonary Neoplasia in Dogs chronic cough
C/S of Primary Pulmonary Neoplasia in Cats lameness from hypertrophic osteopathy and acrometastasis
Pure Transudate < protein < cells "clear enough to read through" caused by decreased oncotic pressure (hypoproteinemia)
Modified Transudate 2.5-3.5 g/dl protein 500-10,000/ul cells "straw-colored" caused by increased hydrostatic pressure (congestive heart failure, neoplastic effusion)
Exudate >3.0 g/dl protein >5,000/ul cells "murky" caused by increased vascular permeability (pyothorax, neoplastic effusion)
Pure Transudate < protein < cells "clear enough to read through" caused by decreased oncotic pressure (hypoproteinemia)
Modified Transudate 2.5-3.5 g/dl protein 500-10,000/ul cells "straw-colored" caused by increased hydrostatic pressure (congestive heart failure, neoplastic effusion)
Exudate >3.0 g/dl protein >5,000/ul cells "murky" caused by increased vascular permeability (pyothorax, neoplastic effusion)
Causative Agents of Pyothorax bacteria: nocardia, actinomyces fungal viral: FIP
RxTx of Chylothorax benzopyrones (Rutins) - helps macrophages eat debris
Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome stenotic nares tonsillar enlargement elongated soft palate everted laryngeal saccules trachial hypoplasia laryngeal collapse
Clinical Trachial Hypoplasia tracheal diameter / rib 3 <3.0 tracheal diameter / thoracic inlet diameter <0.2
Dx Sound of Laryngeal Collapse inspiratory stridor
Most Common Laryngeal Neoplasia in Cats lymphosarcoma
XDx of Tracheal Collapse +insp/exp: flattened tracheal rings +insp: cervical collapse +exp: thoracic collapse
Intercostal Space 2-3x width of rib
Blood Supply to Thoracic Wall intercostal arteries caudal to ribs with vein and nerve internal thoracic artery
Fxn of Internal Intercostal Muscles aid in expiration
Fxn of External Intercostal Muscles aid in inspiration
Dx of Chylothorax "milky" fluid on thoracocentesis fluid triglyceride > serum triglyceride
DDx for Mediastinal Mass in Dogs and Cats thymoma lymphoma
Most Common Pulmonary Neoplasias in Dogs bronchoalveolar carcinoma adenocarcinoma
Positive Prognostic Indicators for Primary Pulmonary Neoplasia well-differentiated tumor no lymph node involvement single mass no preoperative clinical signs
Flow Rate of Nasal O2 50 ml/kg FIO2 = ~40%
Detrimental Effects of Dry O2 dehydrates mucosa increases viscosity of secretions degenerates epithelium impairs mucociliary apparatus
Indications for Mechanical Ventilation arterial PO2 <50-60mmHg on 100% O2 apnea PaCO2 >60mmHg
Cardiac Output = stroke volume X heart rate
Chronotropy changes in heart rate
Stroke Volume Depends On... preload contractility or ionotropy afterload
Preload Determined By... venous return residual volume
Ionotropy intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle fiber to contract at given fiber length
Afterload Increased By... increased total peripheral resistance or blood pressure increased ventricular volume decreased ventricular wall thickness
Blood Pressure = cardiac output X total peripheral resistance
Causes of Right-Sided Eccentric Cardiac Hypertrophy tricuspid regurgitation left-to-right shunting pulmonic insufficiency
Causes of Left-Sided Eccentric Cardiac Hypertrophy mitral regurgitation right-to-left shunting aortic insufficiency
Causes of Right-Sided Concentric Cardiac Hypertrophy pulmonary hypertension heartworms pulmonic stenosis
Causes of Left-Sided Concentric Cardiac Hypertrophy systemic hypertension subaortic stenosis idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hyperthyroidism
Distensibility or Lusotropy ease of ventricular filling in diastole (ability to stretch)
Effects of Alpha-Receptor Stimulation (SNS) arteriolar constriction --> increase blood pressure venoconstriction --> increase preload --> increase cardiac output
Effects of Beta-Receptor Stimulation (SNS) myocardial inotropy and lusitropy increase heart rate and cardiac output (indirect)
Natriuretic Peptides produced by heart to protect heart against deleterious effects of compensatory mechanisms increase in direct correlation to worsening heart failure dysfunction effects --> diuresis, natriuresis, peripheral vasodilation
S1 Heart Sound closure of AV valves
S2 Heart Sound closure of aortic/pulmonary valves
S3 Heart Sound abnormal sound from lost ventricular distensibility (blood hitting ventricular wall)
S4 Heart Sound abnormal sound from abnormally large atrium contracting
"Click" Heart Sound diseased valve
Split Heart Sound aortic and pulmonic valves get barely out of sync
Route of Cardiac Conduction Signal SA node --> bundle of Hiss --> AV node --> right & left bundle branches --> Purkinje fibers
Bipolar Lead I right cranial (-) to left cranial (+)
Bipolar Lead II right cranial (-) to left caudal (+)
Bipolar Lead III left cranial (-) to left caudal (+)
P Wave atrial depolarization
R Wave ventricular depolarization
QRS Complex ventricular size
P-R Interval time of signal to cross AV node
T Wave ventricular repolarization
Enlarged Right Atrium tall, peaked P wave ('P pulmonale')
Enlarged Left Atrium wide P wave ('P mitrale')
Enlarged Left Ventricle increased R wave amplitude prolonged QRS duration
Enlarged Right Ventricle deep S wave shift in MEA deep Q wave
Pericardial Effusion ECG alternating amplitudes of R waves
Ventricular Bigeminy on ECG normal and ventricular premature beats alternate
First Degree Atrioventricular Block on ECG prolonged P-R interval NO decrease in heart rate or arrythmia
Second Degree Atrioventricular Block on ECG dropped beats (not every P followed by a QRS)
Third Degree Atrioventricular Block on ECG P and QRS waves completely independent (NO conduction b/w sinus node and ventricles)
Radio-opacities air > fat > water > bone > metal
Innocent Heart Murmur benign heart murmur in normal puppies and kittens grade 1-2/6 systolic left heart base should resolve by 6mos of age
Most Common Congenital Heart Dz Patent Ductus Arteriosus
PDA Murmur continuous ('washing machine') PMI: left heart base
PDA ECG tall R waves (left ventricle enlargement) tall P waves (left atrial enlargement)
Aortic Stenosis Murmur systolic ejection PMI: left heart base with radiation to right thoracic inlet
Pulmonic Stenosis Murmur systolic ejection PMI: left heart base with radiation towards neck
Most Common Congenital Cardiac Defect in Cats mitral and tricuspid dysplasia
Tetralogy of Fallot pulmonic stenosis overriding aorta ventricular septal defect hypertrophy of right ventricle
Most Common Type of Pericardial Dz pericardial effusion
Pericardial Effusion ECG tachycardia dampened QRS amplitude electrical alternans
Most Common Type of Pericardial Effusion in Dog hemorrhagic (usually neoplastic)
Cause of Pericardial Effusion in Cats secondary to cardiomyopathy or FIP
Most Common Neoplastic Cause of Pericardial Effusion cardiac hemangiosarcoma
Most Common Heart Dz in Dogs degenerative mitral valvular dz, myxomatous degeneration
Degenerative Mitral Valvular Dz Murmur left apical murmur near mitral valve radiates to right hemithorax with thrill over left apex
DDx for Degenerative Mitral Valvular Dz left mainstem bronchial compression from microvascular dz left-sided heart failure from microvascular dz small airway dz (bronchitis) tracheal dz
Only Noninvasive Tool Which Gives Definitie Dx of Left-sided Heart Failure radiographs - dorsal elevation of distal trachea - elevation/compression of L-MSB - straightening of caudal border of heart - "bowlegged cowboy" sign
Common Causative Agents of Infectious Endocarditis staph spp. strep spp. e. coli bartonella spp.
Primary Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Murmur in Cats systolic grade 2-3/6 sternal or mitral region S3 arrythmia
XDx of Primary HCM VD: "valentine-shape" heart
Primary Dilated Cardiomyopathy Murmur in Dogs atrial fibrillation pulse deficits systolic grade 1-3/6 over AV valves
Virchow's Triad or Predisposing Factors for Thrombus Formation vessel injury hypercoagulability blood stasis
Canine Arrythmogenic Cardiomyopathy recurrent or persistent arrythmia with normal left ventricular ejection fraction --> classic DCM
Created by: 26509889



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