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VetMed SAMS2

SAMS Final - Part 1

Scalpel Handle Bard-Parker (#3)
Scissors General operating - synthetic material Mayo dissecting - blunt/blunt; fascial planes Metzenbaum dissecting - blunt/blunt; delicate tissue
Forceps DeBakey Adson (rat-tooth) Brown Adson
Non-Crushing Forceps (2) Allis tissue forceps Doyen intestinal forceps
Crushing Forceps (4) Halsted mosquito hemostatic forceps Kelly & Crile hemostatic forceps Rochester-Carmalt hemostatic forceps
Needle Holders (2) Mayo-Hegar Olsen-Hegar (combo needle holders and scissors)
Manual Retractors (4) Senn Army Navy Meyerding Ribbon malleable
Self-retaining Retractors (4) Gelpi - soft tissue Weitlaner - superficial soft tissue Balfour - abdomen Finochietto - thorax
Suction Tips (3) Frazier - decompression hole Poole - multiple openings at tip Yankauer - for large volumes
OHE Hook Snook and Covault
Towel Clamps (2) Backhaus - penetrating Lorna - non-penetrating
Sterilization complete elimination of microbial viability
Disinfection destruction of most microorganisms on a surface
Antisepsis prevent growth/action of microbes on living tissue
Nosocomial infection acquired during hospitalization
Everting Suture Patterns (4) vertical mattress far-far-near-near near-far-far-near horizontal mattress quilled
Inverting Suture Patterns (3) Lembert Cushing Connell
Grading Neoplasia a measure of differentiation of the tumor determined by pathologist with biopsy/histopath
Staging Neoplasia a measure of spread of disease throughout body determined by clinician
Risk of Testicular Neoplasia if Cryptorchid 13.6 times greater
Reproductive Neoplasias are... 80% dependent on hormones
Appropriate Size of Canine Kidney 2.5-3.5 X 2.0 times the 2nd lumbar vertebra
Appropriate Size of Feline Kidney 2.0-3.0 times the 2nd lumbar vertebra X 3.0-3.5cm
Side Effects of Chemotherapy Bone marrow suppression Alopecia GI upset
Sympathetic Innervation of Bladder hypogastric nerve (L1-L4)
Parasympathetic Innervation of Bladder pelvic nerve (S1-S3)
Somatic Innervation of Bladder pudendal nerve (L7-S3)
Bladder/Urethral Calculus Type that will NOT Medically Dissolve calcium oxalate
Level of Hypoalbuminemia that Displays C/S 1.4-1.6 g/dl
Nephrotic Syndrome hypoalbuminemia proteinuria hypercholesterolemia edema &/or ascites
Urine Protein:Creatinine Ratio <0.5 = normal >1.0 = abnormal
Rx for Reduction of Proteinuria in Glomerular Dz ACE inhibitors
Dx of Fanconi Syndrome glucosuria with normal blood glucose alkaline urine with metabolic acidoses
Most Common Cause of Dysuria, Pollakiuria, & Hematuria in Dogs and Cats cystitis (bacterial in dog; sterile in cat)
Most Common Causes of Bacterial Cystitis in Dog G (-): E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella G (+): Staph, Strep
Natural Defense Mechanisms of Bladder Against Infection anatomic barriers mechanical flushing normal flora high osmolality extremes of pH immunologic mechanisms
Most Common Type of Cystitis in Cats sterile recurrent idiopathic cystitis
Most Common Cystic Urinary Neoplasm in Dog and Cat transitional cell carcinoma
Enuresis involuntary incontinence that is seen at nighttime
Nocturia voluntary (inappropriate) urination at night
Causes of Urethral Sphincter Impairment Incontinence primary urethral sphincter incompetence hormone-responsive incontinence (spay) ectopic ureteres
C/S of Urethral Sphincter Impairment relatively small bladder normal residual volume normal micturition phase very easy to express manually
Causes of Overflow Incontinence urethral obstruction detrusor atony
Causes of Urge Incontinence cystitis, urethritis bladder stones bladder tumors
C/S of Overflow Incontinence large bladder hard to manually express large residual volume
C/S of Urge Incontinence pollakiuria stranguria dysuria very small bladder bladder can appear painful palpation can trigger urination
Normal Amount of Daily Urine Production 50 ml/kg/day
Normal Amount of Daily Fluid Ingestion 100 ml/kg/day
Clinical Oliguria <10-12 ml/kg/day (0.5 ml/kg/hr)
Clinical Isosthenuria 300 mOsm/kg or SpGr of 1.007-1.015
Clinical Hyposthenuria SpGr <1.007
Clinical Hypersthenuria SpGr >1.015
Causes of Prerenal Azotemia hypovolemia hypotension dehydration poor cardiac output
Causes of Renal Azotemia morphological or functional glomerular lesions
Causes of Postrenal Azotemia urinary tract obstruction urinary tract rupture
Most Common Cause of Acute Renal Failure in Dogs and Cats nephrotoxicity
Most Common Cause of PU/PD in Dogs and Cats renal failure
CRF vs. ARF chronic PU/PD small kidneys nonregenerative anemia bone demineralisation milder metabolic derangements
Metabolic Derangements of ARF hyperphosphatemia hyperkalemia metabolic acidosis
Intestinal Phosphate Binders cimetidine calcitrol
% of Body Weight as Plasma 5%
Calculate Fluid Deficit = % dehydration X body weight (kg)
Calculate Daily Maintenance Volume = 1.5 X 70 X [body weight (kg)]^0.75
Max Safe Level of Potassium Supplementation 0.5 mEq/kg/hr (20mEq/24hrs)
Protocol for RxTx of UTI 1st UTI: 3 weeks Recurrent UTI / 1st Prostatisis: 6-8 weeks Pyelonephritis: 8 weeks
Most Common Causes of Cystitis, Pyelonephritis, Prostatitis E. coli Staph spp.
Only Antifungal Rx that Enters Urine fluconazole
Most Common Cause of Rx-induced Nephrotoxicity aminoglycosides (gentamicin, amikacin)
Urine Acidifiers ascorbic acid methionine ammonium chloride
Urine Alkalinizers IV/PO NaH2CO3 PO K citrate
Most Common Urolith in Dogs struvite
Most Common Urolith in Cats calcium oxalate
Urolith Radioopacity (in order of decreasing radiodensity) struvite / calcium phosphate > oxalate > cystine > xanthine > uric acid / urate
Most Common Nephrolith in Dogs and Cats calcium oxalate
RxTx of Uric Acid/Urate Uroliths in Dalmations allopurinol (may cause xanthine stones)
Most Common Urolith in Dalmations urate
Created by: 26509889



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