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Pharmacology Drugs 4

Ocno (radiopharmaceuticals)-antiseptics

define radiopharmaceuticals Radioactive compound used for diagnosis and/or therapy of diseases
T/F: radaiopharmaceuticals are used for pharmacological effects? false; used in tracer quantities
what are the ideal biological characteristics of radiopharmaceuticals? ideal half life (long enough to formulate RaPh and accomplish imaging study, but short enough to reduce overall radiation dose to the patient) readily available high target:non-target ratio
what are fission reactor products? decay by Beta- emission; excess neutrons
what are cyclotron products? decay by Beta+ or Electron Capture; excess protons
which imaging modalities are good for only atomic imaging? Radiographs and CT
which imaging modality is good for atomic and functional imaging? MRI
which imaging modlities are good for physiologic, metabolic and functional imaging? PET, SPECT
what is the difference b/t atomic and physiologic imaging? atomic- rays pass through whole body physiologic- rays emmited from body
what is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical? Mo99/Tc99m
which radiopharmaceutical is used for thyroid imaging? 99mTcO4
what is another radiopharmaceutical used for thyroid imaging? 123I-
why would you choose to use 99mTcO4 over 123I-? 99mTcO4 is cheaper and has a faster clearance rate than 123I-
99mTc Sulfur Colloid is used in what type of scintigraphy? Liver
How are liver tumors displayed with TcS scintigraphy? photopenic void; so shows up as negative image
how do you differentiate b/t a tumor and cirrhosis of the liver when using scintigraphy? send in a biopsy
what is the most widely used reducing agent in radiopharmaceuticals to reduce Tc? SnCl2•2HCl
99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD are what type of imgaging agents? brain
99mTc-MAG3 is what type of imaging agent? renal
what is the trade name for 99mTc-HMPAO Cerutec
what is the trade name for 99mTc-ECD Neurolite
99mTc-DTPA measures what? glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
131I-OIH, replaced by 99mTc-MAG3, measures what? Effective renal blood flow (ERBF)
99mTc-DMSA measures/displays what? renal morphology
why would you use renal scintigraphy rather than using a chem panel to determine renal problems? Can quantify individual kidney function and can detect renal dysfunction before there is an increase in BUN
when an increase in BUN is detected in a chem panel, how much renal funciton is already lost? >75%
how would you determine renal failure based on renal scintigraphy? poor reanal uptake of 99Tc-DTPA prolonged blood pool activity
Why would you use a 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy over a 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy? ERBF scan is more sensitive than a GFR scan. Also MAG3 has a higher clearance rate tahn DTPA
why would you do a scintigraphy for renal morphology? Used to evaluate size, shape and location of kidneys Used to evaluate for acute pyelonephritis Used to determine the distribution of functional renal mass
how would you diagnose end stage kidney on renal scintigraphy? 99mTc localized to cortex of kidney; medulla gone
what is the sign on scintigraphy of end stage kidney? horseshoe shape in middle of kidney
99mTc Phosphorous compounds are used for imaging what body part? bones
what is 153Sm-EDTMP used for? nuclide radiotherapy used to treat osteosarcomas
what is the trade name for 153Sm-EDTMP? QuadraMet
what is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical with PET scans? fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
FDG helps to locate tumors in which tissues? brain, heart (metab glucose quickly)
what is an antiseptic? Substance applied to living tissue that inhibits growth and development of microorganisms
what is a disinfectant? Substance applied to inanimate objects to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms
which agent can serve as both an antiseptic and a mild disinfectant? nolvasan
what is a germicide? Substance used to destroy bacteria or other infective microorganisms
what is a cleanser? Substance that aids in physical removal of foreign material; NOT A GERMICIDE
what is a sanitizer? Substance that reduces the number of bacteria to levels considered safe according to public health interpretations
what is sterilization Complete destruction of all forms of microbial life
the ideal antiseptic has a wide spectrum of effectiveness; however, would you rather it be cidal or static? cidal
what factors determine the effectiveness of a cleaning agent? concentration, time, pH, temperature, vehicle
what factors determine the effectiveness of a microorganism? susceptibility, number, meduium, virulence
what factors determine whether or not a host will become infected and develop symptoms of a disease? health, immune status
what are the modes of action of antimicrobials adsorption into the mircoorganism diffusion into the microorganism altered permeability
how does adsorption of an antisepctic/disinfectant into the microorganism alter the microorganism's effectiveness causes a layer of lethal substance
how does diffusion of an antiseptic/disinfectant into the microorganism alter the microorganism's effectiveness? interferes with metabolism
what types of antiseptics and disinfectants are there? physical chemical
what are some physical antiseptics and disinfectants? heat light
what wavelength is require of UV light to kill mircooranisms? 254-280nm
what types of microorganisms does UV light kill? gram- bacteria and non-sporulating bacteria
what pH must an acidic chemical agent be to be bacteriostatic? bacteriocidal? pH3-6= static pH<3= cidal
what type of acids penetrate cells and disrupt cell membranes, making the microorganism susceptible to the environment? lipid-soluble weak acid
what are some inorganic acid used as antiseptics/disinfectants?? HCl, Boric acid
what is boric acid paired with to be effective against yeast when used as an otic solution? Zn
what are some organic acids used as antiseptics/disinfectants? acetic acid, benzoic acid, "oticlens"
acetic acid can be used to treat?? otitis
benzoic acid is used as?? topical antiseptic
"oticlens" contains which acids? salicylic, malic and benzoic
alkali solutions work best as disinfects as what pH? pH>9
when can an alkaline solution be used as an antiseptic? when it's sulfurated lime
what is the most common form of anionic surfactants? soap
what is a common general cationic surfactant? quaternary ammonium compounds
what is a common specific cationic surfactant used in many veterinary clinics? Roccal D plus
what are alcohols used as? disinfectants
how do alcohols work? Germicidal activity related to lipid solubility Denature soluble proteins Depress surface tension
how do the halogens (I, Cl) work? Diffuses into bacterial cell and interferes with metabolic processes
T/F: Iodine is more active in its ionized form? False, more active when coupled as an Iodophor
at what dilution can bleach be used as an antiseptic? 0.5% sodium hypochlorite
how do phenols work? work as protoplasmic poisons
which antiseptic is toxic upon topical application? hexachloraphene
which antiseptic is found in suture material? triclosan
which oxidizing agent has a very brief germicial action and has cleansing action? H2O2
what machine is used to sterilize medical tools that would otherwise melt in a steam autoclave? Gas plasma sterilizer used with H2O2
which antiseptic is scarlet red, used as a urinary antiseptic, but not for use in Small animals? Azo dyes
which disinfectant/antispetic can be used for "cold sterilization" of medical equipment? glutaraldehyde
which ether, also a phenol, is commonly used in soaps and suture material? triclosan
what percent of chlorhexadine solution is used for wound lavage? 0.05%; 1:40 ratio in sterile water
what is a waterless, scrubless antiseptic used to prep for surgery? Chlorhexidine gluconate 1% in ethyl alcohol 61%
which antiseptic dressing is effective against MRSA? Polyhexamethylene biguanide
Created by: clcxrf



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