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Pharmacology drugs 3

Onco (chemotherapy)

QuestionAnswer
What is a systemic chemotherapy drug? Treatment aimed at micrometastases or system neoplastic disease
what is a localized chemotherapy drug? Does not treat area beyond primar tumor site
what are two forms of localized chemotherapy? surgery and external beam radiation
Why would you use radiation therapy over surgery? if the tumor is too big to initially remove, shirnk it with radiation and then at least life is more comfortable for animal. then can possibly surgically remove
What is a primary chemotherapy drug? main treatment for the disease Ex.) chemotherapy to treat lymphoma
what is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug? a drug used on top of something else (secondary) Ex- treat bone cancer with something else then come back around with chemo
what is a neoadjuvant chemotherapy drug? it's a seconday drug that is used first. Ex.) give chemotherapy before amputation surgery
what is induction in reference to chemo? first treatment to induce remission
what is maintenance in reference to chemo? continued therapy after remission is achieved
what is rescue in reference to chemo? subsequent treatment aimed at re-inducing remission
what are the two FDA approved immunotherapy drugs? acemanann canine melanoma vaccine
how does the canine melanoma vaccine work? DOES NOT PREVENT!!! Just helps fight existing cancer Receptor that is species specific (tyrosinase); give a human receptor to dog in order to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells
what was the first FDA approved chemotherapy drug for veterinary medicine? Toceranib= palladia
what is toceranib/palladia? what type of tumors does toceranib/palladia target? small molecule inhibitor drug targets mast cell tumors
what is another small molecule inhibitor drug? Masitinib = Kinavet
what are the top three vitals to check before beginning a chemotherapy? renal, bone marrow, cardiorespiratory
what complicating diseases should you keep in mind when evaluating a patient for chemotherapy? endocrine disorders, infectious diseases (b/c dec immune sys), neurologic disorders, orthopaedic diseases
when administering a chemotherapy and the patient returns a week for a later for a checkup and the animal has severe anemia, what would you suspect? GI bleeding, AIHA Anemia NOT due to chemo
What are some other possible causes for GI problems other than chemo? pancreatitis, parvovirus
what is the equation for deteriming body surface area? [(W^2/3)x k] / 100 k for 65# dogs= 1m^2 k for cats= 0.2-0.25m^2
there are 4 basic concepts to consider when developing an approach to cancer therapy. what are they? Gompertzian Growth Goldie-Coldman Hypothesis Skipper’s Log Kill Hypothesis Cell Cycle Kinetics
what are the basics of gompertzian crowth? when a tumor begins to grow, gf is low and dt is short. by the time the tumor is detectable, mass has undergone 30 doublings and contains one billion cells. So, by time the tumor is noticable, it's pretty far progressed. Initiate chemotherapy early!!!
what are the basics of goldie-coldan hypothesis tumor cells have a spontaneous mutation rate that could potentially confer resistance to treatment
which drugs are known to be affected by MDR? actinomycin D, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, etoposide, mitomycin C, mitoxantrone, taxol, vinblastine, and vincristine
what are some mechanisms by which tumors employ MDR? increased efflux (p-gp), decreased influx, increased detoxification of drug radicals (by glutathione), increased DNA repair
what are the basics of skippers log kill hypothesis? a certain percentage of tumor cells are killed with each chemotherapy administration
what are the phases of the cell cycle? G0= resting G1= RNA and protein synthesis (hrs-ds) S= DNA synthesis; 6-8hrs G2= RNA and protein synthesis; 2hrs M= mitosis 30-90min
which cell specific drug works during G1? L-asparaginase
which cell specific drug(s)works during S? Antimetabolites (5-FU, cytosine arabinoside, etc.)
which cell specific drug(s) work during G2? Radiation and bleomycin
which cell specific drug(s) work during M? vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel and bleomycin
which drugs work during G0 phase? none; G0 is very chemotherapy resistant
which cell cycle phase is radio resistant? S phase
what are the three most common side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs? "BAG" Bone marrow suppression Alopecia GI effects
which hair coat type is most susceptible to alopecia and color changes in dogs? curly haired coats
alkylating agents are cell cycle specific or non-specific? cell cycle nonspecific
how do alkylating agents work? cross-link DNA and prevent replication
what is the nitrogen mustard derivative chemotherapy drug? mechlorethamine
what is mechlorethamine used to treat? lymphoma
what is the trade name for chlorambucil? leukeran
what is chlorambucil used as an alternative for? cyclophosphamide
what is chlorambucil used to treat? chronic lympocytic leukemia lymphoma
what is another name for cyclophosphamide? cytoxan
T/F: the liver does not need to be functional in order for cyclophosphamide to work? false; metabolized by liver so liver must be functional
what is the most common alkylating agent used for chemotherapy? cyclophosphamide
what is a side effect of cyclophosphamide use that would require immediate stopage of this drug? sterile hemorrhagic cystitis
what is another name for melphalan? alkeran
what is melphalan used to treat? multiple myeloma
what is another name of lomustine? CCNU
what type of drug is lomustine? nitrosurease
T/F: lomustine can be given orally or by IV? false; oral only
what are the two major concerns of using lomustine? thrombocytopenia and hepatotoxicity
What type of cancer can lomustine treat? Brain tumors b/c crosses BBB
what are the alkylating agents? Mechlorethamine Chlorambucil Cyclophosphamide Melphalan Lomustine
what are the antimetabolite drugs? Cytosine arabinoside 5-Fluorouracil Gemcitabine Methotrexate Azathioprine
what are other names for cytosine arabinoside? Cytosar-U or Ara-C
what type of cancer does cytosine arabinoside treat? lymphoma, primarily renal
what is another name for 5-fluorouracil? 5-FU
why can't you use 5-fluorouracil in cats? nephrotoxicity
what is 5-FU used to treat and how? Intracavitary or IV use for carcinomas
what is another name for Gemcitabine ? Gemzar
Gemcitabine is hopeful to treat? carcinomas
Methotrexate, use? lymphoma and possibly oral SCC in cats
what are the contraindications of gemcitabine? thrombocytopenia and retinal hemorrhage
what is another name for azathioprine? imuran
what is imuran used for? immunosuppressive
what are the antitumor drugs? Doxorubicin Mitoxantrone Actinomycin D Bleomycin Idarubicin Epirubicin
what is 5-FU used to treat and how? Intracavitary or IV use for carcinomas
what is another name for Gemcitabine ? Gemzar
Gemcitabine is hopeful to treat? carcinomas
Methotrexate, use? lymphoma and possibly oral SCC in cats
what are the contraindications of gemcitabine? thrombocytopenia and retinal hemorrhage
what is another name for azathioprine? imuran
what is imuran used for? immunosuppressive
what are the antitumor drugs? Doxorubicin Mitoxantrone Actinomycin D Bleomycin Idarubicin Epirubicin
what is one of the most versitile chemotherapy drugs available to treat lymphoma and osteosarcoma? Doxorubicin aka adriamycin
This chemotherapy drug is a terrible vesicant. doxorubicin
chemotherapy drug found to be cardiotoxic in dogs and nephrotoxic in cats. doxorubicin
this chemotherapy drug has similar action to doxorubicin, but has decreased cardiotoxicity, decreased tissue irritation and is more myelosuppressive mitoxatrone aka novantrone
Vinca alkaloids used for chemotherapy act on which cell cycle phase? M phase
which vinca alkaloids Inhibit microtubule formation vincristine,vinblastine, VP-16
which vinca alkaloids disrupt microtubule disassembly taxol, paclitaxel
what is another name for vincristine? oncovin
this vinca alkaloid causes peripheral neuropathy, Constipation, Increases platelet count (CBC >1,000,000) and is a vesicant vincristine/oncovin
what is another name for vinblastin? velban
this vinca alkaloid is myelosuppressive a vesicant, and used primarily to treat mast cell tumor in dogs. vinblastin/velban
this newer vinca alkaloid may treat lung cancer vinorelbine
what are the vinca alkaloid related drugs? Etoposide (VP-16 (VePesid)) Taxol (paclitaxel)
the drug vehicle of this drug causes anaphylaxis Etoposide (VP-16 (VePesid)) polysorbate 80 is the drug vehicle
the drug vehicle of this drug causes hypersensitivity reactions Taxol (paclitaxel) Cremophor EL is the drug vehicle
which hormones are commonly used as chemotherapy agents? prednisone, estrogen, testosterone, progesterone
L-Asparaginase (Elspar)is cell cycle specific for which phase? G1 phase
how does L asparaginase work? cleaves arginine, nucelic acid needed for protein synthesis
what is L-asparaginase derived from? E. coli
what are some adverse reactions seen with L-asparaginase use? hypersensitivity, pancreatitis
what forms of cancer is L-asparaginase most commonly used to treat lymphoma, esp if bone marrow invovled
what is Dacarbazine (DTIC) used to treat? melanoma
T/F: cisplatin is cell cycle non-specific? True
what is another name for cisplatin? platinol
what is cisplatin most commonly used to treat? osteosarcoma
why must cisplatin be given with large amount of saline? to prevent acute proximal tubular necrosis.
can cisplatin be given to cats? why/why not? NO! causes fatal pulmonary edema
what other toxicities are associated with cisplatin? of nephrotoxicity, acute emesis, ototoxicity, or myelosuppression
cisplatin can be given intracavitary to treat what? carcinomatosis
carboplatin is also called? paraplatin
what are the benefits of using carboplatin over cisplatin? less nephrotoxic; can be used in cats; no diuresis required with admin;
what is the down side to using carboplatin over cisplatin? more myelosuppressive
life span of neutrophils? 4-8hrs
life span of platelets? 6d
life span of dog RBC's? cat RBC's? 110d; 70d
when administering chemotherapy and you notice the dog has GI upset (stool changes/vomiting) what are your top 3 differentials other than drug effects? parasites; parvo; pancreatitis
Created by: clcxrf