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VetMed Equine Final2

VetMed Equine M&S Final - Wounds & Foals

QuestionAnswer
Maternal Signs of Impending Birth gestation ~340d udder development elevation of tailhead vulvar elongation waxing increase calcium in mammary secretions inversion of sodium:potassium in secretions
Three Infectious Portals in Foal GI respiratory navel
"1-2-3" Rule 1 hr = standing 2 hr = nursing 3 hr = pass placenta
Timing of: suckle urination meconium nursing 20min 10hr 24hr 7x/hr for 21-25% of BW/day
Normal Pulse of Gestational Foal <5min = 40-80 bpm 5-60min = 130-150 bpm 1-3d = 100 bpm
Normal Respiratory Rate of Gestational Foal post-foaling = 60-80 bpm 1-12hr = 30-40 bpm
Most Common Congential Intracardiac Defect of Foal ventricular septal defect
Meconium dark brown to black pelleted to pasty first feces composed of glandular secretions and swallowed amniotic fluid that are stored in colon and rectum
Lethal White Foal Syndrome Terminal Ileocolonic Agangliosis homozygous recessive from mating of 2 overo paints aganglionosis of colon
Most Common Congenital Urinary Defect of Foal ruptured bladder
Earliest Indicator of Poor Foal Doing decreased close bonding to the mare
Mare Should Pass Placenta Within... 2 hours becomes an emergency at 4-6 hrs
Antibiotics that Cross Placenta normal/inflamed: TMS-SMZ + Pentoxyphylline inflamed: KPen + Gentamicin
Signs of Fetal Readiness for Birth >330d gestation good quality colostrum in udder soft cervix
Leading Causes of Foal Death in 1st 14d of Life sepsis asphyxa dysmaturity from in utero growth retardation
At What Age is a Foal Considered "Premature"? <320d
Clinical Signs of a Premature Foal decreased body weight hypotonia soft, floppy ears short, silky haircoat bulging forehead incomplete endochondral ossification PaO2 <80mmHg
Dysmature >320d GA with signs of prematurity
Postmature >356d GA with lean, lanky appearance characteristic of chronic placental insufficiency
Postterm >356d GA, but normal
Primary Cause of Prematurity in Foal placental insufficiency
Optimal Absorption Window of Colostrum prior to 6.5 hours with essentially none after 24 hours
Sites of Neonatal Infection pneumonia GI tract (diarrhea) meninges physes kidney umbilicus joints
Primary Cause of Neonatal Septicemia E. coli
Antimicrobials Used to Tx Neonatal Septicemia beta-lactams + aminoglycosides meningitis --> 3rd generation cephalosporins
Three Main Differentials for Neonatal Colic ruptured bladder meconium impaction GI ulcers
When does the Inflammatory Phase of Wound Healing Peak? 3-5 days
Four Phases of Wound (Tissue) Healing inflammatory phase debridement phase repair phase (epithelialization, fibroplasia, granulation, contraction) maturation phase
Debridement Phase of Wound Healing Begins 6 hours post-injury
Epithelialization Phase of Wound Healing Begins 12 hours post-injury
Fibroplasia Phase of Wound Healing Begins 3-4 days post-injury
Granulation Phase of Wound Healing Begins 10-14 days post-injury
Collagen Synthesis Begins 5 days post-injury
Rx Used to Help Provide Adequate Wound Drainage Tris-EDTA (don't use on bone, b/c will chelate exposed bone)
Removal of Stitches 10-14 days
Abnormal Synovial Fluid Cytology Parameters protein >2.5 g/dl WBCs >10K-30K >90% rarely degenerate neutrophils
Most Common Organisms in Foal Septic Arthritis actinobacillus e. coli klebsiella pseudomonas
Most Common Organisms in Adult Septic Arthritis streptococcus staphylococcus e. coli
Rx for Septic Arthritis beta-lactams (tetracyclines) aminoglycosides fluoroquinolone
Created by: 26509889