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420 DRUGS PART 2

QuestionAnswer
Bethanechol (Urecholine) Muscarinic Agonists Quaternary amine USE: urinary retention/ileus
Carbachol (Isopto-Carbachol) Muscarinic Agonists Quaternary amine and non-selective muscarinic and nicotinic agonist USE: Glaucoma
Cevimeline (Evoxac) Muscarinic Agonists USE: Sjogren's (dry mouth)
Pilocarpine (Isopto-Carpine, Salagen) Muscarinic Agonists Tertiary amine USE: Sjogren's (dry mouth), glaucoma
Neostigmine (Prostigmin) AChE inhibitors reversible USE: Urinary retention/ileus, myasthenia gravis
Physostigmiine (Eserine-generic) AChE inhibitors reversible
Ambenonium (Mytelase) AChE inhibitor reversible USE: myasthenia gravis
Edrophonium (Tensilon) AChE inhibitor reversible USE: myasthenia gravis
Difluorophosphate-DFP (Floropryl) AChE inhibitors irreversible "organophosphates"
Echothiphate (Phospholine) AChE inhibitors irreversible "organophosphates" USE: glaucoma
Sarin AChE inhibitors irreversible (cholinergic poisons, nerve gases) 5 hours before permanent
Tabun AChE inhibitors irreversible (cholinergic poisons, nerve gases) 13 hours before permanent
Soman AChE inhibitors irreversible (cholinergic poisons, nerve gases) 2 min before permanent
Malathion AChE inhibitors irreversilble (Insecticide)
Varenicline (Chantix) Nicotinic a4b2 partial agonist USE: smoking cessation aid
Nicotine (Nicorette, Commit) Nicotine receptor agonist USE: smoking cessation
Ipratropium (Atrovent) Anticholinergic USE: asthma, COPD: decrease bronchial contraction and secretions
Tiotropium (Spiriva) Anticholinergic USE: asthma, COPD: decrease bronchial contraction and secretions
Atropine Anticholinergic USE: pre-op antisecretory
Atropine (AtroPen) Anticholinergic USE: overdose of muscarinic agonists or organophosphate poisoning
Atropine Anticholinergic USE: bradycardia, asystole: reduce dominant PNS tone-> dominant SNS tone (increase heart rate)
Darifenacin (Enablex) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Fesoterodine (Toviaz) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Oxybutynin (Ditropan) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Solfenacin (Vesicare) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Tolterodine (Detrol) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Trospium (Sanctura) Anticholinergic USE: urinary incontinence: relax detrusor/contract internal sphincter
Dicyclomine (Bentyl) Anticholinergic USE: GI hypermotility and secretions
I-hyoscamine (Levsinex) Anticholinergic USE: GI hypermotility and secretions and infant colic
Methscopolamine (Pamine) Anticholinergic USE: GI hypermotility and secretions
Propantheline (Pro-Banthine) Anticholinergic USE: GI hypermotility and secretions
Scopolamine (Transderm Scop) Anticholinergic USE: motion sickness: decrease excessive stimulation of vestibular pathway
Homoatropine (Isopto Homatropine) Anticholinergic USE: mydriatic: to facilitate eye exam
Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl) Anticholinergic USE: mydriatic: to facilitate eye exam
Tropicamide (Mydriacyl) Anticholinergic USE: mydriatic: to facilitate eye exam
Ondansetron (Zofran) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists USE: prevent N&V associated with emetogenic chemotherapy or radiation, prevention and treatment of post-op N&V MOA: block 5-HT3 receptors of vagal afferent nerve plus those in CTZ and EC
Dolasetron (Anzemet) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists USE: prevent N&V associated with emetogenic chemotherapy or radiation, prevention and treatment of post-op N&V MOA: block 5-HT3 receptors of vagal afferent nerve plus those in CTZ and EC
Granisetron (Kytril) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists USE: prevent N&V associated with emetogenic chemotherapy or radiation, prevention and treatment of post-op N&V MOA: block 5-HT3 receptors of vagal afferent nerve plus those in CTZ and EC
Palolosetron (Aloxi) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists USE: prevent N&V associated with emetogenic chemotherapy or radiation, prevention and treatment of post-op N&V MOA: block 5-HT3 receptors of vagal afferent nerve plus those in CTZ and EC
Alosetron (Lotronex) 5-HT3 antagonist USE: women w/ IBS-D MOA: blockade of 5-HT3 receptors of ENS afferent fibers inhibit afferent and efferent effects of gut distention
Nonopiods: APAP, ASA, NSAIDS USE: abortive therapy of mild migrane
Barbiturate hypnotics: butalbital/ASA/caffeine USE: abortive therapy of mild migrane
Triptans USE: abortive therapy of mild, moderate, severe migrane
Ergotamine tartrate (Ergomar)SL tablets Ergot Alkaloids USE: migranes MOA: agonist and/or antagonist effects of 5-HT and a1 receptors
Dihydroergotamine D.H.E (Migranal, D.H.E. 45) Ergot Alkaloids USE: migranes MOA: agonist and/or antagonist effects of 5-HT and a1 receptors
Ergonovine (Ergotrate) Ergot Alkaloids USE: prevention and treatment of postpartum atony and hemorrhage MOA: agonist/antagonist of a1 and 5-HT2 receptors--> strong contractions of uterus --> compress uterine blood vessels
Methylergonovine (Methergine) Ergot Alkaloids USE: prevention and treatment of postpartum atony and hemorrhage MOA: agonist/antagonist of a1 and 5-HT2 receptors--> strong contractions of uterus --> compress uterine blood vessels
Citalopram (Celexa) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Escitalopram (Lexapro) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Fluvoxamine (Luvox) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Paroxetine (Paxil) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Sertraline (Zoloft) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Venlaflaxine (Effexor) Serotonin/NE Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) Serotonin/NE Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Duloxetine (Cymbalta) Serotonin/NE Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) USE: fibromyalgia
Milnacipdran (Savella) Serotonin/NE Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) USE: fibromyalgia
Mephobarbital (Mebaral) Barbiturate USE: sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant ONSET: 60 min DURATION: 15 hrs (long)
Phenobarbital (Luminal) Barbiturate USE: sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant ONSET: 60 min DURATION: 15 hrs (long)
Amobarbital (Amytal) Barbiturate USE: sedative, hypnotic ONSET: 60 min DURATION: 8 hrs (intermediate)
Pentobarbital (Nembutal) Barbiturate USE: insomnia ONSET: 15 min DURATION: 4 hrs (short)
Secobarbital (Seconal) Barbiturate USE: insomnia, pre-anesthesia ONSET: 15 min DURATION: 4 hrs (short)
Thiopental (Pentothal) Barbiturate USE: anesthesia: sole or adjunct to other general anesthetics ONSET: ~20 sec DURATION: 15 min (ultra-short)
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Benzodiazepine USE: anxiety, preanesthesia, alcohol withdrawl ONSET: 40 min DURATION: 24-48 hrs (long)
Clonazepam (Klonopin) Benzodiazepine USE: Panic disorder, epilepsy, bipolar disorder ONSET: 40 min DURATION 24-48 hrs (long)
Diazepam (Valium) Benzodiazepine USE: anxiety, preanesthesia, AED, muscle relaxant, alcohol withdrawl ONSET: 40 min DURATION 24-48 hrs (long)
Alprazolam (Xanax) Benzodiazepine USE: anxiety, panic disorder ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 24 hrs (medium)
Lorazepam (Ativan) Benzodiazepine USE: anxiety, preanesthesia, status epilepticus, alcohol withdrawal, preanesthesia, amnesia ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 12-18 hrs (short)
Oxazepam (Serax) Benzodiazepine USE: anxiety, alcohol withdrawal ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 12-18 hrs (short)
Temazepam (Restoril) Benzodiazepine USE: insomnia ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 12-18 hrs (short)
Midazolam (Versed) Benzodiazepine USE: Preanesthesia, amnesia, induce/maintain anesthesia ONSET: 4 min DURATION: <6 hr (ultrashort)
Triazolam (Halcion) Benzodiazepine USE: insomnia ONSET: 4 min DURATION: <6 hr (ultrashort)
Buspirone (Buspar) USE: anxiety ONSET of efficacy is 1-2 weeks MOA: serotonin receptor agonist, no effect on GABA receptor or GABA binding to GABA receptor
Eszopiclone (Lunesta) Non-BDZs Hypnotics USE: insomnia MOA: agonist of BZ1 (omega1 receptor)
Zolpidem (Ambien) Non-BDZs Hypnotics USE: insomnia MOA: agonist of BZ1 (omega1 receptor)
Zapelon (Sonata) Non-BDZs Hypnotics USE: insomnia MOA: agonist of BZ1 (omega1 receptor)
Ramelteon (Rozerem) Non-BDZs Hypnotic USE: insomnia MOA: agonist of melatonin receptors of suprachiasmatic nuclei= maintain carcadian rhythm or normal sleep-wake cycle
Chloral Hydrate Generic Miscellaneous Older CNS depressants USE: preop: anti-anxiety and sedation, postop: adjunct to opiates and other analgesics, hypnotic: loses effectiveness after 2 week therapy, prevent or suppress alcohol withdrawal symptoms MOA: unknown
Meprobamate (Equanil) Miscellaneous Older CNS depressants USE: anxiety (reduced efficacy after 4 months) MOA: unknown
Alcohol Ethanol ETOH MOA: binds to different site on GABA receptor, inhibits activation of NMDA (excitory) receptors, effects on other channels and neurotransmitters
Disulfiram (Antabuse) Miscellaneous Older CNS depressants USE: treatment of alcohol abuse MOA: cause acetaldehyde poisoning- inhibit ALDH-increase in acetaldehyde- vasodillation, intense throbbing headache, vomitting, sweating, vertigo, blurred vision, weakness, confusion
Phenobarbital Older AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Status MOA: block Na and Ca channels, increase duration of open Cl channels, decrease glutamate release
Phenytoin (Dilantin) Older AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Status MOA: block Na and Ca channels, increase GABA release, decrease glutamate release
Valproic Acid (Depakene) Older AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Absence, Status MOA: block Na and Ca channels, increase GABA levels
Primidone (Mysoline) Older AED
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Older AED
Levetiracetam (Keppra) Newer AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal MOA: Increase GABA release, decrease glutamate release
Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Newer AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Absence OTHER USE: treat pain MOA: block Na and Ca channels, decrease Glutamate release
Pregabalin (Lyrica) Newer AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial MOA: block Ca channels, increase GABA release, decreaase glutamate release
Gabapentin (Neurontin) Newer AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Absence OTHER USE: diabetic neuropathy pain, postherpitic pain, spinal cord injury, phantom limb pain MOA: block Ca channels, unknown
Topiramate (Topamax) Newer AED USE: Simple&Complex Partial, Grand Mal, Absence OTHER USE: treat pain MOA: Block Na channels, potentiate GABA inhibitory effect on GABA-A receptor, blocks glutamate receptors
Acamprosate (Campral) USE: maintain alcohol abstinence MOA: restore balance of GABA and glutamate activity, enhance action of GABA at GABA receptors, reduce neuronal hyper-excitability during alcohol withdrawl
Created by: lmcajigal