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ANA 113 Lecture 32

Digestive System lecture 2

Adominopelvic cavity extends from the diaphragm to the boney pelvis
quandrants upper right, lower right, upper left, lower left
regions right/left hypochondriac region, epigastric region, right/left lumbar region, umbilical region, right/left iliac region, hypogastric region
peritonuem serous membrane that lines theabdominopelvic cavity and supports and covers most of the organs located within this cavity
Parietal peritoneum lines body cavity
Visceral peritoneum covers organs (stuck on it)
Peritoneal cavity space between th parietal and visceral peritoneum which contains a small amount of peritoneal fluid
Special Peritoneal membranes (folds, double layers in regions of the GI tract) isolates and protects organs, supports organs and blood vessels, attaches organs to body wall, stores fat
Greater omentum suspended from the inferior curvature of the stomach
lesser omentum attaches the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver (superior part of stomach)
Falciform ligament tough (dura-like) attaches th liver to the inferior side of the diaphragm and the anterior of the body wall
Mesentery attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
Mesocolon attaches the large intesine to the posterior abdominal wall
Retroperitoneal "behind the peritoneum" only covered on the anterior side
Organs that are retropitoneal pancreas, kidneys, portion of the duodenum, ascending and descending colon
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum. may be serious because infection can readily spred throughout the peritoneal cavity
Location of the stomach mostly in the upper left quadrant, between the esophagus and small intestine
Structure of the stomach J-shaped, divided into 4 regions
4 regions of the stomach cardiac, fundus, body, pylorus
borders of the stomach lesser cuvature (superior) and greater curvature (inferior)
What are the 3 layers of smooth muscle in the stomach? circular, longitudinal and oblique
Rugae folds in the mucosal layer of the stomach, permits the stomachto distend (increases surface area for secretion and digestion)
Gastric glands chief cells, parietal cells, mucous cells, enteroendocrine cells
Chief cells (zygomatic cells) produce pepsinogen which is converted to active enzyme pepsin for protien digestion
Parietal cells produces HCl which decreases the pH of the stomach contents, produces interinsic factor required for B12 absorption
Mucous cells (goblet cells) secrete protective mucous
enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones which influence digestive organs, example:gastrin -> increases GI activity
Pyloric sphincter located between the stomach and duodenum, controls how much chme enters the small intestine
Chyme a mix of food with water and enzymes in/leaving the stomach
Function of the stomach mechanical mixing of food and production of chyme, intiates protein digestion, storage of chyme until it passes into the duodenum (only lets a small amount through at a time) minimal absorption some drugs and alcohol)
Small intestine *major digestive/absorption organ, upper right to lower right quadrant, extends from the pyloriic spincter to th large intestine, occupies the central and lower portion of abdominal cavity, divided into 3 regions
What are the 3 regions of the small intestine? duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Duodenum C-shaped region of the small intestine, first 10 inches, retroperitoneal, contains duodenal papilla and Brunner's gland
Duodenal papilla opening throuh which bile (from the common bile duct) and enzymes (from pancreas) enter the duodenum
Brunner's gland secretes alkaline mucous
Jejunum middle section of the small intestine, note the slightly larger lumen
ileum 3rd region of the small intestine, contains Peyer's patches
Peyr's patches clusters of lymphatic tissue
Function of small intestine major site of chemical digestion, mechanical mixing, major site for absorption of nutrients, propels undigested nutriens and materials to large intestine
Nerve supply for small intestine myenteric nerve plexes (parasympathetic) also vagus nerve
plicae circulares deep folds in the mucosa of the small intetines
villi small finger like projecions, increase surface area, contain a capillary network and a lacteal which transports nutrients
microvilli microscopic processes on columnar cells, promote absorption
crypts of Lieberkuhn intestinal glands, secrete enzymes
Large intestine begins at ileum in the lower right quadrant, extends superiorly to the liver, passes left to spleen, descends on left to pelvis, terminates at anus
cecum dilated pouch at junction of small and large intestine, lower right quadrant
ileocecal valve guards opening to cecum
ascending colon located on the right side
transverse colon passes from right to left
descending colon left side
sigmoid colon S-shaped, from left side to center of the body
rectum located on midline, leads to the anus
anus external opening
What type of muscle is the internal and exernal anal sphincters? internal:smooth, external:skeletal
Hepatic/Right colic flexture (near liver) at junction of ascending and transverse colon
Splenic/Left colic flexture at junction of transverse and descending colon
taeniae coli 3 distinct bands of smooth muscle
Haustra sac-like regions in the large intestine
Epiploic Appendages fat-filled pouches in the large intestine
Function of the large intestine Completes absorption of water, manufactures vitamins (A,D,E,K :all fat soluble), conatins natural flora (bacteria), formation, storage and expulsion of feces
Where is the appendix located? lower right quadrant, usually retro-cecal (behind the cecum)
Structure of the Appendix about the size of a pinky, maybe a bit smaller (finger-like profection about 2-3 inches long), blind pouch, contains lyphatic tissue
Which muscles create movement of food along the GI tract? longitudinal and circular
Peristalsis series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food aong the GI tract
Segmentation Contractions in small intestine that moves the food in both directions for better mixing with the secretions in the intestine
Mass peristalis reflex in the large intestine, initated by the presence of food in the stomach. drives the contents of the colon into the retum
Defecation emptying of the contents of the rectum. contraction of the longitudinal muscles and relaxtion of the anal sphincters (circular muscle)
Created by: Kachmiel



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