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VetMed Equine Final

Equine M&S I Final - Cumulative

Valgus lateral deviation of the distal limb
Varus medial deviation of the distal limb
Sole pain at toe with hoof testers toe bruise or laminitis
Frog pain with hoof testers navicular disease
Heel pain with hoof testers corn, heel abscess, quarter crack
After Flexion Test, is lame for first few steps Degenerative Joint Disease or Synovitis
Palmar Digital Nerve Block Effect caudal 1/3 foot sole digital cushion navicular bone and bursa +/- palmar coffin and pastern joints
Pastern Ring Block Effect entire foot pastern
Abaxial Sesamoid Nerve Block Effect distal sesamoids entire foot, pastern joint, coffin joint
Low Volar Nerve Block Effect pastern palmar fetlock
Low Volar Ring Block (low 4-point) Effect fetlock and below
High Volar Nerve Block (high 2-point) Effect distal suspensory flexor tendons and below NOT dorsal MC (MT) 3
High Volar Ring Block leg below carpus
Local Nerve Blocks Contraindicated fracture suspected
Palmar Digital Nerve Block Location each side of DDF tendon, just proximal to collateral cartilages
Dorsal Branches of Palmar Digital Nerve Block Effect dorsal foot and pastern w/o fetlock alternative to abaxial sesamoid block
Abaxial Sesamoid Nerve Block Location palmar digital nerve over abaxial proximal sesamoid bones
Low Volar Nerve Block Location medial & lateral palmar n b/w suspensory ligament & flexor tendon medial & lateral palmar metacarpal n from beneath buttons of MCII & MCIV
High Volar Nerve Block Location lateral: accessoriometacarpal ligament medial: near medial aspect of flexor tendons, distal to carpus
Median Nerve Block (Manus Block 1) Location 5cm distal to elbow, slightly below transverse pectoral mm, deep to antebrachial fascia redirect needle 3 times in triangular shape
Median Nerve Block (Manus Block 1) Effect medial side of antebrachium and below
Medial Cutaneous Antebrachial Nerve Block Location lacertus fibrosis on dorsomedial forearm
Medial Cutaneous Antebrachial Nerve Block Effect blocks medial to lateral cutaneous antebrachium and below
Ulnar Nerve Block Location 4" above accessory carpal bone b/w ulnaris lateralis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles
Ulnar Nerve Block Effect lateral and palmar antebrachium and below
Five Coriums of Hoof perioplic corium coronary corium solar corium corium of the frog laminar corium
Enthesiophyte proliferative bone at attachment of tendon to bone
Osteophyte periarticular bone proliferation
Indications for Navicular Bursa Injection with Navicular Syndrome bursitis NB damage DDFT injury CSL injury IL injury
Indications for DIPJ Injection with Navicular Syndrome CSL injury IL injury NB damage DIPJ damage
Contraindication for Palmar Digital Neurectomy NB flexor cortex defect
Indications for Bursoscopy flexor cortex defects on rads or MRI dorsal DDFT lesions on MRI
Communicating Joint Spaces of Stifle femoropatellar pouch & medial femorotibial pouch
Communicating Joint Spaces of Tarsus tibiotarsal joint & proximal intertarsal joint
Bone Spavin two distal tarsal joints fuse and form periarticular osteophytes 3rd to central tarsal bone
Bog Spavin effusion on dorsomedial side of tibiotarsal joint
Curb inflammation/rupture of plantar ligament
Thoroughpin inflammation/effusion in tarsal sheath
Predilection Sites for OCD lateral trochlear ridge of tibiotarsal bone lateral trochlear ridge of distal femur distal intermediate ridge of distal tibia humeral head
Predilection Sites for Subchondral Bone Cysts medial femoral condyle distal humeral condyle proximal radius distal MC3 distal P1
"Windswept" valgus in one limb, varus in the other limb
Two Most Common Angular Limb Deformities carpal valgus (distal radius physis) fetlock varus (distal physis of cannon bone)
When Does the Physis of the Distal Radius Close? 24-30mos
When Does the Physis of MC3/MT3 Close? 9-12mos
Blepharospasm squinting
Epiphora tearing
Mydriasis excessive pupil dilation
Miosis excessive pupil restriction
CN of Menace Response CN II CN VII
CN of Pupillary Light Reflex CN II CN III
CN of Dazzle Reflex CN II CN VII
CN of Palpebral Reflex CN V CN VII
CN of Corneal Reflex CN V CN VII
CN of Position of Globe CN III CN IV CN VI CN VIII
Dacryocystitis inflammation of lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct
Auriculopalpebral Innervations motor to upper lid (orbicularis oculi mm)
Supraorbital Innervations sensory to medial 2/3 of upper lid
Causes of Keratitis bacterial - staph, strep, pseudomonas fungal - aspergillus, fusarium
Most Common Cause of Dermal Hypersensitivity culicoides
Non-healing Wound with Yellow Plaquish Granules habronemiasis
Entropion inward rolling of eyelid margin
Most Common Ocular Neoplasia in Equine and Bovine squamous cell carcinoma
What Drugs are Contraindicated in the Treatment of Glaucoma? NSAIDs (COX-2 inhibitor) atropine
Differential Diagnoses for Muscle Disease electrolyte imbalances pleuritis colic chronic disease poor performance lameness
Muscles Affected with Equine Recurrent Exertional Rhabdomyolysis gluteal mm semimembranosus/semitendinosus biceps femoris
CK peaks: 4-6 hr half-life: 2 hr
AST peaks: 12-24 hr half-life: 8 hr
Pathophysiology of RER of THB altered muscle cell calcium regulation causing muscle to contract well but relax poorly
Diagnosis of RER of THB in vitro caffeine or halothane contracture of intercostal muscles increased central nuclei glycogen levels NORMAL
Pathophysiology of PSSM enhanced insulin sensitivity leads to accumulation of glycogen with inadequate branching
Diagnosis of PSSM muscle biopsy of semimembranosus mm
PSSM of Draft Breeds progressive muscle weakness/wasting
Pathophysiology of Pasture Myopathy myonecrosis with lipid accumulation in myocardium
Diagnosis of Pasture Myopathy weakness W/O firm muscles
Rx for RER of THB dantrolene (decreases calcium release from sarcolemma)
Composition of Equine Sweat Relative to Plasma low calcium, low phosphorus high sodium, high potassium, high chloride, high water
Definitive Diagnosis of Clostridial Myonecrosis fine needle aspirate with large gram (+) rods
Three Forms of Streptococcal Myositis acute rhabdomyolysis infarctive purpura hemorrhagica immune-mediated myositis
Type III Hypersensitivity of IgA/IgM:Strep M complexes with almost 100% mortality infarctive purpura hemorrhagica
Diagnosis of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Strep Myositis increased mm enzymes decreased M protein titers increased myosin binding protein titers
Diagnosis of Infarctive Purpura Hemorrhagica floculent to firm pockets of serosanguinous fluid over major mm (semim/tend, gluteals, sublumbar)
Disease of Severe Muscle Wasting over Dorsum immune-mediated myositis
Electrolyte Imbalances of Nutritional Myodegeneration hyperkalemia hyperphosphatemia hyponatremia hypochloremia
Most Common Equine Skin Neoplasia equine sarcoid
Six Classifications of Equine Sarcoid occult verrucose nodular fibroblastic mixed sarcoid malignant
Second Most Common Equine Skin Neoplasia squamous cell carcinoma
Third Most Common Equine Skin Neoplasia melanoma
Most Common Sites for SCC nonpigmented skin mucocutaneous junction eyelids, conjunctiva cornea mouth
Most Common Sites for Melanoma perineum penile skin commissure of lips vulva eyelid
Splinting Fractures of Phalanges and Distal Metacarpus splint on dorsal aspect
Splinting Fractures of Mid-forelimb splint on caudal and lateral aspects from ground to elbow
Splinting Fractures of Middle and Proximal Radius splint on lateral aspect from ground to axilla
Splinting Fractures Proximal to Elbow splint on caudal aspect from ground to olecranon
Splinting Fractures of DIstal Hind Limb splint on caudal and plantar aspects from ground to tarsus
Splinting Fractures of Middle and Proximal Metatarsus splint on caudal and lateral aspects from ground to calcaneal tuber
Splinting Fractures of Tibia and Tarsus splint on lateral aspect from ground to stifle
Rx for Burn Shock flunixin: analgesia pentoxyfylline: increase blood flow through capillaries DMSO: decrease inflammation; decrease pulmonary edema
Created by: 26509889



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