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VetMed Pharmacology7

VetMet Pharmacology - Fluid Therapy & Electrolytes

Percentage of BW as Intracellular Fluid 30-40%
Percentage of BW as Extracellular Fluid 20%
Percentage of BW as Plasma Volume 4-6%
Percentage of BW as Interstitial Fluid 10-12%
Percentage of BW as Transcellular Fluid 6-10%
Percentage of Adult BW as Total Body Water 60%
Percentage of Neonate BW as Total Body Water 80%
Primary Extracellular Cation Na+
Primary Intracellular Cation K+
Primary Extracellular Anion Cl-
Primary Intracellular Anion PO4- proteins
General Guidelines for Administering Fluid Therapy 50% of fluid deficit in first 3 hours re-evaluate hydration status every hour remaining 50% of fluid deficit over next 21 hour period
Dispersion of Physiological Saline 2/3 --> interstitial fluid space 1/3 --> intravascular space
Dispersion of 5% Dextrose 2/3 --> intracellular fluid space 1/3 --> extracellular fluid space (only 25% of which is IV)
Indications for Physiological Saline acute plasma volume expansion correction of hyponatremia metabolic alkalosis diarrhea due to hyponatremia
Indications for 5% Dextrose hypernatremia free H2O depletion carbohydrate source for NPO cases
Indications for 2.5% Dextrose and 0.45% Saline avoids iatrogenic hypernatremia in blocked tom cats maintenance fluid (post-op equine colics)
Indications for Colloids/Hypertonic Saline/Hetastarch hypoproteinemia caused by haemorrhage, liver disease, thermal burns
Maximum IV Administration for K+ 0.5 mEq/kg/day
Causes of Hypokalemia decreased dietary intake K+ wasting in kidney (severe dehydration) diuretic therapy
Causes of Hyperkalemia decreased renal excretion (renal failure) iatrogenic causes early metabolic acidosis
Treatment of Hyperkalemia Ca2+ gluconate insulin/dextrose bicarbonate (all drive K+ into cytosol of cells)
Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis IV fluids (increase vascular O2 delivery) Na+HCO3- (normal lungs only)
Treatment of Metabolic Alkalosis physiological saline Cl- and K+ to conserve H+ of paradoxical aciduria
Treatment of Respiratory Acidosis improve pulmonary ventilation HPO3- (combines with H+ so can be renally excreted)
Treatment of Respiratory Alkalosis reduce pulmonary ventilation rate/rebreathe physiological saline
Created by: 26509889