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VetMed Pharmacology3

Vet Med Pharmacology - Distribution

Distribution the extent or degree a pharmaceutical exits the IV compartment by passive diffusion into the EV (e.g. interstitial) fluid compartments and cell populations
Extracellular Fluid Compartments GI tract lumen central IV compartment CSF compartment pleural fluid compartment peritoneal fluid compartment
Biological Variables Influencing Distribution plasma protein concentration and type pH differential vascular permeability vascular perfusion/capillary density fluid compartment volume special anatomical barriers (BBB) age and species (neonate/adult, aquatic/mammalian)
Anatomical Barriers to Pharm Distribution blood/milk blood/aqueous humor blood/placenta blood/GI blood/saliva blood/brain
Biological Variables Influencing Distribution Following Diffusion tissue/organ system mass/volume body fluid compartment volume pH differentials membrane composition and structure tissues/organ systems with innate tendencies for pharm accumulation/binding affinity (proteins, bone, DNA)
Pharmaceutical Variables Influencing Distribution Following Diffusion route of administration dose pKa relative binding-avidity for plasma proteins molecular size/mass
Partition Coefficient measures the percent amount of a pharm that exists in a lipid-soluble form compared to the percent amount that exists in an aqueous soluble form at a given pH
pH of IV Compartment ~7.4
Ion Trapping or Ion Partitioning the concentration of a weak-acid or weak-base pharm is always greatest on the side of the membrane where the amount of the ionized form is greatest (A- or BH+)
pH Partitioning the potential of a weak-acid or weak-base to accumulate on one side of a membrane due to pH differences between the two environments
Pharmaceutical Depots the irreversible distribution of a pharm into a tissue, organ system, fluid compartment or other anatomical site
Pharmaceutical Reservoirs the reversible distribution of a pharm into a tissue, organ system or fluid compartment in a manner that eventually allows pharm re-distribution back into the IV
Pharm Reservoir Examples tissue/organ interstitial space cerebrospinal fluid peritoneal space gastrointestinal lumen pleural space
Intracellular Organelles as Pharm Reservoirs or Depots nucleus golgi apparatus mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum cytoplasm
Pharm Equilibrium an average pharm plasma concentration is maintained
Redistribution a time-dependent shift in the concentration partition of a compound
Volume of Distribution estimate the extent that a pharm penetrates into extravascular tissues/organ systems and body fluid compartments (very little correlation with reality)
Created by: 26509889