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Pub Health Residues

Veterinary medicine public health, drugs and residues in food animal production

QuestionAnswer
Define Residues Quantity of drug or chemical that remains or accumulates in cells
Define Tolerance as it pertains to residue surveillance Concentration of a drug or chemical that will be permitted in feed or food.
Define "No Effect Level" The concentration of a drug or chemical that will not cause any adverse effect.
Term: The concentration of a drug or chemical that will not cause any adverse effect. No Effect Level
Term: Concentration of a drug or chemical that will be permitted in feed or food. Tolerance
Term: Quantity of drug or chemical that remains or accumulates in cells Residue
Define Withdrawal Time Time required for a drug or chemical to be metabolized or excreted from a body system before slaughter or consumption to reach tolerance levels
Term: Time required for a drug or chemical to be metabolized or excreted from a body system before slaughter or consumption to reach tolerance levels Withdrawal Time
What are the 6 classes of drugs? Antimicrobials/Antibiotics; Insect/Herb/fungicides; Industrial & Environmental Chemicals; Heavy Metals; Growth promotants / coccidiostats / Feed efficiency enhancers; Hormones
What are the 3 'cides that we worry about and where are they stored? Organophospates (Not a problem); Hexachlorobenzene (fat); Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (fat)
What is an industrial / enironmental chemical that we are concerned about in food animals? Which animal? Dioxin - Fish
What is a heavy metal we are concerned about? Methylmercury
What is a growth promotant / coccidiostat / Feed efficiency enhancer that we worry about? Ionophores
What is the withdrawl time of Hormones? None
What are the 5 reasons we are concerned about antibiotic residues? (1)Allergies (10% pop allergic to penicilin) (2) Adulterated Products (Public Perception) (3)Loss of Market (4)Inhibition of dairy Processing (cultures, curdling inhibition) (5)Removal of approved drugs/extralable drug usage
What are the 3 causes of residues in meat that makes it to the slaughter house / market? What is their contribution (%)? Failure to observe withdrawal times (51%); Unapproved Drugs (18%); Poor Medical records (12%)
What can cause a producer to not observe withdrawal times? More than one person treating/making culling or sale decisions; Forced sale of sick or treated animals; Withdrawal times not known.
What can cause a producer to use unapproved drugs? Label directions not followed (dose/route); Vet directions not followed; Improper feeding mixing; Extralable drug use
What can cause a vet to provide poor medical records? Animal not identified properly; Withdrawal date not recorded; Treatment dates not recorded
What are the relative prevalence of who is at fault for residues making it to slaughter? Producer (76%); Ubidentified (22%); Vet (1%)
Above what level of prevalence of violations are the residue detecting methods set to catch? (What % can slip through normally?) 1-3%
What organization does residue detection? USDA - FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection service)
What 3 parts of the body can be tested for residues? Organs of excretion & Metabolism (liver & kidney); Organ of storage (fat); Edible products (Meat, liver, kidney)
What 4 groups of animals are subjected to higher monitoring? Animals suspected of having been treated prior to marketing; originating from a farm that has had residue violations; random sample of "normal" animals; High risk animals (cull cows, veal calves; Swine)
What are the 3 methods used to detect residues & their specific tests? Bacteriologic testing (CAST, LAST, STOP, Delvo P Test); Chemical Test (Thin Layer Chromotography); Immunologic Test (Penzyme, CITE)
What routs of administration are the biggest violators and what % of violations do they represent? Injection (46%); Oral (29%); Intramammary (18%)
What steps should be taken to avoid residues? Propper use; One person Ts; label & withdrawal times; ID Txed animals; Records; New animals = Txed til innocent; Clean Feeding/tx/holding; Mind recycled feed; Discard milk all 1/4s; Dry cow Tx only in dry cows; sell after Withdrawal; Test b4 market
What should the vet tell the owner for withdrawal time of an extalable drug? Must give an approptiate withdawal time.
What is the assumed withdrawal time if a real withdrawal time is not known? 6 months
What 3 things should be in the records when you treat a food animal? Date of treatment; Product info (type used, dosage, route); Withdrawal Time for meat and milk
what is a concern about producers that grow their own feed? If they use the manure from their animals they could be re-contaminating their animals.
define BST a protein hormone naturally produced by the pituitary gland of cattle.
What are the 2 behaviors of protein hormones (like BST) that make them less of a concern as residues? They are short lived in the body (sort withdrawal) and are inactivated by the GIT
What is the mode of action of BST? Stimulated the liver to produce Insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF-1), and regulates the conversion of dietary nutrients to milk
How is rBST produced? Fermentation technology
How is rBST administered? When? How often? Injected into the tailhead of cows after 63 days in milk every 14 days.
What is the difference with rBST treated cow's milk verses "normal" milk? Same except slightly increased IGF-1 levels; Concentration is the same
How do you determine rBST vs BST in milk? You Can't
What does rBST do in humans (oral & injection)? Nothing: Digested orally and No effect in dwarfs injected with rBST
What hormones are administered to via inplants? Naturally occuring hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone, testosterone
Where are hormone implants placed? Why? Middle third of the ear. The ear is discarded and so the implants wont end up in meat.
How do hormone implants release their hormones? How does this affect meat contamination? Slow & constant: Levels remain within normal levels established for untreated animals of the same age and sex.
Why do hormones not have a withdrawal time? The levels used are negligable compared to both the normal levels in the animal as well as in the consumer's own body.
What should the vet tell the owner for withdrawal time of an extalable drug? Must give an approptiate withdawal time.
What is the assumed withdrawal time if a real withdrawal time is not known? 6 months
What 3 things should be in the records when you treat a food animal? Date of treatment; Product info (type used, dosage, route); Withdrawal Time for meat and milk
what is a concern about producers that grow their own feed? If they use the manure from their animals they could be re-contaminating their animals.
define BST a protein hormone naturally produced by the pituitary gland of cattle.
What are the 2 behaviors of protein hormones (like BST) that make them less of a concern as residues? They are short lived in the body (sort withdrawal) and are inactivated by the GIT
What is the mode of action of BST? Stimulated the liver to produce Insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF-1), and regulates the conversion of dietary nutrients to milk
How is rBST produced? Fermentation technology
How is rBST administered? When? How often? Injected into the tailhead of cows after 63 days in milk every 14 days.
What is the difference with rBST treated cow's milk verses "normal" milk? Same except slightly increased IGF-1 levels; Concentration is the same
How do you determine rBST vs BST in milk? You Can't
What does rBST do in humans (oral & injection)? Nothing: Digested orally and No effect in dwarfs injected with rBST
What hormones are administered to via inplants? Naturally occuring hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone, testosterone
Where are hormone implants placed? Why? Middle third of the ear. The ear is discarded and so the implants wont end up in meat.
How do hormone implants release their hormones? How does this affect meat contamination? Slow & constant: Levels remain within normal levels established for untreated animals of the same age and sex.
Why do hormones not have a withdrawal time? The levels used are negligable compared to both the normal levels in the animal as well as in the consumer's own body.
Created by: WesBetts