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ZPhar410 Acid/ Base

ZFundamentals of Drug Action

Bronstead- Lowry acid/ base Acid is proton donor; Base is proton acceptor
4 strong acids HCl; HNO3; H2SO4; HClO4
2 strong bases NaOH; KOH
pKa < 2 is a strong strong acid; no basic properties in water
pKa 4-6 is a ? weak acid; very weak conjugate base
pKa 8-10 is a very weak acid; weak conjugate base
pKa > 12 no acidic properties in water; strong conjugate base
the stronger an acid, the weaker its conjugate base no answer
what is the conjugate acid and base of HA + H20 Conj acid= H3O; conj base is A-
Keq= [products]/ [reactants]
difference between pH and pKa pH is property of a solution/ pKa is property of a molecule- the tendency of protonated for to give up a proton
Henderson Hasselbalch eq: pH= pKa+ log [conj base/ acid]; the conj base is proton acceptor, acid is donor
Relates pH/ pKa to relative amount of acid/ base henderson- hasselbalch equation
Drugs that are amines are: basic
In an acid, what gets ionized conjugate base gets ionized; ex: HCl --> Cl-
In a base, what gets ionized? the acid is ionized
Conjugate base of salicylic acid salicylate
Drugs that are amines are: basic
In an acid, what gets ionized conjugate base gets ionized; ex: HCl --> Cl-
In a base, what gets ionized? the acid is ionized
Conjugate base of salicylic acid salicylate
Henderson Hasselbalch; not always charged reactant always protonated form on the left (reactant) side of the equation (DENOMINATOR)
For ionized acids, pH is above or below pKa? pH is above pks (chart)
For a base, the percent ionization gets higher as pH gets lower (think chart)
Pharmaco-kinetics Action of the body on the chemical (what the body does to the drug)
Pharmaco- dynamics What the drug does to the body
Processes of pharmacokinetics ADME absorpion, distribution, metabolism, elimination
Output: Concentration- time relationships Pharmacokinetics
Process of pharmacodynamics: Biological ligands acting on their molecular targets in the body
Output: Biological response Pharmacodynamics
when drug reached site of action we see pharmacodynamics response; drug- receptor complex/ pharmacologic response
Prior to reaching targets the drug must go thru what obstacles? These barriers affect the pharmacokinetics ofthe drug pass thru barriers (membranes) avoid wrong turn (ex: accumulating in fat cells; avoid metabolic destruction; stability at different pH levels
absorption is affected by ionization state true; affects drug;s ability to pass thru membranes
acids like aspirin are absorbed where stomach, low pH- the thing that is UNionized is absorbed..aspirin in unionized on the chart until about pH 5. after that it would not be too useful
Bases are absorbed in intestines because as pH increases, bases get LESS ionized
why precipitation of bases? go from charged NH3+ to uncharged NH2; less polar and may precipitate because out of solution; wants to get away from water (hydrophobic)
ases are 100% ionized where in the absorption process stomach
to pass thru lipid barrier, a weak acid would be on the left side of the equation because it is unionized
weak bases pass thru lipid barrier on the right side of the equation because they are neutral (unionized); they are protonated on the left side of the rxn; example: BH+ +H2O <-> H3O + B(neutral)
PH maintenance mechanisms (3) chemical buffering; lungs; kidney (renal)
Chemical buffering (quick) name 4 systems bicarbonate buffer;phosphate buffer; ammonia buffer; proteins
If strong acid is introduced, the reaction will move in which direction? left because the A- will pick up an H+ which drives the rxn to make HA
The most important extracellular (plasma) buffering system bicarbonate buffer system; generally considered clinically
Carbonic acids (H2CO3) exist in low amounts in the body; CO2 is considered the weak acid no answer
Co2 and HCO3 act as buffers true
pCO2 is used as? an index of the amount of carb on dioxide in the body (normally 40mm Hg)
Normal concentration of bicarbonate is 24 mEq/L; ratio of HCO3-/ H2CO3 is 20:1
Intracellular buffer; also in the kidneys phosphate buffer system
By-product of amino acid metabolism ammonia; amino acids can serve as buffers in the ammonia buffer system
most plentiful chemical buffers; high concentrations inside cell proteins; side chains can accept or donate a proton
CO2 is an acid and the lungs remove it to raise pH no answer
The slowest most powerful acid/ base balance Renal (kidney); excrete acidic or basic urine depending on whats needed
If bicarbonate is not reabsorbed( back into bloodstream) it is excreted in the urine; bicarbonate is not well absorbed by itself, must combine with a proton
Bicarbonate and H+ combine to form what? CO2 and H2O; then can enter renal tubule; once in the renal tubule they can separate and bicarbonate returns to capillary
excess acid in plasma, what does kidney do? kidney reabsorbs ALL bicarbonate to raise pH
Alkalosis, what does kidney do with bicarbonate? less bicarbonate is reabsorbed, more is excreted
respiratory acidosis increased pCO2; high bicarbonate indicates compensation
Metabolic acidosis low bicarbonate; normal pCO2 indicates not related to respiratory but can be low as compensation
Created by: angieryx



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