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ZChem Phar410

ZFundamentals of Drug Action and Metabolism

R-O-R ether
N- surrounded by 3 R's amine
R-C=O with NR2 amide
H-C=O substituent (1 carbon) formyl
CH3-C=O substituent (2 carbons) acetyl
Ch3Ch2-C=O substituent (3 carbons) propionyl
Ch3 (Ch2)14-C=O (16 carbons) palmitoyl
RO- alkoxy (methoxy, propoxy, butoxy etc)
benzene ring-O substituent phenoxy
HS- substituent thiol
heteroatom prefixes for O, S, N O=Oxa; S= thia; N=aza
hydrophobic is polar or apolar? apolar; think ao hydrocarbons (like gasoline); doesnt like water
do hyrophobic substances pass thru cell membranes easily? Yes,because cell membranes are lipid bilayer
bonding between 2 water molecules inter
bonding between the H and O in water molecule intra; covalent; much stronger than intermolcular forces
a weak interraction of molecules at a certain distance Van der Waals
drugs with hydrogen bonds are more soluble in? water
F-H...F; what does the dotted line represent? hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of one molecule and another atom; ex: 2 water molecules are attached by a hydrogen bond
the association of non-polar groups with each other in aqueous solution is known as what? hydrophobic interractions or hydrophobic bonding
dominant force in protein folding and determining 3D shape of proteins hydrophobic interractions (formation is entropic)water molecules dont want to associate with non-polars so they are excluded
besylate is what? benzene sulfonic acid; a counter-ion, can be substituted with chloride
3 major dietary components carbs, roteins, lipids
carbs are stored as? glycogen
carbs have mono, oligo, and polymers
do lipids have polymers? no, primarily stored as triglycerides
primary and secondary fuel source 1=carb; 2nd = lipid
most abundant organic compound found in nature carbs
carb monomer monosaccharide
carb oligomer disaccharide (composed of 2 monomers)ex; sucrose= fructose and glucose
carb polymers glycogen- stored in muscle and liver; starch- digestible carb component;fiber-not digestible
glucose is what type of carb? monosaccharide used to generate energy for cells
glucose reserve glycogen; 80g stored in liver, 150g in liver
by products of carb metabolism CO2 and H2O
major divisions of fatty acids saturated and unsaturated
essential fatty acid polyunsaturated fatty acids
the omega nomenclature is used in which type of fatty acid? unsaturated; counting from the end, the point at which the first double bond occurs
proteins are functional or structural? Both, primarily functinal (enzymes) but also structural (muscle) excess NOT stored but can be used as fuek during muscle breakdown
hydrophobic molecule with specific chemical structure steroid
the major dietary input of steroids cholesterol
2 important roles of steroids hormones and structural components of cell membranes
fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K
finction as co-enzymes in some metabolic reactions vitamins
chemical elements or ions; play variety of physiological roles inorganic minerals
4 major electrolyte cations Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++
3 major electrolyte anions Cl-, HCO3-, PO4---
small synthetic organic molecules that can be derived from any of the other biomolecules DRUGS
small units linked together to make a big molecule polymeric macromolecules
3 polymeric macromolecules Carbs, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
chemicals steroid, peptide, catecholamine, protein, amino acid, fatty acid, ion
functions of chemicals hormone, neurotransmitter, enzyme, receptor, channel, pump, ligand, electrolyte
fatty acids with no double bonds saturated
fatty acids with some double bonds unsaturated or Omega fatty acids
glycerol become a triglyceride when what is attached C=O with long hydrocarbon
enzymes, receptors, hormones, muscle fibers arae functions of what chemical or structure? proteins
polymeric macromolecules of nucleic acids chromosomes (molecules of information)
monomers of nucleic acid nucleotides (sugar, base, phosphate)- nucleotides also serve as co-factors and signaling molecules
polymers of nucleic acids Dna and RNA
Steroids are often lumped in with which group lipids; both hydrophobic
major dietary steroid cholesterol
chlosterol plays a role in what 3 things? Bile acid synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis, and cell membranes
What do bile salts do? they have polar end that helps aid in digestion of fats; break them down for better absorption
required in small amounts in order to maintain cell function vitamins; cannot be synthesized from other dietary raw minerals or metabolites
also serve as co-factors and enzymes vitamins
the simplest class of biomolecules inorganic molecules; majority are monovalent or bivalent
4 ions that play crucial roles as electrolytes Na+, K+, Ca++, and Cl- ; also the most abundant in diet
ions used as charges to modulate electrostatic potential of membranes; firing of neuron and action of muscle electrolytes
plays key role in cell signaling Ca++
Catalyst in variety of enzymes; key structural role in stabilizing DNA Mg++
most abundant anion INSIDE cell PO4---; phospholipids, ATP, enzymes, RNA, DNA
anion for buffering and maintenance of physiological pH bicarbonate HCO3-
milligram % mg/100mL
High extracellular mEq's Na+ 142; Cl- 103
High Intracellular mEq's K+ 140; Mg++ ;phosphates 75
Na+ Extra/ intra 142/10
K+ Extra/ Intra 4/ 140
Ca++ Extra/ Intra 5/ <1
Mg++ Extra/ Intra 3/ 58
Cl- Extra/ Intra 103/ 4
HCO3- Extra/ Intra 28/10 higher in blood; as buffer
Phosphates Extra/ Intra 4/75 high inside cells with DNA and enzyme activator
SO4-- Extra/ Intra 1/2
daily value of carbs/ day 300g; 25 g dietary fiber
DV of fats/ day saturated 20g; unsaturated 45
Protein DV 50g
cholesterol DV 300 mg
an ion is an electrolyte if it has what a channel
not all ions are electrolytes ; T/F true, but all electrolytes are ions (they carry a charge)
the formula weight of a compound in grams mole
concentration of electrolytes in solution equivalents; electrolytes per mole--- example: MgCl2 has 2 EQ. Look at each side separately, Mg has 1 atom at a charge of 2; 1x2=2. Cl has 2 atoms at a charge of 1; 2x1=2
Equivalents of cations and anions in solution will always be equal, T/F? True
how many osmoles are in MgCl2? 3; the number of osmoles is the number of particles per mole so when the molecule dissociates, it leaves 1 Mg and 2 Cl particles
OSMOLE formula MW(g)/ particles ; This is to calculated osmoles, not osmolarity
Osmolarity weight(g) x particles x 1000/MW ; make sure to look at liters and divide/ multiply answer accordingly
mEq formula mg x valence/MW
how to calculate mg from mEq's mg= mEq x MW/ valence
Created by: angieryx



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