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reproduction

pruiot

QuestionAnswer
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)Effects Releasing LH & FSH Can cause early puberty.
Leuprolide and other agonist of GnRH can cause delayed rise in LH and suppression of FSH and Testosterone to delay on set of puberty.
GnRH releasing system is extremely responsive to negative feedback from ovarian estrogen and progesterone, and androgens from male testis.
GnRH increases steriodogenic activity.
Clinical Uses of GnRH and its Analogs Superovulation in dog and cat,Canine Cryptorchidism,Cystic Ovaries (treatment with LH vs GnRH).
Ovarian cysts are two types Follicular cysts and Luteal cysts.
Treatment for follicular cysts GnRH,Cystorelin or Gonadorelin 100ug per cow,Excessive amount may cause luteinization of the cysts.
Other GnRH analogs are Fertirelin acetate (Fertagyl) is 2.5 to 10 times more potent than gonadorelin, whereas Buserelin (Recptal) is about 10 to 20 times more potent than fertirelin.
Ovarian cysts Other treatment Follutein (hCG is like LH): 5000 to 10,000 units in a cow,LH causes cystic follicular degeneration.
Luteal Cysts Lutalyse (PGF 2 alpha): 25 mg in cow,Estrumate (Cloprostenol),Repogest (Repository Progesterone).
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Superovulation in many species.
PMSG,Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin, mostly FSH activity.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Infertility, Cystic follicular degeneration,Superovulation.. In cattle, sheep, goat, etc.
LH products are Gonadvet is a preparation of equine pituitary,Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG).
Somatotropin (STH) Growth hormone,some times used in food animal production.
Prolactin Lactogenic and luteotropic in some animals.
Oxytocin Milk let down,Uterine contraction: given at the end of delivery of calf in c-section and parturition induction in equine,Postpartum infection and prevention of retained placenta in cows,Canine metritis .
Oxytocin products Oxytocin, Pitocin, Uteracon, Butocin, etc.
Other product having oxytocin like properties are Ergot (Ergonovin)Smooth muscle contraction, contraction of uterus and blood vessels, can cause abortion.
Ergot can cause toxic effect such as CNS stimulation and convulsion.
Xylazine has oxytocin like activity and may cause abortion in last trimester of pregnancy in cattle.
Uterus: Prostaglandin F 2 alpha Regression of corpus lutea.
Estrogens Mating behavior, secondary sex characteristic, maintenance of female duct system, mammary growth.
Progesterone Maintenance of pregnancy,mammary growth, etc.
Relaxin Expansion of pelvis and dilation of cervix.
Inhibin Prevents release of FSH.
Testis: Androgens (Testosterone) Male mating behavior, spermatocytogenesis, maintenance of male duct system, function of accessory sex glands.
Inhibin prevents release of FSH.
Corticosteroids Parturition, fetal to maternal relationship during the end of pregnancy,Milk synthesis.
Synthesis of steroids from adrenal cortex, ovary, testis and other tissue producing steroid are related to each other due to their common metabolic pathways.
Any abnormalities in their synthetic pathway can cause reproductive problems.
Progesterone and its synthetic analogs (progestin's).
Progesterone and its analogs are used to mimic the effect of CL and inhibit estrus.
Progesterone analogs Melengestrole Acetate (MGA),Syncro-Mate B (SMB) also called norgestomet,Altrenogest,Altrenogest or allyl-trenbolene (Regumate) in swine,Progestrone- Releasing Intravaginal Devices (PRID).
Melengestrol(MGA) Is orally active progestin supplied as premix which is fed at a 0.5 mg daily for 14 days in cattle.
Estrus is expected between day 16 to 20 after the start of MGA feeding.
Due to low fertility at first estrus breeding, second estrus is induced using PGF 2 alpha, given 17 days after withdrawal of MGA.
In ewe 0.125mg MGA twice daily for 9 days is use to induce estrus in beginning of the spring.
Synthetic progesterone called NORGESTOMET,can be used to synchronize estrus.
Ear implant contain 6 mg of norgestomet plus a single intramuscular injection of 5 mg estradiol valerate and 3 mg of norgestomet mixed together is given (2ml dose).
When ear implant is removed at day 9 animal returns to estrus in 24 to 36 hours,The degree of synchronization is high.
Goats can also synchronized with this product using lower doses.
Altrenogest Is a synthetic orally administered progestin approved for controlling the estrus cycle in mare.
Some literature it is also called allyl-trenbolene.
It has been administered for 8 to 12 days in the feed (27 to 44 mg/day)or intravaginal sponge impregnated with altrenogest.
Last day of progestogen therapy prostaglandin is given.
Most mares begins to show estrus 2 to 5 days,Most mares needed use of hCG for induction of ovulation.
Altrenogest or allyl-trenbolene (Regumate) in swine has also been used in feeding to synchronize estrus.
Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID)PRID are composed of stainless steel coils coated with silicon rubber containing (6.75%) progesterone.
Estradiol benzoate (10mg) in gelatin capsule is some times attached to PRID.
These are efficacious in synchronizing estrus an ovulation in cattle.
Some times PGF2 alpha is used day before or the day of removal of these implants to obtain good synchrony.
Polyurethane sponges impregnated with variety of progestins has been used in ewes for synchronization of heat.
Other intravaginal progesterone releasing devices are also marketed for use in cattle, sheep and goat.
Progesterone + 17-estradiol: In mares daily injections of Prog.+ Estrogen has been for various days, combined with the use of PGF-2 alpha on the last day of the treatment, has been highly effective for the synchronization of both estrus and ovulation.
CIDR-B (Genetics Australian, Baccus Marsh) intravaginal device impregnated with progesterone (1.9gm) alone or in combination with estrogen products has also been used.
Estrogens,A variety of estradiol products has been used to induce estrus in many animal species.
These products will induce estrus but generally do not induce ovulation.
Estradiol with a progestin (norgestomet) has been used for estrous synchronization in cattle.
Estradiol cypionate (10-20 mg) IM will induce abortion in cattle up to 5 months of pregnancy.
Abortion occurs with in 3 to 7 days in 60 to 80% heifers Second injection may be required in some cases.
Estrogen can prevent uterine infection and hastens uterine involution.
Testosterone In cow has been used to make them act as teaser bull for detection of estrous in other females,Testosterone propionate (200mg).
Testosterone in bitch IM 110 mg weekly, used to prevent estrus in Greyhound.
Testosterone and other androgens preparation are some time used to enhance male behavior and other performance, as oral, skin application, injectable etc.
A melatonin implant (18mg) , Regulin is used to advance the breeding season in ewe, goat and deer to increase ovulation rate in this induced period,Prolactin suppression.
Prolactin is luteotropic during the second half in the bitch.
Ergoline derivatives are dopaminergic agents that suppress prolactin, and consequently decrease progesterone secretion.
Bitch given 20-30 ug/kg bromocriptine orally, twice a day for 4 days in 42 days pregnant bitch resulted in abortion in about 3 to 5 days.
Cabergoline (5 to 15 ug/kg) given orally daily for 5 days after day 42 of pregnancy resulted in abortion in the bitch.
Use of Hormones in Reproductive GnRH for libido in the Dog.
A dose of 2.2ug/kg IM once weekly for a month is recommended for this purpose prior to breeding.
GnRH can be used for diagnostically to asses testicular function in the male.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) 5.0 mg/ day orally for 6 to 9 days will induce estrus in bitch,IM injection can also be give.
Mifepristone,(RU-486) is a synthetic steroid that interact with progesterone receptors and blocks the effect of progesterone upon myometrium.
5 to10 mg/kg IM during the second half of pregnancy for 5-7 days results in abortion in about 5 to 7 days later,Abortion can also be induced in early pregnancy.
Hormones in Reproduction cont, Megestrol (Ovaban),Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin can be used to prevent occurrence of estrus in the bitch,It also prevents estrus in queen.
Mibolerone (Cheque Drops) is an androgenic steroid used to prevent estrus in the bitch.
PGF-2-alpha is luteolysis in cattle.
There are three products available for cattle are Dinoprost tromethamine (Lutalyse), cloprostenol (Estrumate) and fenprostalene (Bovilene).
Two products approved for mare are Dinoprost tromethamine and fluprostenol.
Goat,PGF-2-alpha for planed breeding and synchronization of estrus.
Swine, Induction of luteolysis,CL remains unresponsive to acute administration of PGF2 alpha or its analog until day 12 to 14 after ovulation,Endogenous secreted prostaglandins acts from day 14 to 17 days of estrus.
Induction of Parturition Cattle Dexamethasone (20 to 30 mg) given in late pregnancy will induce parturition in 48 to 72 hours, post injection.
Flumethasone (8 to 10 mg) given IM has same effect as dexamethasone.
Mare,Oxytocin is most widely used.
PGF-2- alpha may terminate early pregnancy (day 12 to 35),After development of the endometrial cups (day 35 to 120), it is more difficult to abort a mare.
Swine,PGF 2 alpha in a pregnant female, at any stage of gestation will lyses CL, cause abortion and subsequently return to fertility.
Created by: alljacks