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Chondrodysplasia/chondrodystrophia fetalis Cattle (Angus, Hereford) dogs (Alaskan Malamute).
Chondrodysplasia/chondrodystrophia fetalis Genetic or environmentally induced defective cartilage development (-defective endochondral ossification)-Disproportionate dwarfism(other lesions depend on specific etiology).
Osteopetrosis (type of metaphyseal dysplasia) Dogs, pigs, sheep, horses, cattle, birds, humans.
Osteopetrosis (type of metaphyseal dysplasia) Osteosclerotic,Defective osteoclasts can’t resorb primary trabeculae- spicules of bone fill medullary cavity-aplastic anemia.
Congenital cortical hyperostosis (type of diaphyseal dysplasia) Pigs.
Congenital cortical hyperostosis (type of diaphyseal dysplasia) Osteosclerotic,Exaggerated periosteal bone growth in long bones excess deposition of radiating trabeculae-blockage of lymphatic circulation-edematous legs.
Angular limb deformity Foals, others.
Angular limb deformity Lateral deviation of limbs:congenital or acquired:due to malpositioning in utero, excess joint laxity, trauma, poor conformation, unequal growth across an epiphysis, etc.
Osteoporosis animals affected Any.
Osteoporosis Osteolytic,Greater bone resorption than formation-decreased bone mass, but bone is structurally normal,Results from starvation, parasitism, calcium or copper deficiency, prolonged steroids or hyperadrenocorticism, or physical inactivity.
Rickets animals affected Any growing animal.
Rickets Endochondral ossification fails,Vitamin D or phosphorus deficiency-failure of mineralization (- soft bones)-excess osteoid (since osteoclasts cant adhere to resorb it)-wide growth plates.
Osteomalacia animal affected Any fully grown animal.
Osteomalacia Vitamin D or phosphorus deficiency-wide seams of unmineralized osteoid (-soft bones)-pain, fracture, deformities.
Osteodystrophia fibrosa/Fibrous osteodystrophy animal affected Any.
Osteodystrophia fibrosa/Fibrous osteodystrophy Osteolytic,Parathyroid adenoma, low-calcium/high phosphorus diet or chronic renal failure-excess PTH-increased osteoclast resorption and replacement by fibrous tissue-swollen, deformed, weak bones (rubber jaw).
Lead poisoning animal affected Any.
Lead poisoning Osteosclerotic,interferes with osteoclast activity-increased density of metaphysis parallel to physis (in growing animals)-lead line,Osteoclasts have acid-fast inclusion bodies.
Osteofluorosis animal affected Herbivores.
Osteofluorosis Osteosclerotic,Impaired osteoblasts-inadequate matrix formation-soft bone,Fluoride binds to Ca-hypocalcemia-inc PTH-osteoperosis,Exostosis or sclerosis-chalky,rough periosteal surface.
Hypervitaminosis A animals affected Cats, calves, piglets.
Hypervitaminosis A Stimulate osteoblasts-rough periosteal vertebral surface-deforming cervical spondylosis.
Hypervitaminosis D animals affected Any.
Hypervitaminosis D Osteosclerotic,increase uptake and deposit of Ca-soft tissue mineralization (can lead to death), bone hardening,inc Ca-inc PTH-inhibit resorption.
Lumpy jaw (mandibular osteomyelitis) animals affected Bovine.
Lumpy jaw (mandibular osteomyelitis) Opportunistic actinomyces bovis penetrates injured oral mucosa-chronic pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis-deformed (exostosis), swollen mandible, w/ fistula with purulent exudate containing sulfur granules.
Hematogenous osteomyelitis animals affected Farm animals, others.
Hematogenous osteomyelitis Bacteremia/septicemia (salmonella,actinobacillus pygenes, s. aureus)- bacterial emboli in epiphyseal vessels of long bones or spondylitis (in vertebrae), esp in pigs,70% of foals w/ joint ill have osteomyelitis.
Mycotic osteomyeltis animals affected Any.
Mycotic osteomyeltis Systemic mycoses (blastomyces,coccidiodes immitis,Cryptococcus neoformans)-chronic granulomatous osteomyelitis w/ exostoses.
Viral osteitis animals affected Any.
Viral osteitis Uncommon, Infectious K9 hepatitis, distemper, FeLV, BVD, hog cholera.
Hypertrophic osteopathy/pulmonary osteoarthropathy) animals affected Dogs, humans, others.
Hypertrophic osteopathy/pulmonary osteoarthropathy) Often have intrathoracic mass,inc blood flow to extremities-periosteal exophytoses,OR pulmonary anastomoses-megakaryocytes bypass lungs-induce periosteal growth,Bilaterally symmetrical osteophytes.
Craniomandibular osteopathy (Lion jaw, Scottie jaw, Westie jaw) animals affected Dogs: Westie, Scottish terriers.
Craniomandibular osteopathy Bilaterally symmetrical, self-limiting lesions on head,Swollen temporo-maxillary region,Bridging on periosteal surface.
Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (metaphyseal osteopathy) animals affected Growing large breed dogs,great dane, Doberman, etc.
Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (metaphyseal osteopathy) Bilaterally symmetrical inflammation of the growth plates of long bones w/ metaphyseal periosteal new bone formation.
Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy/cervicospinal arthropathy/equine sensory ataxia/Wobbler syndrome animals affectd Horses.
Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy/cervicospinal arthropathy/equine sensory ataxia/Wobbler Degeneration of vertebral joint-narrowing of vertebral canal-compression of spinal cord and myelomalacia-ataxia,Fibrillation,eburnation,osteophyte formation at articular facets.
Cervical vertebral instability animals affected Horses 8-18 mo.
Cervical vertebral instability animals affected C3-C5 are instable-dynamic narrowing of vertebral canal during ventroflexion.
Cervical static stenosis animals affected Horses 1-4 yr.
Cervical static stenosis Hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum-dorsal compression of C5-C7.
Cervical spondylomyelopathy/Wobbler’s syndrome/cervical spondylopathy, cervical vertebral instability, caudal cervical vertebral malformation animals affected Large breed dogs.
Cervical spondylomyelopathy/Wobbler’s syndrome/cervical spondylopathy, cervical vertebral instability, caudal cervical vertebral malformation Compression and malacia at C6-C7.
Dorsal protrusion (prolapse) of intervertebral disk animals affected Chondrodystrophoid dog breeds (3-6 yrs).
Dorsal protrusion (prolapse) of intervertebral disk Annulus fibrosus degenerates-protrusion of nucleus pulposus into spinal canal-compressive myelomalacia,Usually thoracolumbar.
Disk explosion animals affected Any.
Disk explosion Trauma-sudden disk disintegration-herniation into spinal canal.
Embolism of nucleus pulposus, animals affected Dogs, horses, cats, pigs, humans.
Embolism of nucleus pulposus No gross lesions,Fibrocartilagenous material in spinal arteries or veins.
Ankylosing spondylosis (or –itis)/spondylosis deformans, animals affected Old bulls, sows, dogs.
Ankylosing spondylosis (or –itis)/spondylosis deformans Chronic degenerative disease,Degeneration of intervertebral disks, periosteal stimulation, osteophyte formation.
Hip dysplasia, animals affected Large breed dogs.
Hip dysplasia Genetic and environmental factors,Edema and hemorrhage in teres ligament, then coxofemeral subluxation,Fibrillation, eburnation microfractures, thick capsule, osteophytes,May be from reduced pelvic muscle mass or intrinsic defect in hip joint.
Osteochondrosis/dyschondroplasia, animals affected Dogs, pigs, horses, poultry.
Osteochondrosis/dyschondroplasia Abnormal growth or maturation of cartilage in metaphyseal growth plate or articular epiphyseal cartilage complex of growing bone-retained cartilage-2ndry change in joints (end-stage joint, cartilage collapse, etc)usually in rapidly growing animals.
Osteochondrosis dissecans, animals affected Medium dogs, horses.
Osteochondrosis dissecans Separation of a piece of articular cartilage from subchondral bone,flap of cartilage may become joint mouse.
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis,animals affected Goats.
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis Retrovirus-slow, progressive chronic arthritis-lymphocytic hyperplastic synovitis w/ formation of carpal hygroma.
Bursitis, animals affected Any.
Bursitis actinomyces bovis,Brucella abortus,Onchocerca cervicalis-Fistulous withers (supraspionous bursa at T2) and Poll evil (atlanto-occipital bursal at C1-C2) in horses-pyogranulomatous inflammation and exudate-fistula.
Erosive, rheumatoid-like arthritis, animals affected Dogs: small/toy breed.
Erosive, rheumatoid-like arthritis Bact cellwall components xreact w/norm proteoglycan, anticollagen ab,suppressor Tcell IgG/IgM against intraarticular structure neutrophil/comp-lysosomal enzymes-damge intarticular structure-chron proliferative lympho-plasmacytic synovitis w/pannus form/fi
Non-erosive arthritis,animals affected Dogs and cats.
Non-erosive arthritis Deposition of immune-complex (type III hypersensitivity) in synovial membranes,associated with chronic diseases of other organs.
Laminitis,animals affected Horses, cattle.
Laminitis Unknown etiology,Reduced vascular perfusion of P3 - congestion, edema, and separation of laminae from P3 in acute cases,rotation of P3 w/ penetration of sole and osteomyelitis in chronic cases.
Articular gout,animals affected Poultry, reptiles, humans.
Articular gout,animals Some animals don’t have uricase, increase protein diet or chickens w/ genetic impairment of kidney-deposition of uric acid in synovial capsules.
Visceral gout,animals affected Poultry, reptiles, humans.
Visceral gout Kidney failure-deposition of uric acid in viscera.
Synovioma/sarcoma Rare,Biphasic appearance,fibroblasts and epithelioid cells.
Osteoma Horse, cattle,smooth, solitary, monostotic (1-bone) nodules,Usually on skull
Osteochondroma Dogs, horses. multiple exostoses capped with cartilage,Stop growing when skeleton stops growing,Near growth plates.
Chondroma Dogs, cats, sheep,benign cartilage tumor, usually on flat bones and ribs
Osteosarcoma Dogs (esp. lrg breed, 7.5 yrs), cats,80% of all tumors,Usually long bones (away from elbow, toward knee),Simple: formed in collagenous matrix,Compound: bone and cartilage,Pleomorphic: anaplastic.
Chondrosarcoma Dogs, sheep Rare,Produce cartilaginous matrix, never osteoid,Usually pelvis,nasal cavity, sternum, ribs.
Created by: alljacks