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Viro final 2

siva

QuestionAnswer
Rinderpest Morbillivirus (survival pH 6.5-7).
Wildlife is NOT a reservoir Rinderpest.
Tx Direct contact (nasal/ocular secretions, body fluids), food & water, aerosol transmission [short distances] & fomites Rinderpest.
NO carrier state Rinderpest.
Vectors:unknown Rinderpest.
Highly Contagious Rinderpest.
CS:fever, depression, anorexia, constipation then hemorrhagic diarrhea, serous/ mucopurulent nasal/ ocular discharge, necrosis/erosion of oral mucosa, enlarged LN, DEATH in 6-12d classic form Rinderpest.
CSyoung animals, fever & congested mucus membranes, DEATH in 2-3d peracute Rinderpest.
mild CS,low mortality,Atypical+/- fever,mild to NO diarrhea,immunosuppression(2ndry infections) subacute Rinderpest.
Lesion:Esophagus(brown,necrotic foci)Omasum(rare erosions/hemorrhage)SI,abomasum,cecum,colon (Tiger striping)LN(swollen)Gall bladder(hemorrhagic mucosa)Lungs(emphysema,congestion,pneumonia) Rinderpest.
Destroys entire populations of cattle-economically important Rinderpest.
Predisposing factors:Naïve populations, young, or mild forms of DZ Rinderpest.
Epidemics are seen in all ages Rinderpest.
Morbidity (90%),Mortality (100pct-especially naive populations) Rinderpest.
DX:CS/Lesions(Tiger/Zebra-striping),VI(from WBC in buffy coat,lacrimal fluid,necrotic foci,aspirations of LN,spleen,LN,tonsil),CPE in cell cultures w/IF,AGID(AG detection),ELISA(OIE recommended) Rinderpest.
DDX: IBR, BVD, MCF, F&MDZ, Bluetongue, Salmonellosis, Paratuberculosis, Peste des petits ruminants (DDX via RT-PCR) Rinderpest.
Control: Chemically (glycerol & lipid solvents), Natural (pH2 & 12) Rinderpest.
Prevention:Vacc available(some interfere w/colostral immy) but heat stability is an issue Rinderpest.
Vacc every 3y,Possible eradication in 2010,Other vaccines are more heat stable, recombinant vaccinia & capripox virus available Rinderpest.
small ruminants (similar infection rates in goats & sheep) but more severe in goats Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Sero+:Cattle & Pigs (but they DON’T transmit DZ) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Horizontal Transmission: Wildlife (unknown), close contact, aerosol, body secretions, fomites (unknown role) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
No carrier state Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Highly Contagious Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
CS: URT infection leads to catarrhal exudates,Non-hemorrhagic diarrhea, emaciation, dyspnea-death(5-10d)Prognosis correlates w/extent of mouth lesions Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Lesion: Necrotic lesions in the oral cavity & GIT,Zebra stripe in GIT,Lesions are similar to Rinderpest,mucosal erosions,profuse diarrhea,Acute-virus shed in secretions Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
REPORTABLE, ZOONOTIC(List A DZ) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Seasonal: Africa rainy season Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Morbidity (80-90%), Mortality (50-100%) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Resembles Rinderpest Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
List A DZ Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Predisposing factors: Endemic areas, young animals, poor nutrition, parasitic infection, goat spp Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
DX: Oral erosions & GI signs,VI,AG detection (ELISA, AGID, counter immuno-electrophoresis, PCR), AB (VN, ELISA), Serology Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
DDX: Rinderpest, Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Bluetongue, Pasteurellosis, Contagious ecthyma, FMDZ, Heartwater, Coccidiosis, Nairobi sheep DZ, Mineral poisoning Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
TX: None, meds may decr mortality, supportive care Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Control: Virus killed by disinfectants (virus survives in chilled/frozen tissues). Quarantine/slaughter, burn/bury carcass, decontaminate/dispose of fomites, vacc in endemic areas, Importation control Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Prevention: Rinderpest vacc used in Africa,Vacc hinders on going efforts eradicating Rinderpest,attenuatated vacc available in the future Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Canine Distemper (CDV) Morbillivirus (survival pH 6.5-7).
Dogs & wild carnivores (Big cats, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Canis),High prevelance in young dogs(3-6m) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Rep in cyto but w/INIB & ICIB. Peplomeres (2 gp: Hemagglutinin & Fusion), Syncitium formation, -sense RNA, susceptible to heat & drying but survives freezing Canine Distemper (CDV).
Horizontal & Vertical Transmission,Direct contact, aerosols Canine Distemper (CDV).
Highly Contagious Canine Distemper (CDV).
Virus sheds 7-90d post infection Canine Distemper (CDV).
Respiratory secretions have the most virus particles Canine Distemper (CDV).
Recovered animals harbor virus in CNS Canine Distemper (CDV).
Lesion: Neurological signs: twitching, paresis/paralysis (begins w/hind limbs), convulsive chewing/salivation (chewing gum seizures), hyperkeratosis (hard pad DZ) on paws & optic neuritis. Involuentary urinating/ deficating Canine Distemper (CDV).
Skin lesions: Vesicular & pustular dermatitis Canine Distemper (CDV).
Transplacental infection: pups have severe neurological signs, abort, still birth, weak born, or immunodeficient Canine Distemper (CDV).
Severe damage to enamel, dentine, or roots-discoloration Canine Distemper (CDV).
Multisystem involvement Canine Distemper (CDV).
High Morbidity, vary Mortality. Mildly virulent-Inapparent infections Canine Distemper (CDV).
Acute DZ- incidence of encephalitis Canine Distemper (CDV).
DDX: Feverish puppies w/multisystmeic signs-Rabies, Leptospirosis, organophosphate poisoning Canine Distemper (CDV).
TX: Supportive,Neurological signs-grave prognosis due to progression of signs (if present neuro signs progress) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Give ABX but avoid Enrofloxicin & Tetracycline for pneumonia Canine Distemper (CDV).
Prevention: Vacc: MLV (100pct eff but may show neurological signs [may resolve w/TX]) & Recombinant CDV (MABs don’t interfere w/vacc) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Henipavirus Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Horses, Humans Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Resistant: Dogs, Chickens, Rats, Mice Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Horizontal Transmission: Direct contact (extensive) horse-human contact Hendra (equine morillivirus). Not all exposed become sick
Bats-horses (unknown), virus in saliva, contaminated food & possible tick vector Hendra (equine morillivirus).
CS: Horses: Depressoin, pyrexia, dyspnea, tachycardia, nasal discharge, sudden death in 1-3d after CS onset Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Lesion: Injected mucus w/a cyanotic border, dependent edema, head pressing, ataxia, frothy nasal discharge, severe interlobular edema Hendra (equine morillivirus).
ZOONOTIC Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Control: Assess risk for area (difficult but note sick horses in endemic areas & bats), don’t handle infected body fluids,Heat & chemically (NaDCC granules) disinfect Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Rubulavirus Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Dogs Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Kennel situations Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
CS: UR infection, vocal fold edema (high pitched cough)damage to tracheal epithelium2ndy infection Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Coughing & possible retching in active dogs, productive cough (MABs give variable protection) Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Associated w/Kennel Cough Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Inapparent mild URT DZ Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Predisposing factors: 2wks old or older susceptible, dogs in kennels Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Control: Isolate infected animals, clean kennels, have adequate ventilation Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Prevention: CPIV incorporated into vacc,MAB don’t interfere w/vacc Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
CS: Corneal opacity, neurological signs, & reproductive failure Porcine rubulavirus (Blue eye DZ).
High Morbidity & Mortality Porcine rubulavirus (Blue eye DZ).
Respirovirus Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Cattle & Sheep Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Aerosols & Direct contact Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
CS: Pyrexia, cough, serous nasal & lacrimal discharge,incr resp rate,incr breath sounds-worsens w/2ndry bact infection Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Rare for fatalities from uncomplicated infections Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Fatal cases are seen w/complicated (2⁰ bacterial) infections Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Lesion: Cranio-ventral lung consolidation, inflammation, congestion & hemorrhage Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Subclinical/Mild respiratory DZ, associated w/Shipping fever(Mannhemia hemolytica) in cattle Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Initiator of severe 2ndry bacterial pneumonia Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
DX: Inclusion bodies +/- identify virus,VI (nasal secretions), Serology (indirect IFA, ELISA, HI, VN [4 fold↑]) Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Control: More important to control Mannhemia hemolytica Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Prevention: Inactivated & Attenuated vacc available Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Pneumovirus Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Characteristic syncytia: infected cells in vivo & in vitro Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Major contributor of bovine respiratory DZ complex Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Calves(moderate-severe infection),Adult cattle (mild-subclinical,rarely severe) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Persistent infection maintains infection in herds Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Transmission: Aerosols & Direct contact Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
CS: Mild-severe: fever, nasal & lacrimal discharge, coughing & polypnea (may recover in a few days) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Progression: open-mouth breathing & ABD breathing Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Lesion: Dyspnea & pulmonary emphysema Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Pulmonary DZ in Calves Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Seasonal: autumn & winter Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Predisposing factors: Transportation, overcrowding, adverse weather conditions Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Concurrent infections w/BVD virus-severe CS Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Mortality: 20percent Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
DX: CS/Lesions. Confirmatory lab tests (Nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue, paired serum samples,VI(difficult)AG detection(ELISA, IF, PCR)Serology (VN, ELISA) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Control: Reduce stress, hygiene, isolate young from older animals, have a closed herd policy Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Prevention:MLV & inact vacc(fusion surface glycoprotein)They reduce clinical DZ, but short duration,Vacc for US:2MLV & 1Killed vacc,Passive imm interferes w/vacc,Vacc dams during late gestation-incr specific colostral AB Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Rabies Lyssavirus(Species adapted strains of the virus seen in different locations).
Mammals (& Humans),primarily infects carnivores & bats Rabies.
Highly susceptible: foxes, wolves, coyotes & jackals Rabies.
Reservoirs: Skunks, raccoons, grey foxes, insectivorous bats Rabies.
Horizontal & Vertical,Tx:Virus is present in saliva(biting),non-bite exposure is rare,aerosol inhalation,ingestion of infected secretions/tissues,Transplacental transmission(cows, bats, skunks) Rabies.
Humans: >95percent w/dog bites Rabies.
Specific mammalian reservoir hosts transmit DZ Rabies.
1MOT: Bite wounds Rabies.
CS:Loss appetite,anxty,insomnia,Limbic sys infect FURIOUS form(seen more in cats than dogs)gression,excited,biting,Neocortex infection DUMB,form-depress,coma,death(resp arrest)hydrophobia,CN deficits,blood in vomit,cant swallow,profuse salivation &dropjaw Rabies. Virus is secreted in saliva 10d before CS
Affects CNS: encephalitis (invariably fatal) Rabies.
2 infectious cycles: Urban in dogs & sylvatic in wildlife Rabies.
Recovery is RARE (effective CMI is essential for viral elimination) Rabies.
Incubation period could be 6m Rabies.
ZOONOTIC, REPORTABLE,Present in US Rabies.
High Mortality Rabies.
DX: Gross changes in the nervous system is NOT conclusive of Rabies.
Direct FA test (best choice for DX) shows AG in about100pct of samples Rabies.
Histo staining for Negri bodies is not as sensitive or specific as other tests Rabies.
Negri bodies appear magenta & have small dark-blue interior basophilic granules Rabies.
Control: Wildlife-MLV (oral), vectored vacc, monitoring w/ABs Rabies.
Pets-prevent contact, vacc, REPORT exposures Rabies.
Prevention: NO parenteral MLV is available (post-vacc) Rabies.
Oral MLV (for wild or feral animals) Rabies.
Parenteral inactivated cell culture vacc (for dogs & cats) Rabies.
Oral/Parenteral recombinant vacc (recombinant w/Vaccina virus for wlildlife) Rabies.
Nucleic acid vacc available Rabies.
mainly: Horses, Cattle, Pigs,Others: camels, wildlife spp, & humans Vesicular stomatitis.
Resistant: Sheep & Goats Vesicular stomatitis.
Horizontal Transmission: Insects, direct contact (infected animals or objects), or aerosol (in lab setting) Vesicular stomatitis.
Vectors: Sandflies, blackflies Vesicular stomatitis.
CS: Horses-severe:oral lesions, drooling, chomping, mouth rubbing, lameness, coronary band lesions Vesicular stomatitis.
Cattle/Pigs-vesicles found in oral, mammary glands, coronary band, & interdigital areas Vesicular stomatitis.
Lesion:Erosive,ulcerative lesions Vesicular stomatitis.
Common feature-salivation & lameness,Lesions are found in one area of the body Vesicular stomatitis.
Febrile DZ w/vesicular lesions resembling FMDZ,List A DZ Vesicular stomatitis.
REPORTABLE, EXOTIC, ZOONOTIC (low incidence of human illness though) Vesicular stomatitis.
Seasonal: w/insects Vesicular stomatitis.
Morbidity (90pct),low Mortality (death in young is not as common as w/FMDZ) Vesicular stomatitis.
DX: Not as contagious as FMDZ & VSV lesions are found generally in one area of the body. AG detection, Serology (AB tests: paired serum samples, ELISA, CF, VN) Vesicular stomatitis.
DDX: Vesicular DZs are indistinguishable,Further testing is required for animals displaying salivation & lameness Vesicular stomatitis.
TX: None, supportive care, ABX for 2ndry infections Vesicular stomatitis.
Good prognosis, but production animals may suffer losses Vesicular stomatitis.
Control: Many different disinfectants Vesicular stomatitis.
Prevention: Vacc during an outbreak (unknown efficacy) Vesicular stomatitis.
Cattle & Water buffalo Bovine ephemeral fever.
Subclinical infection: cape buffalo, wildebeest, waterbuck & deer Bovine ephemeral fever.
Transmission: Arthropod-borne,NOT by close contact, body secretions, werosol droplets, fomites or semen Bovine ephemeral fever.
Vectors: unknown but seen in mosquitoes & midges (Anopheles, Culicoides) Bovine ephemeral fever. Mosquitoes: most important vector
Rapidly inactivated in meat Bovine ephemeral fever.
Carriers: Not known to occur Bovine ephemeral fever.
Lesion: Small amount of fibrin-rich fluid in pleural, peritoneal & pericardial cavities Bovine ephemeral fever.
Edema, petechial hemorrhages or focal necrosis in muscle groups Bovine ephemeral fever.
Arthropod borne DZ, seen in subtropical areas Bovine ephemeral fever.
REPORTABLE, EXOTIC Bovine ephemeral fever.
Seasonal: follow rainfall, summer & decline w/onset of winter. Bovine ephemeral fever.
Low Mortality (can be up to 30%), but Cattle in good condition are more severely infected Bovine ephemeral fever.
DX: Clinically during outbreaks in endemic areas,Serology-Confirmatory (VN, ELISA [paired serum samples])IF(less useful-cross reactive w/non-pathogenic strains)Neutrophilia,high fibrinogen,low Ca levels Bovine ephemeral fever.
VI (difficult & NOT used)PCR, VI (IF confirmed, VN or blocking ELISA)Confirmed w/inoculation of unweaned mice intracerebrally Bovine ephemeral fever.
DDX: Rift valley fever, Heartwater, Bluetongue, Botulism, Babesiosis or Blackleg Bovine ephemeral fever.
Salivation may resemble FMDZ but NO vesicles are found Bovine ephemeral fever.
Control: Moving animals to insect-proof facitities during outbreaks or incr risk seasons Bovine ephemeral fever.
Prevention: Vacc in endemic areas (may not be necessary in endemic areas b/c most animals become immune by the time they are adults)Insect control Bovine ephemeral fever.
Cloven-hoofed animals (Cattle, Sheep, Pigs) Foot & Mouth DZ.
Resistant: Horses) Foot & Mouth DZ.
Transmission: Contact, aerosol (spread long distances), secretions, milk & semen (seen 4d before CS), latrogenic, feces (14d) & urine (39d) virus survival) Foot & Mouth DZ.
Highly Contagious) Foot & Mouth DZ.
Carriers: Recovered animals are carriers up to 2.5y (cattle) & 9m (sheep) Foot & Mouth DZ.
Lesion: PM lesions are indistinguishable from other vesicular DZs. Tiger heart (hemorrhagic striping) Foot & Mouth DZ.
REPORTABLE, ZOONOTIC Foot & Mouth DZ.
Low Mortality,high Morbidity Foot & Mouth DZ.
Survives in milk, milk products, bone marrow & lymph glands (loss in milk production!) Foot & Mouth DZ.
main site of replication & infection: respiratory tract mucosa-replication in local LN-vesicles-rupture-viremia persists (5d) Foot & Mouth DZ.
DX: Culture samples from the pharyngeal mucosa Foot & Mouth DZ.
AG detection (vesicular epithelium or fluid),Serology (ELISA [sensitive & specific], CF)VI, RT-PCR Foot & Mouth DZ.
DDX: Swine vesicular DZ, Vesicular exanthemia of swine, Vesicular stomatitis & Bluetongue Foot & Mouth DZ.
Control: Restricted movements, slaughter/burn affected, wash buildings (mild acid or fumigate), vacc, disinfectants Foot & Mouth DZ.
Prevention: Vacc: Multivalent, inactivated, adjuvanted,NO cross protection from serotypes Foot & Mouth DZ.
Teschovirus (13 serotypes, resistant to drying,Restricted to CNS & Intestine of pigs)Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
serum AB & protection in suckling piglets (colostrum & milk) Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Transmission: Ingestion & aerosol Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Virus replicates in GIT & RT Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Rapid spread & all ages excrete virus in feces Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Lesion: NO gross lesions seen on necropsy Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Encephalomyelitis of Pigs,AKA: Teschen DZ/ Talfan DZ,Neurological disturbances, infertility & dermal lesions,Wide variation of virulence btwn strains Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
REPORTABLE Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Teschen Morbidity (50pct) Mortality (70-90pct).
Talfan milder form, mortality (6pct), posterior paresis,Invades the CNS. Encephalititis may be present in pigs showing NO CS (seen histologically).
DX: VN, CF (useful Serology), brain & blood are good sources of virus, PCR (detects serotypes) Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Microscopically-diffuse non-suppurative encephalomyelitis & ganglioneuritis Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Brainstem & spinal cord have the most extensive lesions Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
VI from the brain & spinal cord early in DZ,GIT isolates are not confirmatory (asymptomatic enteric infections are common) Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
DDX: Pseudorabies, Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus of swine, Bacterial DZ, Intoxication Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Control: Teschen DZ Reportable in many countries,Outbreaks: slaughter, sanitary measures, ring vacc.
Prevention: Killed & MLV avaliabe Porcine Enteroviral Encephalomyelitis.
Enterovirus Swine vesicular DZ.
Pigs,Humans can also get it Swine vesicular DZ.
Transmission: Fecal-oral route (direct or indirect), ingestion (meat scraps), excretion of virus (nose, mouth, feces shed 2d before CS & in feces >3m post-infection Swine vesicular DZ.
Lab workers get it from contact w/infected pigs Swine vesicular DZ.
Moderately Contagious Swine vesicular DZ.
NO persistent infection Swine vesicular DZ.
CS: Similar to FMDZ Swine vesicular DZ.
Vesicles & erosions on snout, mammary glands, tongue, coronary band & interdigital areas Swine vesicular DZ.
Rarely see neurological signs Swine vesicular DZ.
Lesion: Vesicles are the only PM lesions Swine vesicular DZ.
REPORTABLE, EXOTIC, ZOONOTIC Swine vesicular DZ.
lower Morbidity, less severe lesions than FMDZ Swine vesicular DZ.
Low Mortality (low in adults, up to 10% in piglets) Swine vesicular DZ.
Related to human enterovirus & unrelated to other pig enteroviruses Swine vesicular DZ.
DX: CS (vesicles & erosions on mouth & feet)Lab testing (to rule out other vesicular DZs)AG detection (ELISA, direct CF), VI & Serology (VN, ELISA) Swine vesicular DZ.
DDX: Difficult to distinguish from FMDZ,Differentiate btwn FMDZ, Vesicular stomatitis, Vesicular exanthema of swine, Chemical or thermal burns Swine vesicular DZ.
Control: Slaughter infected, disinfect areas, Vacc Swine vesicular DZ.
Prevention: No commercial vacc, but inactivated vacc available,Vacc not used in countries free of vesicular DZ Swine vesicular DZ.
Pigs Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
Feces tx Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
CS: Encephalomyelitis, diarrhea, pericarditis, abortion & still born fetus Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
Cause encephalomyelitis Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
Most severely affected: young Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
DX: VI (from feces of normal swine or diarrhea) Porcine Enteroviruses 2 to 11.
all spp of Felidae Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Natural DZ confined to domestic cats (of all ages especially 2-6m old) & captive cheetahs Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Horizontal Transmission: Oronasal secretions, aerosol, fomites Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Carriers: Persistent infection in recovered animals (from oropharynx possibly for life) Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Lesion: URT infection signs w/sores around the mouth, lameness (arthritis) Feline calicivirus (FCV). Severe cases-pulmonary edema & pneumonia,VS strain-more severe in adults than kittens,Seen w/SQ edema & ulceration of mouth, pinnae, pawpads & nares
Important URT inflammatory DZ of cats found worldwide Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Route of infection: nasal, oral & conjunctival Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Virus replication: oral & respiratory tissues-ulcers begin as vesicles-rupture/necrosis-interstitial pneumonia in kittens Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Oral ulceration (vesicles on tongue)Also causes acute synovitis,Viral AG found in synovial M,incr degree of antigenic heterogeneity:antigenic shift Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Virulent phenotype: Virulent strain-Affects adult cats, Mortality (30-60%) Feline calicivirus (FCV).
DX: HX, CS, URT infection w/ulcers,VI, oropharyngeal swabs or tissues biopsies for PCR Feline calicivirus (FCV).
DDX: Feline herpesvirus 1 Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Prevention: Vacc available,FCV carriers shed virus frequently,Vacc does NOT prevent carrier status Feline calicivirus (FCV).
Pigs Vesicular exanthema of swine.
Horizontal Transmission: Uncooked waste seafood fed to pigs as garbage or from farm-mink fed seafood Vesicular exanthema of swine.
very Contagious Vesicular exanthema of swine.
CS: Febrile & acutely lame,May cause encephalitis, myocarditis, fever & diarrhea Vesicular exanthema of swine.
Pregnant sows may ABORT Vesicular exanthema of swine.
Lesion: Vesicles on tongue, lips, snout, teats, interdigital spaces & coronary bands Vesicular exanthema of swine.
REPORTABLE, EXOTIC Vesicular exanthema of swine.
Resembles FMDZ Vesicular exanthema of swine.
High Morbidity,low Mortality Vesicular exanthema of swine.
High Mortality is associated w/virulent strains Vesicular exanthema of swine.
DX: Fever & vesicles rupturing in 24-48h to form erosions,VI, Serology, EM Vesicular exanthema of swine.
DDX: FMDZ, Vesicular stomatitis, Swine vesicular DZ Vesicular exanthema of swine.
Control: Enforcement of quarantine, cook garbage & strict slaughter program Vesicular exanthema of swine.
European Rabbits (>2m old, domestic & wild, Oryctolagus cuniculus spp affected only) Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
All ages are affected Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Resistant: Young rabbits (<2m old) Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Horizontal, very contagious Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Carriers: Chronically infected animals (persistent infection) Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Lesion: Rabbits that die tend to be in good body condtion Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
main lesion-Hepatic necrosis & splenomegaly Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Kidneys are very dark brown, DIC, bloody trachea, congested hemorrhagic lungs & hemorrhage on thymus & serosal surfaces,Multiorgan lesions Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Acute fatal hemorrhagic DZ Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Single serotype but 2 subtypes: RHDV & RHDVa Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
High Morbidity (30-100%), high Mortality (40-100%) Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
DX: CS, Lesions (especially hepatic necrosis),AG detection in fluids & tissues,Serology,VI NOT used Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
DDX: Acute pasteurellosis, Atypical myxomatosis, poisoning, heat exhaustion, enterotoxemia due to E.coli or Clostridium perfringens Type E, & other causes of severe septicemia & 2ndry DIC Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Control: Quarantine, resists degradation by ether or chloroform & virus can persist in environment for a while Rabbit hemorrhagic DZ.
Young pigs Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Horizontal Transmission: Fecal-oral route Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Virus shed in feces (up to 2wks) Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
very Contagious Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
CS: More severe in newborn piglets,Villous atrophy (small intestine), vomiting, yellowish diarrhea, wt loss & dehydration,Agalactia common in sows,Engorgement of vessels & necrosis of the crypts in the stomach Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Lesion: Distended stomach & small intestine,Destruction of villi (thinning of intestinal wall) Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
4 DZ patterns in swine:1.Vomiting & wasting DZ,2.Porcine epidemic diarrhea,3.Transmissible gastroenteritis,4.Respiratory DZ Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Seasonal: Winter outbreaks Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Predisposing factors: all ages are susceptible, most severe in newborns (high susceptible & milk buffers gastric acid & protects virus),MAB IgA protect against infection,Systemic IgG is NOT protective Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Immunity is stimulated by mucosal immunization Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Newborn Mortality high(100%), only a few deaths are seen in ages >3wks Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
DX: Presumptive (diarrhea), CS, PM lesions (paper thin walls of small intestine)AG detection (mucosal scrapings & feces for ELISA, immunoEM, FA staining, immunoperoxidase test)Serology (VN, blocking ELISA using MAB) Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
DDX: Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), Enteric Colibacillosis, Clostridium perfringens, Coccidiosis, Rotaviral enteritis, Porcine epidemic diarrhea, Salmonellosis Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Prevention: MLV & inactivated vacc,Give MLV before farrowing & parturition,Vacc decr mortality but don’t eliminate infection,Expose pregnant sows to virus to incr lactogenic immunity & decr neonatal mortality,Good sanitation & management practices Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE).
Young pigs (<2wks old) Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Horizontal Transmission Aerosols Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
CS: Anorexia, hypperaesthesia, tremors, paddling of legs, vomiting, emaciation & death,Severe in young pigs Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Older animals survive but remain stunted Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Vomiting is due to viral replication in vagal ganglion Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Predominant features: acute encephalomyelitis, vomiting & wasting Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Nervous DZ or vomiting & emaciation/wasting in young pigs Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
High Mortality in young pigs (100%) Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
DX: VI (growth detected by hemagglutination)AG detection (IF)Serology (VN, HI-paired serum samples) Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Control: Good husbandry Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Prevention: NO vacc available Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis DZ.
Created by: alljacks