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viro final 1


Rinderpest Morbillivirus (survival pH 6.5-7).
Wildlife is NOT a reservoir Rinderpest.
Tx Direct contact (nasal/ocular secretions, body fluids), food & water, aerosol transmission [short distances] & fomites Rinderpest.
NO carrier state Rinderpest.
Vectors:unknown Rinderpest.
Highly Contagious Rinderpest.
CS:fever, depression, anorexia, constipation then hemorrhagic diarrhea, serous/ mucopurulent nasal/ ocular discharge, necrosis/erosion of oral mucosa, enlarged LN, DEATH in 6-12d classic form Rinderpest.
CSyoung animals, fever & congested mucus membranes, DEATH in 2-3d peracute Rinderpest.
mild CS,low mortality,Atypical+/- fever,mild to NO diarrhea,immunosuppression(2ndry infections) subacute Rinderpest.
Lesion:Esophagus(brown,necrotic foci)Omasum(rare erosions/hemorrhage)SI,abomasum,cecum,colon (Tiger striping)LN(swollen)Gall bladder(hemorrhagic mucosa)Lungs(emphysema,congestion,pneumonia) Rinderpest.
Destroys entire populations of cattle-economically important Rinderpest.
Predisposing factors:Naïve populations, young, or mild forms of DZ Rinderpest.
Epidemics are seen in all ages Rinderpest.
Morbidity (90%),Mortality (100pct-especially naive populations) Rinderpest.
DX:CS/Lesions(Tiger/Zebra-striping),VI(from WBC in buffy coat,lacrimal fluid,necrotic foci,aspirations of LN,spleen,LN,tonsil),CPE in cell cultures w/IF,AGID(AG detection),ELISA(OIE recommended) Rinderpest.
DDX: IBR, BVD, MCF, F&MDZ, Bluetongue, Salmonellosis, Paratuberculosis, Peste des petits ruminants (DDX via RT-PCR) Rinderpest.
Control: Chemically (glycerol & lipid solvents), Natural (pH2 & 12) Rinderpest.
Prevention:Vacc available(some interfere w/colostral immy) but heat stability is an issue Rinderpest.
Vacc every 3y,Possible eradication in 2010,Other vaccines are more heat stable, recombinant vaccinia & capripox virus available Rinderpest.
small ruminants (similar infection rates in goats & sheep) but more severe in goats Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Sero+:Cattle & Pigs (but they DON’T transmit DZ) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Horizontal Transmission: Wildlife (unknown), close contact, aerosol, body secretions, fomites (unknown role) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
No carrier state Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Highly Contagious Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
CS: URT infection leads to catarrhal exudates,Non-hemorrhagic diarrhea, emaciation, dyspnea-death(5-10d)Prognosis correlates w/extent of mouth lesions Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Lesion: Necrotic lesions in the oral cavity & GIT,Zebra stripe in GIT,Lesions are similar to Rinderpest,mucosal erosions,profuse diarrhea,Acute-virus shed in secretions Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
REPORTABLE, ZOONOTIC(List A DZ) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Seasonal: Africa rainy season Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Morbidity (80-90%), Mortality (50-100%) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Resembles Rinderpest Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
List A DZ Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Predisposing factors: Endemic areas, young animals, poor nutrition, parasitic infection, goat spp Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
DX: Oral erosions & GI signs,VI,AG detection (ELISA, AGID, counter immuno-electrophoresis, PCR), AB (VN, ELISA), Serology Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
DDX: Rinderpest, Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Bluetongue, Pasteurellosis, Contagious ecthyma, FMDZ, Heartwater, Coccidiosis, Nairobi sheep DZ, Mineral poisoning Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
TX: None, meds may decr mortality, supportive care Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Control: Virus killed by disinfectants (virus survives in chilled/frozen tissues). Quarantine/slaughter, burn/bury carcass, decontaminate/dispose of fomites, vacc in endemic areas, Importation control Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Prevention: Rinderpest vacc used in Africa,Vacc hinders on going efforts eradicating Rinderpest,attenuatated vacc available in the future Peste des petits ruminants (PPR).
Canine Distemper (CDV) Morbillivirus (survival pH 6.5-7).
Dogs & wild carnivores (Big cats, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Canis),High prevelance in young dogs(3-6m) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Rep in cyto but w/INIB & ICIB. Peplomeres (2 gp: Hemagglutinin & Fusion), Syncitium formation, -sense RNA, susceptible to heat & drying but survives freezing Canine Distemper (CDV).
Horizontal & Vertical Transmission,Direct contact, aerosols Canine Distemper (CDV).
Highly Contagious Canine Distemper (CDV).
Virus sheds 7-90d post infection Canine Distemper (CDV).
Respiratory secretions have the most virus particles Canine Distemper (CDV).
Recovered animals harbor virus in CNS Canine Distemper (CDV).
Lesion: Neurological signs: twitching, paresis/paralysis (begins w/hind limbs), convulsive chewing/salivation (chewing gum seizures), hyperkeratosis (hard pad DZ) on paws & optic neuritis. Involuentary urinating/ deficating Canine Distemper (CDV).
Skin lesions: Vesicular & pustular dermatitis Canine Distemper (CDV).
Transplacental infection: pups have severe neurological signs, abort, still birth, weak born, or immunodeficient Canine Distemper (CDV).
Severe damage to enamel, dentine, or roots-discoloration Canine Distemper (CDV).
Multisystem involvement Canine Distemper (CDV).
High Morbidity, vary Mortality. Mildly virulent-Inapparent infections Canine Distemper (CDV).
Acute DZ- incidence of encephalitis Canine Distemper (CDV).
DDX: Feverish puppies w/multisystmeic signs-Rabies, Leptospirosis, organophosphate poisoning Canine Distemper (CDV).
TX: Supportive,Neurological signs-grave prognosis due to progression of signs (if present neuro signs progress) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Give ABX but avoid Enrofloxicin & Tetracycline for pneumonia Canine Distemper (CDV).
Prevention: Vacc: MLV (100pct eff but may show neurological signs [may resolve w/TX]) & Recombinant CDV (MABs don’t interfere w/vacc) Canine Distemper (CDV).
Henipavirus Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Horses, Humans Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Resistant: Dogs, Chickens, Rats, Mice Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Horizontal Transmission: Direct contact (extensive) horse-human contact Hendra (equine morillivirus). Not all exposed become sick
Bats-horses (unknown), virus in saliva, contaminated food & possible tick vector Hendra (equine morillivirus).
CS: Horses: Depressoin, pyrexia, dyspnea, tachycardia, nasal discharge, sudden death in 1-3d after CS onset Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Lesion: Injected mucus w/a cyanotic border, dependent edema, head pressing, ataxia, frothy nasal discharge, severe interlobular edema Hendra (equine morillivirus).
ZOONOTIC Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Control: Assess risk for area (difficult but note sick horses in endemic areas & bats), don’t handle infected body fluids,Heat & chemically (NaDCC granules) disinfect Hendra (equine morillivirus).
Rubulavirus Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Dogs Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Kennel situations Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
CS: UR infection, vocal fold edema (high pitched cough)damage to tracheal epithelium2ndy infection Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Coughing & possible retching in active dogs, productive cough (MABs give variable protection) Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Associated w/Kennel Cough Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Inapparent mild URT DZ Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Predisposing factors: 2wks old or older susceptible, dogs in kennels Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Control: Isolate infected animals, clean kennels, have adequate ventilation Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
Prevention: CPIV incorporated into vacc,MAB don’t interfere w/vacc Canine Parainfluenza virus (CPIV) 2.
CS: Corneal opacity, neurological signs, & reproductive failure Porcine rubulavirus (Blue eye DZ).
High Morbidity & Mortality Porcine rubulavirus (Blue eye DZ).
Respirovirus Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Cattle & Sheep Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Aerosols & Direct contact Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
CS: Pyrexia, cough, serous nasal & lacrimal discharge,incr resp rate,incr breath sounds-worsens w/2ndry bact infection Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Rare for fatalities from uncomplicated infections Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Fatal cases are seen w/complicated (2⁰ bacterial) infections Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Lesion: Cranio-ventral lung consolidation, inflammation, congestion & hemorrhage Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Subclinical/Mild respiratory DZ, associated w/Shipping fever(Mannhemia hemolytica) in cattle Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Initiator of severe 2ndry bacterial pneumonia Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
DX: Inclusion bodies +/- identify virus,VI (nasal secretions), Serology (indirect IFA, ELISA, HI, VN [4 fold↑]) Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Control: More important to control Mannhemia hemolytica Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Prevention: Inactivated & Attenuated vacc available Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3).
Pneumovirus Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Characteristic syncytia: infected cells in vivo & in vitro Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Major contributor of bovine respiratory DZ complex Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Calves(moderate-severe infection),Adult cattle (mild-subclinical,rarely severe) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Persistent infection maintains infection in herds Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Transmission: Aerosols & Direct contact Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
CS: Mild-severe: fever, nasal & lacrimal discharge, coughing & polypnea (may recover in a few days) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Progression: open-mouth breathing & ABD breathing Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Lesion: Dyspnea & pulmonary emphysema Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Pulmonary DZ in Calves Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Seasonal: autumn & winter Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Predisposing factors: Transportation, overcrowding, adverse weather conditions Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Concurrent infections w/BVD virus-severe CS Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Mortality: 20percent Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
DX: CS/Lesions. Confirmatory lab tests (Nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue, paired serum samples,VI(difficult)AG detection(ELISA, IF, PCR)Serology (VN, ELISA) Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Control: Reduce stress, hygiene, isolate young from older animals, have a closed herd policy Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Prevention:MLV & inact vacc(fusion surface glycoprotein)They reduce clinical DZ, but short duration,Vacc for US:2MLV & 1Killed vacc,Passive imm interferes w/vacc,Vacc dams during late gestation-incr specific colostral AB Bovine Respiratory Syncitial virus(BRSV).
Created by: alljacks