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avian dis ii

QuestionAnswer
What are the two non-motile members of the Salmonella genus that infect birds Salmonella pullorum & S.gallinarum are non-motile.
What 2 disease names are given to infection w/ Salmonella pullorum Salmonella pullorum causes bacillary white diarrhea, also known as pullorum disease
Infection w/ Salmonella gallinarum is called what Fowl typhoid is caused by S.gallinarum.
What does paratyphoid refer to Paratyphoid is the name for any disease caused by a motile species of Salmonella.
What is the most common salmonella serotype in turkeys Salmonella arizonae is the most common serotype in turkeys.
T/F Pullorum & fowl typhoid are zoonotic FALSE,Salmonella gallinarum & S.pullorum are not zoonotic.
T/F Pullorum disease & fowl typhoid are of major economic significance in commercial poultry in the US FALSE,Pullorum disease & fowl typhoid have been reduced to very low incidence in the U.S.
What are the natural hosts of S.pullorum & S.gallinarum Chickens & turkeys are the natural hosts of S.pullorum & S.gallinarum,but other species can be infected.
What is the primary method of transmitting S.pullorum & S.gallinarum,How else does infection occur Direct vert tx(infection of the egg from the ovary)is the most common method of tx S.pullorum & S.gallinarum,Birds may also become infected by contact w/ contaminated enviro.
What is the primary cs of pullorum disease & fowl typhoid in hatcheries The most prominent sign of fowl typhoid &pullorum disease is large number of piped embryos(unhatchedchicks)&high chick mort starting by the 1stday in the brooder house.
How does the duration of the mort period differ btw fowl typhoid & pullorum disease One of the few differ btw pullorum &fowl typhoid is that mort cont through adulthood in S.gallinarum infect,but stops by 2 wks of age in S.pullorum infections.
When does mort start in brooder houses(if pullorum or typhoid is present),When is the average peak mort Mort starts on 1st or 2nd day in brooder house & peaks at one week(in some cases).
In surviving chicks,what is the most important cs of pullorum Chicks that survive S.pullorum or S.gallinarum infection will show white pasting around the vent,More var signs incl swjts,nervous signs,resp distress,lethargy,huddling.
What are the cs of pullorum & fowl typhoid in adult chickens There will be decr egg prod in carriers,but gen there are no cs in adults,even w/ acute infection,Rarely depression,pale combs & mm,interdiar & fever.
Give 4 most imp pathologic signs/lesions assoc w/ pullorum & fowl typhoid in chicks,Describe add signs in chicks piped embryos,chicks w/ fowl typhoid/gallinarum have omphalitis(w/ ret yolksac),enlarged liver,spleen w/ necrfoci,Sometimes pericarditis,swell hockjnt w/ yellow visc fluid,necrfoci in heart,absc in lungs,cong kid w/ ureters w/ white chalky urates.
Where are lesions of pullorum & fowl typhoid found in adult carriers Adult carriers of S.pullorum & S.gallinarum have misshapen/pedunculated ovules contain oily/caseous material enclosed in a thick capsule,Only hens are carriers,infect localizes in ovaries.
T/F Misshapen or pedunculated ovules containing caseous material are unique lesions to Salmonella TRUE.
What lesions are seen in adult birds that die of acute pullorum or fowl typhoid Adult birds w/ acute pullorum or fowl typhoid may have enlarged liver w/ necrofoci & spleen & kidneys are swollen & congested.
How is diagnosis of pullorum & fowl typhoid made History,symptoms & lesions presumptive diagnosis,complete isolation req for definitive diagnosis.
T/F Flocks can be treated w/ antibiotics to eliminate pullorum & fowl typhoid FALSE,Antibiotics reduce mort, but won’t eliminate carriers,so disease remains in flock.
The best method of prevention & control of pullorum & fowl typhoid Elimination of carriers is best method of prevention & control(Test flock,kill reactors,repeat month later,repeat once more,if reactors found after 3 tests,eliminate flock).
T/F An attenuated vaccine is available for reducing mort caused by pullorum disease FALSE,attenuated vac is available for S.gallinarum(NOT S.pullorum).
Which flocks should be vaccinated w/ S.gallinarum & what age Fowl typhoid vac should be given only to commercial layer flocks at 9-10 wks where disease is endemic.
T/F Like pullorum & fowl typhoid,paratyphoid infections are of little economic imp FALSE,Paratyphoid is of economic significance b/c it causes greater losses than typhoid & pullarium.
T/F Like pullorum & fowl typhoid,paratyphoid infections are zoonotic FALSE,Paratyphoid infections are zoonotic, but pullorum & fowl typhoid are not,Paratyphoid is a serious public health risk.
Where do motile salmonella tend to localize Paratyphoid organisms are usually found in the intestinal tract.
How is paratyphoid tx,Inc host & bact species differences Paratyphoid is commonly tx through egg,Direct ovarian tx occurs in tk,dks,gs,pg, most species of mot salmonella,& occurs in chickens w/ S.enteritidiis.
What are the symptoms of paratyphoid,Compare to pullorum & fowl typhoid Paratyphoid,like pullorum cause high mort for up to first few wks,There are a large number of piped embryos,Chicks may be depressed & have wtry diar,Growing birds may have poor appetite,diarrhea,dehyd,Like pullorum & typhoid,adults usu donot show cs.
Descr lesions of paratyphoid & compare them to fowl typhoid & pullorum disease Like fowl typhoid & pullorum,omphalitis in chicks is common & necrliver & spleen found in adults w/ severe cases,Unlike nonmotile salmonella infects,paratyphoid infections doNOT cause lesions in ovaries.
What information is essential when conducting serological test for paratyphoid infections It is essential to know the serotype present & use appropriate antigens when conducting serological testing.
T/F Large scale serological testing & removal of reactors is a common,eff method of elimin paratyphoid infection FALSE,impractical b/c of frequent intermit shedding in feces & contamination of the environment.
What are the most important methods of prevention & control of paratyphoid Egg sanitation & fumigation is the most important method of prevention & control of paratyphoid,Gen hatchery & flock sanitation is very important.
A vaccine is available for what motile species of Salmonella There is a vaccine for S.enteritidis,but not for other motile salmonella species.
What are the cs of S.typhimurium in pet birds Pet birds w/ S. typhimurium may have diarrhea & nervous signs.
T/F Salmonella arizonae is only found in turkeys FALSE,is the most common serotype in turkerys,but it is also found in chicks,ducklings,psittacines,& passerines.
How is arizonosis transmitted S.arizonae can be transmitted by fecal contamination of eggs or possibly directly from the ovary in turkeys.
What are the 3 most important cs of arizonosis in poults & chicks (up to 4-6wks),What other signs may be present Mort,nervous signs(torticollis)& blindness are the most imp signs,diarrhea(w/ pasting around the vent),leg weakness & depression may also be present.
What is the most frequently seen lesion of arizonosis,What other lesions are present Exudate in the vitreous of eyeballs is the most frequently seen lesion of arizonosis,Meningitis,necroliver,distended heart may also be seen.
List possible differential diagnoses for arizonosis DD for nervous signs inc Newcastle disease & aspergillosis,DD for blindness is aspergillosis.
What treatments are available for arizonosis Furozolidone,gentamicin & spectinomycin can be used to reduce mort & spread of infection but do not eliminate carriers.
T/F There are no effective vaccines for S. arizonae TRUE.
Are there any differences in prevention & control of arizonosis & other paratyphoid infections There are no differences in control of paratyphoid infections,sanitation & egg fumigation are most important.
What disease is caused by M. gallisepticum in chickens & pet birds Chickens & pet birds w/ M. gallisepticum have chronic resp disease.
What is the common name for M gallisepticum infection in turkeys Infectious sinusitis is M. gallisepticum infection in turkeys.
What are complicated M. gallisepticum infections called Infections of M. gallisepticum complicated w/ other bacteria (usu Ecoli) or viruses produce airsaculitis.
What are the 2 methods of tx of M.gallisepticum most common tx M.gallisepticum is through contam as egg passthru oviduct,Airborne tx of M.gallisepticum or fecal contamination of eggs is possible,Ovarian tx does NOT occur(unlike nonmotile salmonella & paratyphoid in tk & S.enteritidis in ck).
At what age do M. gallisepticum outbreaks occur in broilers Outbreaks of M. gallisepticum occur between 4-8 wks of age.
What are the signs of M. gallisepticum infections in broilers Broilers w/ M. gallisepticum have high morbidity & low mort (except in complicated cases),They show slow growth,downgrading of carcass,Nasal sinuses swell & cough noticed.
What are the signs of M. gallisepticum infections in adult chickens Adult chickens w/ chronic resp disease have mild tracheal rales, nasal discharge & coughing,Productivity is reduced.
What do turkeys w/ infectious sinusitis look like Turkeys w/ M. gallisepticum have inflammation in the infraorbital sinus.
Describe three gross lesions seen in complicated M. gallisepticum infections (airsaculitis) Air sacs have a thickened membrane & contain caseous pus,Fibrinopurulent pericarditis & perihepatitis also present.
What is the primary gross lesion of uncomplicated M.gallisepticum Catarrhal exudate present throughout resp tract in birds w/ M.gallisepticum,Pinpoint grayish beads of lymphfollicular agg seen microscopically in airsac membranes.
Provide a DD for M.gallisepticum in chickens Chronic resp disease caused by M. gallisepticum in chickens may be confused for infectious coryza.
Provide 3 DD for M.gallisepticum in turkeys Fowl cholera,ornithosis,& turkey coryza all look similar to M.gallisepticum infections in turkeys.
Are vaccines for M.gallisepticum available Vaccines for M.gallisepticum are available,but not very effective.
T/F Egg fumigation is an effective method of preventing M.gallisepticum infection FALSE,Egg dipping is much more effective than fumigation.
What species are susceptible to M. meleagridis Only turkeys get M. meleagridis, NOT chickens.
What is the primary method of tx of M.meleagridis Mycoplasma meleagridis is mainly tx by fecal contamination of eggs, but aerosol transmission also possible.
At what age do turkeys w/ M. meleagridis show signs of airsacculitis,How does this differ from M. gallisepticum M.meleagridis causes airsacculitis in turkeys at 1day of age,whereas complicated M.gallisepticum causes airsacculitis at 4-8 wks.
In add to airsacculitis,what other lesions are caused by M.meleagridis M.meleagridis causes skeletal lesions,incl twisting of the tarsometatarsus & swelling of the hock.
What are the signs of airsacculitis Turkey poults usually do not show signs of M. meleagridis.
How is M. meleagridis prevented Avoid using infected semen,dip eggs before incubation, & medicate breeders.
What species are susceptible to Mycoplasma synoviae Turkeys, chickens, & guinea fowl are susceptible to M. synoviae.
What are the two different manifestations of M.synoviae infections,Which is more common M.synoviae usu causes synovitis, bursitis,tendonitis,It can cause sub-clinical upper resp tract infections too.
What lesions are seen when M. synoviae is complicated by Newcastle or infectious bronchitis virus Complicated M.synoviae infections cause airsacculitis.
Compare the tx of M.synoviae to M.gallisepticum & M.meleagridis M.synoviae is primarily tx by aerosols,but can be tx through fecal contamination of eggs,opposite is true of M.meleagridis(mostly egg tx,some aerosol tx)M.gallisepticum is readily tx by either method.
What is the incubation period for M.synoviae incubation period is 2-3wks for M.synoviae(Disease first appears at 2wks in chicks infected by egg tx & takes 2-3wks to appear after exposure in adults).
At what age are cs & outbreaks of M.synoviae most common in chickens,In turkeys Cs & outbreaks of M.synoviae usu appear at 4-16wks in chickens & 10-24 wks in turkeys.
What are the cs of M.synoviae,How is it differentiated from pullorum disease cs of M.synoviae are swell of hockjnt & footpads,Resp signs are mild or asymp,Birds have pale comb,ruff feath,retard gwth & lameness,Pullorum can cause swell in hock,but footpads not involved & are usually other signs (diarrhea).
What is the severity of cs of resp infections caused by M. synoviae Resp infections caused by M.synoviae will have mild cs.
Describe the changes in synovial fluid as disease progresses Normally synovial fluid is clear & watery,but M.synoviae causes it to become more viscous & cloudy,As disease progresses exudates becomes creamy to gray & caseous.
What are the less common gross lesions of M.synoviae The liver & spleen may become enlarged, mottled & greenish to dark red,Kidn swollen & pale,caseous exudates may extend over skull,along neck & into airsacs.
What key features are used to make a presumptive diagnosis of M.synoviae,What method is used to provide a more conclusive diagnosis Swollen footpads & hocks,w/ a pale comb,emac,&lameness are good indicator of M.synoviae.
T/F Viral arthritis is a differential diagnosis for turkeys w/ swollen joints FALSE,Turkeys do not get viral arthritis,chickens do.
How can M.synoviae be prevented Egg dipping & cont low dose of chlortetracycline may prevent M. synoviae.
How do eggs become infected w/ E. coli & what is the outcome,What are the poss if Ecoli is tx through resp route Fecal cont of eggs is most imp source of infection,Eggs also become infected direct through ovary,If egg is infected w/ Ecoli,early chick mort is common,Resp infection(from cont envir)cause colisept or airsac disease.
Mort may continue up to what age (generally),What lesions are seen Mort usu occurs w/in the first 3 wks,only lesions are usu omphalitis & peritonitis.
In cases where chick mort does not occur,what evidence of disease can be observed A retained yolk sac & poor growth may be the only signs of Ecoli infection if the bird survives.
T/F Unlike salmonellosis,Ecoli does not cause liver/spleen involvement in very young chicks TRUE,Ecoli can produce pinpoint necrosis/swelling in liver,but this occurs w/ colisepticemia,not egg tx.
Colisepticemia occurs in broilers of what age, when is the peak Colisepticemia occurs in broilers between 3-12 wks of age, w/ peak incidence at 6-9 wks.
What are the primary cs & gross lesions of acute colisepticemia Acute colisepticemia may cause mort (over 20%),liver is swollen & pinpoint necrofoci,pericarditis also present,These lesions are inconsistent.
What are the main lesions of air sac disease caused by Ecoli Air sac disease causes less mort than colisepticemia,liver is swollen,dark,covered by thick white false membrane,are also lesions of chronic pericarditis.
How is Ecoli diagnosis made,How is pathogenicity determined Ecoli diagnosis must be made by isolation & ident w/ pathdetermined by inoculation of embryos.
How is E. coli prevented Ecoli is difficult to control,Good husbry,clean,disinfection,fumigating eggs may help.
What organism causes fowl cholera Pasteurella multocida.
How is Pasteurella multocida tx horizontally through feed & water contaminated w/ excretions.
What avian species are susceptible to Pasteurella multocida,Especially which Most avian species are susceptible to P. multocida,Turkeys especially.
T/F Pasteurella multocida isolates of pigs are pathogenic to fowl TRUE,Pigs should not be raised near birds.
T/F Younger birds are more susceptible to P. multocida than older birds FALSE,Older birds (over 3 months) are more susceptible to P. multocida.
Birds w/ acute fowl cholera may die w/in (12 hours, 1-2 days, 2-3 wks) after exposure,What are cs of acute fowl cholera Acute fowl cholera causes death w/in 24-48 hours, often w/out causing any cs.
What are the four major cs of subacute fowl cholera Subacute fowl cholera causes anorexia, drowsiness, fever & diarrhea. Cyanosis & watery oral discharge are also seen.
Where does chronic fowl cholera usually localize cs of chronic fowl cholera are related to the area of localization, which is usually in the leg or wing jnts,in the wattles,footpad,sternum,sinuses
What gross lesions are seen w/ chronic fowl cholera Fluid or caseous exudate may be seen in affected joints, wattles, or wherever it has localized.
What gross lesions are seen w/ acute & subacute forms of P. multocida Most of the lesions assoc w/ both acute & subacute P. multocida are related to vascular disturbances,Subepicardial/subserosal hemor common,Petechial/ecchymotic hemor widespread,liver also enlarged.
Created by: alljacks