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ANSC 1000 Exam #4

Roughage grazing hay, silage, crop residues. High in fiber, but low digestibility, only about 50-65%
Concentrates cereal grains: corn, what, oats, barley. oil meals: soybean, cottonseed, whey. Higher in energy and/or protein. Low in fiber, high in digestibility (80-90%), A LOT MORE EXPENSIVE
Nutrient feed components that support life
What animals need daily to live energy for individual cells and tissues to function, structural components to replace "worn out" parts, and the ability to eliminate harmful by-products of life
Classes of Nutrients water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins
Water most important single nutrient! usually refers to drinking water
Moisture the water content of feed
Dry Matter is the feed minus the moisture
Importance of water needed for metabolic reactions. Transport medium, body temperature control, cell shape and integrity
Carbohydrates composed of carbon + hydrogen + oxygen. Primary source of readily avaliable energy
Simple Carbohydrates Starches, like cereal grains and sugars. Easy to digest!
Complex Carbohydrates Cellulose, like in plant cell walls. Harder to digest. rumen microbes digest this and make it part of their body, and cows can then digest the microbes
Lipids Fats. 2.25x more energy that carbohydrates per unit weight. Made of a 3 carbon backbone called glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains attached
Saturated Fat refers to H+ bonding to carbon atoms
Unsaturated Fat indicates missing H+ and double bonds among carbon atoms. More common in plants. Crisco is a plant oil that has been saturated with hyrdrogen to make it a solid
Essential Fatty Acids must be in diet because the animal cannot synthesize them: Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid
Importance of Fats structural component in cell membrane. Chemical energy stored in C-H bonds and C-C bonds. Precursors for hormones
Proteins carbon + hydrogen + oxygen + nitrogen. On average protein is about 16% nitrogen by weight. 6.25 conversion factor
Importance of Protein in diets tissue growth and repair, transport binding proteins, regulation of hormones and hormone receptors
Minerals inorgainc elements (no carbon bonds to break by burning). It is the ask that's left after burning.
Macro minerals needed in relatively large amounts. Calcium, Phosphorus, Chlorine, Sodium, and Potassium, Magnesium, and Sulfur
Calcium needed for cell function, bone strength, and lactation
Phosphorus 2:1 Calcium to Phosphorus ratio, for growth and lactation
Chlorine, Sodium, and Potassium for osmotic balance
Magnesium for cell physiology
Sulfur for protein structure
Micro minerals Cobalt, Copper, Flourine, Iron, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc. Needed for incorporate into molecules for structure and function, help catalyze reactions.
Vitamins "Vital Amines", first discovered in the Dairy Science department at U Wisconsin.
Vitamin A Fat Soluble Vitamin. Helps the integrity of epithelial linings. Polar bears concentrate this in the liver and it can become toxic
Vitamin D Fat Soluble Vitamin. Bone growth and repair with Calcium. Deficiency in vitamin D is called rickets. Can get through sun exposure!
Vitamin E Fat Soluble Vitamin. Antioxidant, free radical scavenger
Vitamin K Fat soluble vitamin, blood clotting
Vitamin C Water Soluble Vitamin. Deficiency in this is called Scurvy: resulting in spongy gums and loose teeth
Vitamin B1 Water Soluble. Deficiency in this is called Beriberi: polyneuritis, and paralysis
Niacin Water Soluble Vitamin. Deficiency in this is called Pellagra: inflamed membranes
Vitamin B12 Water soluble. Deficiency in this is called Pernicious anemia: small red blood cells
Digestibility that portion of feed consumed that passes through the gut wall into the blood. Almost impossible to measure directly. Measure by difference: Intake - fecal content = amount digested.
Formula for Digestibility In feed- in feces/in feed x 100 = % digested
Energy Values of Feeds energy is stored in C-C bonds of CHO's, fats, and proteins. Oxidation of carbon bonds releases energy
Chemical energy drives other chemical reactions, and provides body heat
Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) older method for determining energy values. Expressed in units of weight, does not reflect the amount of useable chemical energy
Net Energy System (NE) newer method. Measures useable energy, expressed in calories per unit weight
Maintenance Energy (NEm) used fro basal metabolism, thermoregulation, and voluntary activity
Production Energy (NEp) Used for Growth (NEg), Lactation (NEl), Fat Deposition, Reproduction, and Hair/wool growth
Back in the day, what happened to sailors on long voyages who didn't take citrus fruit along with them? Tooth loss, Scurvy
As presented in class regarding nutrition, what does TDN stand for? Total Digestible Nutrients
Regarding digestion, what occurs in the mouth? NONE OF THE ABOVE
What is the normal flow of food through a non-ruminant animal? esophagus --> abomasum --> duodenum --> colon
Production of ova is an example of an ovary's: exocrine function
which stage of follicular development represents a mature, dominant follicle ready to ovulate? Graafian follicle
As described in class, where in the female reproductive tract does fertilization occur? the oviduct and the AIJ
Into which segment of the female reproductive tract does urine from the bladder and urethra first enter? Vagina
in regard to cyclicity in females, what structure produces and released GnRH? Hypothalamus
Which of the following species has a 21-day estrous cycle and a 340 day pregnancy? Horses
Name either the 4-carbon or the 3 carbon volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen Propionic acid and Butyric acid
What hormone in the female is produced by the uterus when pregnancy does not occur and directs the demise of the corpus luteum so that a new cycle can start? PGF(alpha 2)
What is the primary hormone product of the testes? testosterone
When a feed is classified as a "by-pass" feed, what does that mean? It is a feed that is heated or has a special crust on it to help it go straight to the abomasum, without the microorganisms touching it. It allows the animal to get nutrients that it would not get from normal feed.
What happens to an animal when a virus disrupts the cells lining the inside of the LARGE intestine to the extent that it can't do what it is primarily responsible for doing? the large intestine is for water absorbption and compacting the feces. if the water is not absorbed the animal will get diharrea
Carnivores eat meat, mostly monogastrics
Herbivores eat plants, both ruminants and monogastrics
Omnivores eat both plants and meat, mostly monogastric
Digestion breakdown of food molecules to small enough molecules to cross across the membrane of the gut
Pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins
Ruminant stomach 4 distinct compartments: Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum, Abomasum
Reticulum Where feed first arrives from esophagus, honeycomb appearance. Where injested hardware will remain
Rumen the next segment of the cow's stomach. Biological fermentation vat, ideal for microorganisms to grow, warm, moist, and nutrient rich.
Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA's) Butyric Acid (C4), Proplonic acid (C3), Acetic Acid (C2)
Belching Eructation
Bloat caused by not belching in ruminants. Can restrict breathing and cause death.
Papillae projections within the rumen with give it a felt-like appearance and increases the surface area
Omasum many folds of tissue, further fine grinding and mixing of chyme
Abomasum true stomach, functions much like the monogastric stomach
Small Intestine further splitting of molecules and absorption happens here. Made of 3 segments: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
Duodenum cells secrete various compounds. Stimulate gall bladder to release liver bile. Fat is emulsified.
Jejunum and Ileum Absorption and final breakdown of products. Passive absorption through simple and active diffusion.
Ileocecal valve one way valve that doesn't allow bacteria from the colon to back flow into the small intestine
Liver metabolizes useful substances and detoxifies harmful substances
Large Intestine water reabsorption, and some nutrient absorption
Rectum final straight segment of colon, formation of feces and timing of defecation
Ovary both exocrine and endocrine functions. Exocrine --> release of ova, Endocrine --> synthesize and release hormones
Primary Follicle haploid germ cell, 1 layer of flat cells
Secondary follicles 2 layers of cells
Tertiary follicle visible to naked eye, fluid filled antrum
Graafian follicle mature and ready to ovulate, oocyte. Granulosa cells produce FSH and estrogen. Theca cells produce LH and androgrens
Corpus hermorrhagicum red body: the structure that results after ovulation when the follicle collapses. It is blood filled
Corpus Lutem yellow body, progesterone and relaxin are produced by this
Corpus Albicans white body, consists of the cellular remnants when the corpus luteum reduces
Ampulla the 1st half of the oviduct. cilliated cells move ova towards the uterus
Isthmus 2nd half of oviduct, moves sperm up and new zygote down
Ampullary-Isthmic Junction AIJ, middle segment of oviduct. Site of fertilization
Uterotubal Junction where oviduct joint uterus. Barrier to sperm, passage for zygote
Cervix made of fibrous tissue, 1st degree barrier protecting the uterus. Landmark for A.I. Gelatinous plug forms during pregnancy for protection. DIlates during parturition
Vagina organ of copulation, birth canal, and drainage for urethra from bladder. Avoid during AI
Vuvla External Genitalia. Observable signs of estrus: retains blood and water, swollen, moist and red.
Clitoris developmental rudiment of penis. Highly innervated, neuroendocrine response.
Estrus (noun) the desire or willingness to mate
Reproduction involves Brain (hypthalamus), Anterior/posterior pituitary glands, ovaries, and uterus
Hypothalamus produces Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Anterior Pituitary produces Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
Posterior Pituitary produces Oxytocin
The Follicle Produces Estrogen
Corpus Luteum produces Progesterone, Relaxin, and Oxytocin
The Uterus produces Prostaglanding F2 alpha
The Embryo produces Interferon (in calves and lambs) and Estrogen (in pigs)
Function of Estrogen induced estrous behavior, prepares uterus for mating, sperm transport, and stimulates surge of GnRH
Function of Lutenizing Hormone (LH) initiates ovulation, and the conversion of follicle into a Corpus Lutem
Function of Progesterone negative feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit follicle growth. prepares uterus for pregnancy.
Function of PGF2α regresses corpus luteum, progesterone declines, and the estrous cycles begins again
If pregnant embryo sends signal to uterus: maternal recognition of pregancy. This signal blocks PGF2α, the corpus luteum is retained, and progesterone remains high
Length of Estrous Cycle in Cows 21 days
Length of Estrous Cycles in Sow 21 days
Length of Estrous Cycles in Ewe 16 days
Length of Estrous Cycle in Mare 21 days
Duration of Estrous in Cows 18 hours
Duration of Estrous in Sow 3 days
Duration of Estrous in Ewe 30 hours
Duration of Estrous in MAre 6 days
Gestation length of Cow 285 days
Gestation length of Sow 114 days
Gestation length of Ewe 145 days
Gestation length of Mare 340
Polyestrus many cycles
Male Gonad Testicle. Outside of body proper, important for temperature regulation.
Exocrine function of Testes produce male gamets (sperm)
Endocrine function of Testes produce testosterone, give masculine appearance, mating behavior, and steroid binding protein
Castration remove testicles, resulting in the removal of sperm and testosterone
Vasectomy cut tubular excurrent duct system, vas defrens. this blocks sperm but not testosterone
Seminiferous Tubules sperm produced within testes, inside of the seminiferous tubules
Sertoli Cells nurture developing sperm cells.
Head of Epididymus sperm maturation
Body of Epididymus sperm concentration
Tail of Epididymus sperm storage
Uterine Milke early embryo gets nutrients from the secretion of this from glands in the uterus
Time of attachment in baby pigs day 14-21
Caruncle special places of the placenta where the dam and baby exchange nutrients and gases
Caruncle + Cotyledon = Placentome
Cotyledon place of nutrient and gas exchange associated with the baby
Embryonic stage up until major organ formation is complete
Fetal Stage once all major organs are in place, approximately day 45 in cattle.
Uterine Prolapse ligaments that hold the uterus in place give way. uterus turns inside out through the vulva, you can save the animal but it is often infertile afterwards
Dystocia the most common problem is that the calf is too large for the cows pelvic opening. Mal-presentation is also a problem
Estrous Synchronization treat females with hormones to make her come into heat when desired. Lutalyse
Parity/-parous condition of having borne some offspring
Nulliparous never borne viable offspring
Virgin never experienced sexual intercourse
Primiparous given birth once
Multiparous given birth multiple times
Open not pregnant
Barren incapable of producing offspring
Gravid pregnant, containing developing young
Static Ovaries No, or minimal follicular activity. NSS: no significant structures. Ovaries appear pre-puberal. Not receiving or responding to pituitary FSH/LH. Can try progestin synchronizing agents to dam up and then jumpstart the ovaries. Usually animal is culled
Ovarian Adhesions slight bleeding at ovulation, blood can adhere ovary to body wall or uterus.
Oocia sensation of pain at ovulation
Follicular Cyst follicle falls to ovulate, and is trapped. It continues to grow past ovulatory size, granulose continues to produce estrogen. This results in nymphomania. May or may not respond to GnRH treatment. Can try removing problem ovary
Uterine atony lack of hormonal tone or strength
Uterine inertia inactivity and inabiltiy to move spontaneously. sluggishness of uterine contractions during labor
endometritis/metritis bacterial infection of uterus, can disrupt function of endometrial cells where inflamed
pyometritis inflammation and puss of the uterus. usually bad enough to block PGF2α production, and the animal stops cycling.
trichomoniasis abortion is early pregnancy
viriosis abortion in late pregnancy
retained placenta more common with cotyledonary placentation. leave it alone
epistiotomy vulvular tissue can tear during foaling if the foal is too large
Caslick procedure suture vulva closed to repair episiotomy or prevent "wihascuking"
Left Displaced Abomasum (LDA) shortly after calving, abdominal space vacated by calf being born. rumen expands with increased feed intake. torsion disrupts hormonal flow and blood supply
Edema water retention in interstitial tissues of udder, more arterial blood flowing
Created by: asculpepper



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