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Avian disease

Avian Disease

QuestionAnswer
What organism causes Pullorum disease Salmonella pullorum.
What are the host species of S. Pullorum Poultry.
How is S.pullorum transmitted to chicks Vertical transmission, infected egg.
How is S.pullorum transmitted to adults Horizontal,feces & excret organism via lung contaminat enviro.
Chickens that are born with the disease and survive remain as carriers True.
What signs of S. pullorum are seen in the hatchery Piped chickens in the incubator, low hatchability.
What are some of the definitive clinical signs of S.pullorum infection of chicks Incordination,staggering, resp stress,incr thirst,huddling,accum of white chalky excreta around vent,swollen hock jt,blindness.
What signs are seen in infected adults None-unless severe:depression,fever w/ intermit diarrhea.
In adult infection mortality is Low.
Infected chicks can show omphalitis and what lesions in the kidney Congested with white chalky urates.
What is the appearance of the chick liver Enlarged, swollen, pinpoint necrotic foci.
What classic lesion of S.pullorun is seen in adult birds Mis-shapen, pedunculated overaies.
In acute S. pullorum infection, which organ is preferred to isolate the organism Liver.
In chronic infection, the organism can usually be isolated from which organ Ovary.
What drug treatment is used for S. pollurum infection Antibiotics and sulfa.
What test is used for confirming S. pullorum RBPT (rapid blood plate test).
How would you prevent S. pullorum Develop flock from pullorum free birds (RBPT, eliminate carriers), incubator and hatchery hygiene, management practices.
Is the S. pullorum organism motile or non-motile Non-motile.
Salmonella gallinarum infection is also called what Fowl typhoid.
Is S. gallinarum motile or non-motile Motile.
In terms of production loss,fowl typhoid losses begin at hatching & unlike Pullorum,cont through Laying
Which organ is preferred for isolating the organism Ovary.
Abscesses in lung from S.gallinarum may be confused w/ what organism Aspergillus or other fungus.
Paratyphoid infection is the name given to an infection by which organism Salmonella other than pullorum or gallinarum(enteriditis).
Why is parartyphoid a concern Economic importance, public health problem.
Is S. enteriditis motile or non-motile Motile.
In the bird, where does paratyphoid localize Intestines and gall bladder.
How does humans become infected with paratyphoid Consuming eggs, poultry meat.
Describe the appearance of a paratyphoid infected bird Stand with head lowered, eyes closed, wings drooping, feathers ruffled, pasted vent.
Infected adults are chronic carriers and show what signs None.
An acute infection can cause what lesions Necrotic enteritis, pericarditis, peritonitis.
Isolation of the paratyphoid organism should be from where in the hatchling/Adult Egg shell, viscera.
What test is used to help indentify the organism Tube agglutination test.
How do you eliminate the carriers of infection from the flock Impossible to do.
What organism is used to prevent paratyphoid infection Non-pathogenic ecoli.
Arizonosis is a disease affecting which birds Turkey poults.
In the bird, where is the organism localized GI tract.
Is arizonae motile or non-motile Motile.
What are the classical clinical signs of Arizonosis Sitting on hock, twisting of neck, huddle under heat source, blindness, nervous signs.
What is the mortality of arizonosis 50%, can continue for 3-4 weeks.
Lesions from arizonosis are similar to those caused by Paratyphoid what other lesions can be seen Micro-necrosed live, caseous exudates in the abdominal cavity and eye, distended heart, meningitis.
What is the mortality rate of arizonosis High with nervous signs and blindness
Deferential diagnoses between arizonosis and what diseases needs to be made for the nervous signs seen, and the blindness Nervous: NCD,Blindness: aspergillosis
In chickens, Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes what type of condition Chronic respiratory disease
What disease does M gallisepticum cause in turkeys Infectious sinusitis
How does vertical transmission of the organism occur Egg gets infected passing through the oviduct
How else does transmission occur Direct contact, spreads by airborne dust a or droplets from carriers
When does the disease tend to develop in chickens At the onset of egg production
What clinical signs are seen Tracheal rales, nasal discharge, coughing
What classic sign is seen in turkey with M gallisepticum Inflammation of infraorbital sinuses, swelling of head
What type of exudates can be found in the nasal and pranasal passages Catarrhal
What type of lesion is seen in a case of uncomplicated chronic respiratory disease Air sac membranes show pinpoint grayisj beads (lymphofollicular aggregates)
Complicated chronic respiratory disease is M. gallisepticum combined with what other organism E. coli
What us the appearance of the air sacs in complicated CRD Contain caseous pus and have lesions of fibrinous/fibropurulent pericarditis and periheptitis.
What steps can be taken to prevent M gallisepticum outbreaks Immunization, medicate breeders, egg dipping in antibiotics, management procedures
Mycoplasma meleagridis affects which species Turkeys
What is a classic clinical sign of M meleagridis seen in a 1 day old chick Air sacculitis
By how much is the egg production and fertility reduced with an infection of M meleagridis Not affected
What orthopedic sign can be seen with this type of infection Twisting and shortening of tarsometatarus bones
How can M meleagridis be treated Antibiotics, Tylosin is best
How do most turkey hens become affected Contaminated semen
What organism will cause the hock joint and footpads of turkeys an chicken to be swollen, but the birds remain active Mycoplasma synoviae
What other clinical signs do the birds exhibit Pale comb, lameness, ruffled feathers, retarded growth, anemia, caseous exudates from skull along neck to air sacs
What clinical sign can be seen if M synoviae is complicated by another organism like NCD Air sacculitis
A D/D between M synoviae and viral arthritis would have to be made in which species Chicken,viral arthritis infects only chickens
Why is E coli a concern Major economic loss to the poultry industry
Where is the e coli organism localized in the chicken GI tract, shed in feces
How does horizontal transmission occur Contaminated environment, infects other though respiratory route
Vertical transmission can lead to mortality at which stage of development Late incubation
Colisepticemia (acute septicemia infection) occurs more in which species Turkeys
What is the mortality rate of colisepticemia High more than 20%
What lesions are seen with colisepticemia Swollen liver with small pin point necrotic foci
A second type of colisepticemia can be seen that has a respiratory origin and shows what type of lesions Air sacculitis, air sacs with caseous exudates, liver dark and swollen
An E coli infection can also induce what other lesion Salpingitis and peritonitis, panophthalmitis, synovitis, coli granuloma, pericariditis and myocarditis, swollen head syndroms, avian cellulitis, coli septicemia in ducks
How can E coli infections be minimized Avoid overcrowding,good ventilation,disinfect house & equip.
Fowl cholera is an infection by which organism Pasturella multocida
Which species is more susceptible, turkeys or chickens Turkeys
Form what other species can P. multocida be spread Pigs
In acute cases, birds can die how soon Within 2 days w/o signs
What signs does a subacute infection of P. multocida show Anorexia, drowsiness, fever, diarrhea, cyanosis, watery discharge from mouth.
In chronic infection, where does exudate localize Localized in tissue of the wattles, sinuses, leg/wing joints, ear canals, footpads and sternum.
A classic sign of acute and subacute fowl cholera infection is vascular disturbances resulting in what lesion Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on sub-epicardial serosa
What clinical sign is pathomnonic for P multocida infection Unilateral pneumonia
Blood & tissue smears stained with Giemsa would show a bacteria w/ what type of morphology Bipolar
How can fowl cholera be prevented It’s not a disease of the hatchery & can be prevented by good management practices
Which poultry infective organism from broilers is a serious emerging zoonosis Campylobacter
Campylobacter is a major source of what disease condition in humans Gastroenteritis
What clinical signs are seen in infected broilers None
In layers, what clinical signs are seen Disease runs a chronic course, birds become weak, anemic, low mortality but low production,distention of intestines w/ watery,mucus content.
Prevention of campylobacter is dependent on what Hygienic measures
What other disease in humans can campylobacter cause Gullain-Barr syndrome, Fisher’s Syndrome, Reiter’s syndrome.
Bradyspira hyodysenteriae causes severe disease in which species Rheas
How does transmission occur Fecal-oral route
What clinical signs care seen Watery diarrhea and die w/o clinical signs
What is the mortality for this avian intestinal spirochetosis 25-80%
What classical lesion is seen Necrotic typhlitis in cecum
How is Bradyspira hyodysentariae treated Idizols
C. botulinum outbreaks are seen most in which species Waterfowl
Botulism is also called what other name Limberneck, western duck sickness
How is botulism transmitted Toxins are produced in mud,decaying vegetation & anaerobic matter such as feed,& from eating toxin-containing carcass.
What are the classic clinical signs seen Weakness,incoordination of wing/neck due to paralysis of muscles.
What do the birds die from Coma from respiratory failure
How can the presence of toxin be diagnosed Injection into mice
What is the treatment for botulism Anti toxin
Which species is the natural host for avibacterium paragallinarum Chicken
What is another term for avibacterium paragallinarum Infectious coryza
Transmission of the disease is airborne and occurs more in what type of conditions Cool and wet
What clinical signs are seen in cases of infectious coryza Swelling of infraorbital sinuses, closing of eyes, respiratory rales (advanced cases) foul odor in flock.
From where do you collect exudates to test for isolation of the bacteria Infraorbital sinus
Mycobacterium avium has how many subspecies Four
M avium causes disease in poultry & serious disease in which species Pigs,rabbits,immcomped humans.
What classic clinical signs are seen in M avium infection Atrophy of muscles, knife edge appearance of breast bone, paralysis w/ bone lesions.
In which organs are gray-yellow nodules with caseous foci seen Liver, spleen , intestine, marrow
What would you expect to see in blood smears Acid fast bacilli
How can infections of M avium be prevented Don’t keep swine and poultry together
Mycobacteria genavense primarily affects which species Psittacines and passerines
Which mycobacteria species is an issue in zoos M tuberculosis
The virulent strain of avian chlamydiosis affects which species Turkeys, humans
The low virulent strain affects which species Pigeons, ducks
How do pigeons infect their young During feeding
What clinical signs are seen in infected turkeys Fever, yellow-green droppings
Lesions are seen where in chlamydiosis Lung, liver, spleen and serous membranes with exudates
What is the treatment for avian chlamydiosis Tetracycline in feed/ water for 2 weeks,repeat in pigeons.
Is avian chlamydiosis reportable Yes
Mushy chick and navel ill are names for what disease condition Omphalitis
Which organisms cause omphalitis Salmonella,ecoli,S fecalis,s aureus,clostridia,pseudomonas,proteus.
Which species is the host for omphalitis Chicken
What are the clinical signs of omphalitis Inflammation of yolk sac, infected navel,distended abdomen.
Describe the yolk sac appearance in omphalitis Greenish and watery.
How is omphalitis treated Indentify the cause and remove it.
Created by: alljacks