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Histo III

Greenlee repro exam

QuestionAnswer
What structures are "pre-uterus" ovary, uterine tubes
What structures are "post-uterus" cervix, vagina, vestibule, vulva
What body cavity is the ovary found in? abdomen
T/F The ovary has both endocrine and exocrine functions? True
Name the layers of the ovary from outside in (4) tunica serosa, tunica albuginea ovarii, cortex, medulla
Which ovarian layer is the outside, slippery layer composed of simple squamous cells? tunica serosa
What ovarian layer is considered the connective tissue capsule? tunica albuginea ovarii
What is the "business" part of the ovary where endocrine actions are performed? cortex
what are the two primary structures of the ovary that have endocrine roles? follicle and CL
what is the "plumbing" of the ovary? what does this mean? medulla - contains vessels, lymphatics, nerves
List the morpohologic stages of a follicle from smallest to largest (4) primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary/antral
what is the VERY FIRST stage of an oocyte which occurs prenatally producing the center cell of the internal epithelial cell mass? oogonium
what type of cell undergoes the prophase of first meiotic division in a female? (4n) primary oocyte
What female cell is 2n? secondary oocyte
what is the term for the female cell that has undergone 2 meitotic divisions and is now 1n. ovum
Has an ovum already undergone fertilization? (Yes/No) Yes
What type of follicle is surrounded by simple squamous cells known as follicular mesodermal cells and has a primary oocyte? primary follicle
What type of follicle contains a primary oocyte and is surrounded by cuboidal-columnar cells? primary follicle
What cells produce the membrana granulosa in a secondary follicle? follicular cells
What seperates the membrana granulosa and oocyte in a secondary follicle? (appears as a pink line) zona pelucida
What cells surround the membrana granulosa in a secondary follicle? thecal cells (stroma)
What type of follicle contains only a granulsoa cells, theca cells and a zona pelucida secondary follicle
What type of follicle contains a follicluar antrum, cumulus oophorus and corona radiata? tertiary/antral follicle
what part of a follicle is filled with liquor secreted by granulosa cells? follicular antrum
What cells secrete the liquor that makes up the antrum of a follicle? granulosa cells
What cells make up the cumulus oophorus of a tertiary follicle? granulosa cells
What cells make up the corona radiata of a tertiary follicle? cumulus oophorus cells
where is the corona radiata located? in between the oocyte and antrum of a tertiary follicle
what is the function of the theca interna of the teritary follicle? vascular
what is the function of the theca externa of the teritary follicle? supportive - loose c.t.
What is significant about the way a mature follicle "feels" compared to unmature follicles? protrudes from ovarian surface (can be felt on palpation)
The thinning of the follicular wall at future site of rupture of a mature follicle is known as what? stigma
the rupture of a follicle and release of oocyte is what process? ovulation
The oocyte remains surrounded by the corona radiata after ovulation until what happens (except in bovine)? until sperm are present
The transformation of granulosa and thecal cells into luteal cells describes what process? How long does this take? luteinization, a few days
what type of cells make up the stratum granulosum of a CH? large luteal cells (were granulosa cells)
what cells make up the small luteal cell population>? theca interna
a ruptured follicle leaves behind a ______ CH = corpus hemmorhagicum
what must happen for before a CL can be fromed? follicle rupture (ovulation)
What does the CL become if fertilization does not occur? CA - corpus albicans
what happens to the CL if fertilization occurs? remains for a species specific period (begins secreting progesterone)
What are the three sections of the uterine tubes from closest to ovary to uterus? infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
what type of epithelium is in the uterine tube? simple columnar epithelium
What are the two TYPES of cells in the uterine horn? cilliated, secretory
list the parts of the uterine horn simple columnar epithelium, propria-submucosa, tunica-muscularis
what is the 1st part of the female tract? infundibulum
what structure has the role of securing the oocyte? (F) infundibulum
what structure has finger-like projections with cilia? (F) infundibulum
What direction do the cilia of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes beat? towards the uterus
What is the site of fertilization? caudal ampulla of female uterine horn
what does the ampulla of the uterine tube look like? highly folded mucosa
What part of the uterine tube is responsible for muscular contractions? isthmus
What part of the uterine tube has the capability to change the direction of it's components dependent upon the stage of estrous cycle? isthmus
what are the two directions/components of the isthmus movement 1 - sperm to ampulla 2 - zygote to uterus
What are the layers of the uterus? endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
What are the 2 primary functions of the uterus? sperm transport, fetal development
What are the 5-6 components of the endometrium? 1-columnar epithelium 2 - propria - submucosa 3 - functional zone 4 - basal zone 5 - uterine glands 5 - caruncles (rum.) endometrial cups (mare)
what is the make up of the myometrium of the uterus? thick inner ciruclar, stratum vasculare, thin outer longitudinal smooth m.
what are the layers of the cervix? tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, tunica serosa
What are the prominant features of the tunica mucosa of the cervix? simple columnar epithelium, goblet cells
what is the fiber orientation of the tunica muscularis in the cervix? inner circular, outer longitudinal s.m.
What are the layers of the vagina? tunica mucsoa, tunica muscularis, serosa/adventitia?
where is the name change of the vaginal serosa? cranial = serosa, caudal = adventitia exiting the abdominal cavity
What is the epithelium of the vaginal tunica mucosa stratified squamous (usually non-glandular)
What is histolgically different about the vestibule when compared to the vagina? lymphatic nodules and mucosa glands present in the vsetibule
what is the homologue of the penis? clitoris
What part of the female repro. tract is highly vascular, becoming congested during estrus? vulva (swollen lips is a common sign of heat in domestic animals)
what type of skin covers the vulva? non-glaborous skin (apocrine and sebaceous glands present)
What initiates the follicular phase? decrease in progesterone - increase in GnRH release, follicular development, greater FSH and LH release
What stimulates follicular development? increase in estrogen concentration, secretion of inhibin (decreases of FSH secretion)
what is the term for animals whose cycle is affected by day length? what are some examples? seasonally polyestrus - horses, sheep
Differentiate estrus and estrOus An animal is in ESTRUS An animal has an ESTROUS cycle
Where are the receptors for FSH on the ovary? granulosa cells
Where are the receptors for LH on the ovary? theca interna cells
What structure does GnRH act on? anterior pituitary - secreted from hypothalamus
What of the ovary secretes estrogen? granulosa cells
What affects does estrogen have on the female? - growth and development of repro tract - estrous behavior - systemic effects
What secretes progesterone from the ovary? large luteal cells of CL
what are the functions of progesterone from the ovary? - uterine gland development and secretion - receptiveness of endometrium to implantation
What is the term for the time just before estrus when the follicle is dominant? proestrus
what are the two stages of the luteal phase? metestrus, diestrus
what significant structure is present in the luteal phase? corpus luteum, much longer phase of estrous cycle
what stage of the cycle is defined by a developing CL? metestrus
What stage of the cycle is characterized by a CL in its prime? diestrus
what is the "master controller" of the estrous cycle, ensuring the animal does not return to proestrus? progesterone
what hormone effect is the hallmark sing of proestrus? progesterone fallin
Describe the effects of progesterone, FSH, estrogen, and LH in proestrus progesterone falls, FSH increase, estrogen increase, LH consistently low
what is the effect of estrogen increasing during proestrus endometrial proliferation
What are the effects of increase of FSH during proestrus? induces follicular maturation
what hormone dominantes estrus? estrogen
What behavioral change is characterized during estrus sexual responsiveness
What are the levels of estrogen, FSH, LH, Progesterone during estrus? Max. estrogen and FSH then decline LH surge prior to ovulation progesterone low
what is the hormonal profile of metestrus? increasing progesterone, increasing estrogen, FSH and LG contently low
Why is FSH and LH low during metestrus? inhibited by high levels of progesterone
during metestrus, what causes increase in estrogen? development of follicular cohorts
in metestrus what is responsible for the increase of progesterone? CL development
what is the hormonal profile of an animal in diestrus? peak progesterone, low estrogen, FSH, LH
In diestrus what is responsible for the peak progesterone levels active corpus luteum
What triggers the regression of the CL in a non-gravid animal? PGF 2- alpha
what stage of the female estrous cycle is characterized by prolonged sexual inactivity? anestrus
what is the hormonal profile of anestrus? low progesterone
What is the length of the bovine cycle? 21 days (proestrus 3, estrus 1, metestrus 3, diestrus 14)
what stage of the beef cycle is characterized by restoration of the endometrium, thickening and congestion of the mucsoa and glandular proliferation? proestrus
metorrhagia occurs at what part of the estrous cycle in the endometrium? estrus
what stage of the bofvine estrous cycle has maximal edema and hyperemia? estrus
what stage of the bovine estrus cycle has metorrhagia ending and edema lessinging, seen as bloody vulvular discharge metestrus
In the bovine, endometrium becomes secretory, progesterone levels fall, and endometrium regenerates in what stage of the cycle? diestrus
when is vaginal epithelium at it's peak cornification? end of proestrus, beginning of estrus
Which stage of the cycle has numeous erythryocytes? proestrus
What stage of the cycle has a mixture of erythrocytes and keritinized cells? estrus
what stage of the cycle has non-staining and less keratinized epithelial cells? metestrus-diestrus
What stage is predominantly non-keritinized, non-staining epitherlial cells? anestrus
What are the two primary events that occur during the luteal phase (not stages, events) luteinization (CL formation) - progesterone secretion , luteolysis
what cells of the ovary undergo leutinization? theca interna, granulosa cells
A CH has a make-up of what cells? theca interna cells
what type of cells are present in a CL? theca interna cells that have leutalized
what cells become the large luteal cells? what process do they undergo to transform? granulosa cells -hypertrophy
what cells become the small luteal cells? what process do they undergo? theca interna cells hyperplasia to small luteal cells
what does progesterone require for synthesis? cholesterol and LH
what are the target organs for progesterone (4) hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, uterus, mammary
what are the effects of progesterone on the hypothalamus? inhibits surge and tonic release of GnRH
what are the effects of progesterone on the anterior pituitary decrease of GnRH receptors
what are the effects of progesterone on the uterus inhibits myometrium (reduces tone and motility), stimulates endometrium to secretory
what are the effects of progesterone on the mammary system? stimulates alveolar development
Progesterone secretion from the CL has negative feedbacks on what structures (3) hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, uterine tissue
progesterone secretion form the CL has positive feedback on what structures (2) alveolus, uterine tissue
what process is necessary for cyclicity? luteolysis
during luteolysis what is the hormonal profile PGF 2-alpha secreted from endometrium under stimulus from oxytocin secreted from SL
where is PGF 2-alpha secreted from endometrium
what stimulates PGF 2-alpha secretion oxytocin
where is oxytocin secreted from in luteolysis CL
what type of interaction occurs during luteolysis? local - vascular counter current exchange
what process occurs during the vascular counter current exchange of PGF2 alpha? diffusion
what hormone (made by the endometrium) is deliverd to the ovary via vascular counter current exchange between the uterine vein and ovarian artery? PGF2 alpha
what is the path for delivery of PGF2 alpha directly from uterus to ovary uterine vein, ovarian artery
what must occur before the uterus is capable of producing PGF? exposure to progesterone for a period
what type of feedback is PGF and oxytocin in luteolysis? positive
can luteolysis be induced? how? yes, exogenous PGF 2-alpha, AFTER CL formation
what has to happen on the ovary for responsivity to PGF? 6-7 day old CL
where are the luteal receptors for PGF2 alpha? plasma membrane of large luteal cells
what causes PGF2 alpha receptors to open? intracellular Ca influx
what is activated by the PGF 2a complex? what is the effect? protien kinase - C (inhibits progesterone synthesis)
What is the protocol for ovSynch (4) - day 0 = GnRH - day 7 = PGF2a day 9 = GnRH TAI 16 hours after last GnRH shot
What is the protocol for presynch? PGF2a day 14 = PGF2a start ovsynch 12 days after last PGF2a
What hormone causes edema in the uterus? estrogen
what hormone changes the endometrium from proliferative to secretory? progesterone
which portion of the endometrium undergoes changes in thickness, cell divisons, etc. functional zone
What type of epithelium is present in the vagina? stratified squamous
What hormone is considered the master controller and why? progesterone - animal can not go into follicular phase under presence of progesterone
what is the hormonal profile of the follicular phase? decrease in progesterone, increase in GnRH, increase in LH, increase in estrogen, increase in inhibin, decrease in FSH, estrogen to threshold stimulates LH surge
how does GnRH increase in follicular phase? increase of amplitude and frequency
the increase of FSH in the follicular phase leads to what? follicular development
what initiates the follicular phase? decrease in progesterone
what is the outcome of follicular development (3) - increase in estrogen concentration - secretion of inhibin --> decrease in FSH
what stimulates the LH surge of the follicular phase? estrogen reaching threshold
What brings the follicular phase to end? estrogen threshold from follicles large enough to produce that much estrogen - drives ovulation
What happens if a follicle never becomes large enough to produce estrogen to threshold? atresia and die, next follicle will tru
what is the route of estrogen producing the preovulatory LH surge? indirect, estrogen acts positively on hypothalamus giving GnRH surge to anterior pituitary causing LH surge
what are the three stages of follicles? (not growth stages like primordial) recruitment, selection, dominance
the follicular dynamic stages (3) refer to what type of follicles? antral
how does a follicle spend most of its life? preantral
how likely is an antral follicle to become a dominant follicle? very unlikely - less then 10%
what is the cohort of antral follicles growing and producing estrogen (follicular dynamic stage) recruitment
can recruitment occur in the presence of progesterone? yes
what is the hormonal profile of recruitment? promotes high FSH, low LH and inhibin
follicles growing until 1-2 become dominant producing more estrogen all the while is a description of what? selection of antral follicles
During this process one to several follicles exert inhibitory effects on the others by stealing blood supply and inhibition of FSH production dominance
what is the hormonal profile of the dominance of an antral follicle? inhibin secretions high, FSH low, LH's impact is high
can follicles ovulate in the presence of progesterone? why? NO - progesterone inhibits GnRH = no LH spike
what hormone is synthesized through the 2 cell, 2 gonadotropin model? explain estrogen
what type of follicles undergo follicular waves? antral follicles
how does a CL impact follicular waves to ovulation? won't happen with a CL present on that ovary
testosterone is the raw material for the production of what? estrogen
describe estrogen synthesis 1- LH binds on theca interna cells = testosterone production 2 - testosterone diffuses to granulosa cells 3 - FSH binds on granulosa cells = conversion of testosterone to testrogen
what are the two main sites of effect for estrogen? hypothalamus surge center, repro. tract
For ovulation to occur, which cells must change their receptors? (from what to what) granulosa cells FSH receptors become LH receptors
theca interna cells make progesterone instead of testosterone when? to prepare for ovulation
what stimulates synthesis of collagenase? progesterone
WHat enzyme chews up collagen in the ovary allowing the follicle to escape? collagenase
WHat are the effects of the preovulatory LH surge? increase PGF2a, theca interna cells shift from estrogen to progesterone, granulosa -oocyte gap junction breakdown, increased blood flow to ovary/follicle
what is the eventual outcome of the gap junction between the granulosal cells and oocyte being broke down? fertilization
what are the effects of an increase of PGF2a during preovulatory stage? (3) 1 - increase blood flow to ovary = edema 2 - increase contraction of ovarian m. = increase follicular pressure 3 -release of lysosomal enzyme = follicular wall weakening
what are the 2 direct precursors to ovulation? increase in follicular pressure, follicular wall weakening
Created by: 33805024