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Toxic plants

causing neurological signs

QuestionAnswer
Aesculus spp. Buckeyes, horsechestnuts
Aesculus toxic agent glycosidic saponin
Aesculus animals affected cattle, horses, sheep, swine, kids
Aesculus signs GI effects, ataxia, weakness, hemolysis, depression, coma, death
Astragalus/Oxytropis spp. locoweed
Astragalus/Oxytropis toxic agent Swainsonine: an alkaloid
Astragalus/Oxytropis animals affected HORSES > cattle > sheep > goats
Astragalus/Oxytropis signs (late winter/early spring) progressive motor and sensory derangement, hyperexcitability in horses, depression in sheep. May disappear but reappear under stress - dangerous horses!
Astragalus/Oxytropis lesions hyperemia throughout CNS, cytoplasmic vacuoles, accumulation of mannose
Brunfelsia spp. Yesterday-Today-and-Tomorrow (wtf?)
Brunfelsia toxic agent Brunfelsamidine and hopeanine
Brunfelsia animals affected DOGS, some cattle
Brunfelsia signs Hypersalivation, convulsions, diarrhea or constipation
Brunfelsia lesions Edema and hyperemia of the terminal ileum
Centaurea solstitalis Yellow star thistle
Centaurea toxic agent unknown! Interruption of dopaminergic pathways?
Centaurea animals affected Horses only!
Centaurea signs acute onset hypertonicity of face muscles, chewing movements, head pressing, starvation
Centaurea lesions necrosis of globus pallidus and substantia nigra (ENE)
Cicuta spp. Spotted water hemlocks (sometimes mistaken for parsnip)
Cicuta toxic agent Cicutoxin highest in root-stalk
Cicuta animals affected warm blooded animals
Cicuta signs Acute onset hypersalivation, tremors, violent convulsions, opithonus, mydriasis, paralysis
Claviceps spp. Ergot
Claviceps toxic agent lysergic acid derivatives, ergotamine, ergotoxine
Claviceps animals affected CATTLE, some others
Claviceps signs nervous and gangrene syndromes, trembling, ataxia, abortion
Conium maculatum Posion hemlock
Conium toxic agent piperidine alkaloid
Conium animals affected ALL - mistaken for wild carrot
Conium signs Rapid onset - nervousness, ataxia, mydriasis, bradycardia, hypothermia, coma
Cynodon dactylon Coastal bermuda grass causing tremors (see also respiratory toxicity section)
Cycads Sago palsm
Cycad animals affected All
Cycad toxic agent Cycasin - carcinogenic glycoside. Seeds most toxic
Cycad signs hepatosis, anemia, depression, GI effects, ascites, nausea, coma, partial paralysis
Cycad lesions hepatic hemorrhage & centrolobular necrosis, hemorrhagic enteritis, edema of gallbladder wall
Delphinium spp. Larkspurs
Delphinium toxic agent Delphinine and polycyclic diterpene alkaloids
Delphinium affected animals CATTLE, horses, humans, sheep
Delphinium signs sudden death, staggering, hypersalivation, twitching, tachycardia, repiratory paralysis, bloating
Helenium spp. Sneezeweeds
Helenium toxic agent Helenalin: sesquiterpene lactone
Helenium animals affected SHEEP, cattle, goats, horses
Helenium signs "spewing sickness" d/t H. hoopsii - weakness, GI effects, dyspnea, nasal discharge
Helenium lesions GI edema, endocardial hemorrhage, hydrothorax
Hymenoxys spp. Bitterweed
Hymenoxys toxic agent hymenoxon (sesquiterpene lactone)
Hymenoxys animals affected sheep, goats
Hymenoxys signs anorexia, rumen stasis, bloating, regurgitation, colic,
Hymenoxys lesions pulmonary congestion, heart hemorrhage
Ipomoea violacea Morning glory
Ipomoea toxic agent Lysergic acid amide, indole alkaloids
Ipomoea signs hallucinations, repsiratory depression
Isocoma/Eupatorium spp. Goldenrod/snakeroot
Isocoma/Eupatorium toxic agent Tremetol or tremtone
Isocoma/Eupatorium animals affected Isocoma: horses and cattle.Eupatorium: goats, esp Angora
Isocoma/Eupatorium signs weakness in rear limbs, knuckling of fetlocks, convulsions, acetone breath. Cardiac problems in horses
Isocoma/Eupatorium lesions congestion and fatty degeneration of liver (with centrilobular necrosis) and kidneys, also brain and spinal cord
Kallstroemia spp. Caltrops
Kallstroemia toxic agent unkown
Kallstroemia animals affected Ruminants
Kallstroemia signs same as Isocoma: weakness in rear limbs, knuckling of fetlocks
Kallstroemia lesions congestion and hemorrhage in lungs, kidney, heart, GI. No CNS lesions
Karwinskia spp. Coyotillo
Karwinskia toxic agent Karwinol - polycyclic compound
Karwinskia animals affected All: Goats > sheep > cattle
Karwinskia signs unthriftiness, depression, trembling, ataxia, "limber leg"
Acacia toxic agent unknown! maybe sympathomimetic amines
Acacia animals affected sheep and goats but only in prolonged drought conditions
Acacia signs "Guajillo wobbles", ataxia. NGL
Lobelia spp. Indian tobacco and cardinal flower
Lobelia toxic agent N-methyl piperidine: an alkaloid
Lobelia animals affected Ruminants (domestic)
Lobelia signs GI effects, mydriasis, hypersalivation, copious nasal discharge, depression, recumbancy
Lobelia lesions extensive subQ hemorrhage, congested brain, subdural edema, yellow friable liver
Peganum spp. Rue
Peganum toxic agent alkaloids (harmaline, harmine, harmalol)- highest in seeds
Peganum animals affected cattle, sheep, guinea pigs, horses
Peganum signs acute stiffness, trembling, hypersalivation, anorexia, hind limb weakness
Peganum lesions severe GI inflammation, pulmonary and renal congestion, subcapsular liver hemorrhage
Pteridium toxic agent Thiaminase
Equisetum palustre Horsetail
Equisetum toxic agent Thiaminase, aconitic acid, palustrine (alkaloid)
Equisetum animals affected HORSES, cattle
Solanum spp. potato weed, thread salve
Solanum toxic agent unknonw! may be alkaloid causing lysosomal storage dz
Solanum animals affected cattle
Solanum signs "crazy cow syndrome" - seizures, extension of head and thoracic limbs, nystagmus
Solanum lesions vacuolation, degeneration of perkinjie cells w/ cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
Sophora spp. Moutain laurel, mescalbean, silky sophora
Sophora toxic agent Cytisine
Sophora animals affected ruminants, man
Sophora signs stiffened hind legs, tremors. Cattle die while sheep recover quickly. NGL
Vicia spp. Vetch
Vicia toxic agent glycosides?
Vicia animals affected ruminants, horses, poultry
Vicia signs convulsions, blindness, ADR, death, nervousness, SubQ swellings of head, neck, body, alopecia, respiratory signs, weakness
Zigadenus spp. Deathcamas
Zigadenus toxic agent Zygacine - steroidal alkaloid
Zigadenus animals affected sheep, cattle, horses, chickens, swine if don't vomit
Zigadenus signs Early spring, hypersalivation, GI effects, ataxia, dyspnea, death. NGL
Created by: ferretinmyshoes