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Toxic plants

Affecting blood, blood forming organs

Acer spp. Maples (A.rubrum = red maple)
Acer - animals affected Equids
Acer toxic agent Strong oxidants in dried leaves
Acer clinical signs hemolytic anemia, Heinz body formation, methemoglobin, icterus
Allium spp. onions and garlic
Allium toxic agent N-propyl disulfide
Allium - animals affected Cattle, horses, sometimes sheep, cats, or dogs
Allium lesions anemia, hemoglobinuria, icterus
Melilotus spp. sweet clover
Melilotus toxic agent Dicoumarol - affects factors II, VII, IX, X
Melilotus animals affected CATTLE, sheep, horses
Melilotus signs SubQ swellings, anemia, weakness, CNS signs, hemorrhage
Pteridium aquillinum Bracken fern
Pteridium toxic agent ptalquiloside (glycosdie)
Pteridium animals affected CATTLE and other ruminants
Pteridium lesions hemorrhage, bone marrow hypoplasia
Ascelpius spp. milkweeds
Asclepius toxic agent cardiac glycosides
Asclepius signs trembling, staggering, mydriasis, repiratory depression
Asclepius lesions Narrow leaf - lung and kidney congestion. Broad leaf - GI tract congestion.
Baileya toxic agent unknown, maybe a sesquiterpene lactone (especially in flower)
Baileya animals affected sheep
Baileya clinical signs anorexia, posterior ataxia, easily audible heart pounding! Red urine, tremors
Baileya lesions widespread hemorrhage of heart, liver, kidneys, GI tract. Ascites, penumonia (no treatment)
Datura toxic agent tropane alkaloids
Datura animals affected All! Humans more frequently
Datura signs mydriasis, twitching, tachycardia, ataxia, paralysis. Death d/t repiratory paralysis. No gross lesions.
Datura treatment Physostigmine
Kalanchoe toxic agent Bufadienolides
Kalanchoe signs cardiac and neuro signs
Nerium app. Oleander
Nerium toxic agent cardiac glycosides similar to digitalis
Nerium animals affected All, esp. Horses
Nerium signs GI signs, trembling, cardiac stimulation, casoconstriction, mydriasis, paralysis, then cardiac depression and death
Taxus spp. Yew
Taxus toxic agent Taxine: an alkaloid. Taxine B more cardiotoxic than Taxine A. T. brevifolia also has glycoside
Taxines MOA cardiac dysrhthymias 2ndary to interference with Na/K exchange system. Taxine B prolongs AV conduction prolonging QRS
Taxus animal affected All
Taxus signs nausea, dizziness, mydriasis, coma. Bradycardia, death d/t respiratory paralysis and diastolic arrest
Gossypol MOA unknown. Appears to affect hemoglobin, PCV, iron absorption, and hemolysis --> congestive heart failure
Gossypol animals affected Swine most sensitive, cattle least
Gossypol signs weakness, lethargy, convulsions, pulmonary edema, poor hair coat, pot-belly. Mature ruminants: reduced milk production, hemoglobinuria, rumen stasis, abomasitis
Created by: ferretinmyshoes