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Insecticide toxicity

plant related

Rotenone toxicity MOA Derris spp. plants - blocks conversion of NADH2 --> NAD
Rotenone toxicity signs vomiting, ataxia, tremors, clonic convulsions, respiratory failure
Pyrethrum and synthetic pyrethroids origin Chrysanthemum spp.
Pyrethrum/pyrethroids MOA Type I - increases normal nerve Na+ conduction. Type II - inhibits GABA (neuro signs~)
Pyrethrum/pyrethroids toxicity signs Muscle weakness/tremors, salivation, GI signs
Pyrethrum/pyrethroids toxicity treatment Valium and atropine
Limoline origin Monocyclic terpene from citrus plants (Hill's VIP flea and tick dip)
Limoline toxicity signs Mild: hypersalivation, ataxia, tremors. Severe: same + necrotizing dermatitis, septicemia (no primary lesions)
Organochlorine insecticides DDT, lindane, mirex, etc.
Organochlorine toxic to __________ insects, fish, mammals
Organochlorine MOA DDT decreases membrane potential of nerves, esp sensory nn.
Organochlorine toxicity signs GI effects, nervousness, spasms, convulsions. Death by respiratory failure!
Strychnine origin Alkaloid from Strychnos plants. Usually found in sulfate form. (Brucine 1/8 as potent)
Strychnine absorption rapidly absorbed since non-ionized at gastric pH
Strychnine MOA blocks glycine receptors of lower CNS
Strychnine toxicity signs anxiety, spasms, convulsions, death d/t respiratory failure (non-specific lesions)
Strychnine toxicity treatment Early: Diazepam, apomorphone, charcoal, diruresis. Late: pentobarbital, Guaifenison, diuresis
Warfarin origin Coumarol naturally found in sweet clover is converted to dicoumarol by mold/rot.
Warfarin MOA interfere w/Vit K role in synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X. Vit K must be reduced by epoxide reductase to be reused - warfarin inhibits conversion
Warfarin affects these species: ________ cattle, sheep, horses, rabbits, dogs, cats
Factors affecting warfarin toxicity oral Abx or sulfonamides, high dietary fat, liver damage, young/old/sick
Warfarin toxicity diagnostics One stage prothrombin test (measures factors)and PT most useful!
Sodium Fluoroacetate "1080" MOA toxic by 'lethal synthesis' to florocitrate to inhibit aconitase blocking conversion of citrate to isocitrate (Krebs cycle). Citrate chelates calcium so w/toxicity will immediately see calcium levels drop
Sodium Fluoroacetate "1080" toxicity signs Cholinergic response/ GI effects, CNS signs, CNS signs, cardiac signs, convulsions. Horses/goats/rabbits: arrythmias, tachycardia, trembling, sweating
Sodium Fluoroacetate "1080" lesions unclotted blood, cyanosis, heart hemorrhage, rapid rigor mortis
Thallium MOA unknown, probably interferes with oxidative phosphorylation
Thallium signs Per acute: convulsions, weak pulse, GI effects, paralysis, death Acute: salivation, conjunctivits, erythema, hemorrhage, ulcers, renal/liver dz, lymphadenopathy Chronic: hair loss
Thallium treatment Prussian blue, Dithizone, KCl to prevent reabsorption in the kidney
Thallium lesions skin problems, nephrosis, GI ulcers, liver dz, pulmonary edema
Thallium detection increased PCV, leukocytosis, proteinuria, hemoglobinuria
Phosphorus colors white/yellow is extremely toxic! Red and others relatively non-toxic
Phosphorus signs Biphasic: GI signs, hemorrhage, vascular collapse, luminescent vomitus, recovery for a few hours then signs reoccur with convulsions, coma, death
Cholecalciferol MOA mobilize bone from bones into blood causing calcium toxicity to heart
Cholecalciferol lesions Acute: heart stops in systole. Chronic: calcium deposits in soft tissues, aorta, tendons, muscle
Bromethalin MOA uncouple oxidatice phosphorylation - dissipate proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
Ornitrol MOA interferes w/ cholesterol metabolism needed for egg laying - sterilizes for 6 months
DEET signs blisters, skin necrosis, CNS disturbances
DEET toxicity level NOEL in dogs = 100mg/kg/day
Amitraz (Mitaban) MOA alpha-2 agonist and weak MAOI affecting cats, dogs, horses
Metaldehyde (slug bait) lesions hyperemia of liver, kidneys, lungs, degeneration of liver and ganglia cells
Methyl bromide (fungicide) signs CNS depression, myocardial depression, kidney degeneration
Phthalimides lesions hydrothorax, ascites, GI tract inflammation
Bipyridyl compounds (Paraquat > diquat) MOA substitute ferredoxin to inhibit NADPH2 in plants; intereact w/NADPH to ultimately produce oxygen radical that damages cell membranes
Sodium chlorate signs/lesions intravascular hemolysis, methemeglobinuria, staggering/ GI lesions, brown congested kidneys
Sodium chlorate treatment methylene blue, transfusions
Created by: ferretinmyshoes



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